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Fungi APBio

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Information about Fungi APBio

Published on February 28, 2008

Author: MrDPMWest

Source: slideshare.net

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The Fungi

Fungal Anatomy Multicellular Body of almost all fungi is a mycelium , an interwoven mass of threadlike filaments called hyphae (singular, hypha) Chitin cell walls Hyphae of most species are divided into many cells by partitions called septa (singular, septum); each cell possesses one or more nuclei Pores in the septa allow cytoplasm to stream from one cell to the next

Multicellular

Body of almost all fungi is a mycelium , an interwoven mass of threadlike filaments called hyphae (singular, hypha)

Chitin cell walls

Hyphae of most species are divided into many cells by partitions called septa (singular, septum); each cell possesses one or more nuclei

Pores in the septa allow cytoplasm to stream from one cell to the next

The Filamentous Body of a Fungus (a) Mycelium (b) Individual Hyphae (c) Hyphal Cells (cutaway) Cell Walls Septum Pore Cytoplasm Haploid Nuclei

Chytrid Filaments Male Female

Fungal Nutrition Three major types of heterotrophic nutrition Saprophytic—digestion of dead organisms Parasitic—digestion of live organisms Symbiotic—mutual benefit of two independent organisms

Three major types of heterotrophic nutrition

Saprophytic—digestion of dead organisms

Parasitic—digestion of live organisms

Symbiotic—mutual benefit of two independent organisms

Fungal Reproduction Asexual Fragmentation Asexual spore formation Haploid mycelium produces haploid asexual spores by mitosis Spores germinate and develop into a new mycelium by mitosis Results in the rapid production of genetically identical clones

Asexual

Fragmentation

Asexual spore formation

Haploid mycelium produces haploid asexual spores by mitosis

Spores germinate and develop into a new mycelium by mitosis

Results in the rapid production of genetically identical clones

 

Fungal Sexual Reproduction Typically occurs under conditions of environmental change or stress Neighboring haploid mycelia of different, but compatible mating types come into contact with each other The two different hyphae fuse so that the nuclei share a common cell The different haploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote Zygote undergoes meiosis to form haploid sexual spores

Typically occurs under conditions of environmental change or stress

Neighboring haploid mycelia of different, but compatible mating types come into contact with each other

The two different hyphae fuse so that the nuclei share a common cell

The different haploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote

Zygote undergoes meiosis to form haploid sexual spores

Zygomycete Life Cycle (a) Zygospore germinates Sporangia Spores (haploid) (b) Photo of Sporangia Hyphae of opposite mating types fuse to form zygospore. Haploid 1 n Diploid 2n

Zygomycete Life Cycle (b) Hyphae of opposite mating types (+ & -) fuse. NUCLEI FUSE Diploid Zygospore formed MEIOSIS Zygospore germinates Diploid 2 n Haploid 1 n

Classification of Fungi Fungi have been assigned to four phyla based upon the way they produce sexual spores Chytridiomycota (chytrids) Zygomycota (zygote fungi) Ascomycota (sac fungi) Basidiomycota (club fungi)

Fungi have been assigned to four phyla based upon the way they produce sexual spores

Chytridiomycota (chytrids)

Zygomycota (zygote fungi)

Ascomycota (sac fungi)

Basidiomycota (club fungi)

 

The Chytrids Chytrids Most are aquatic Reproduce both asexually and sexually Form flagellated spores that require water for dispersal Figure 22-4 , p. 426, illustrates the chytrid fungus Allomyces in the midst of sexual reproduction

Chytrids

Most are aquatic

Reproduce both asexually and sexually

Form flagellated spores that require water for dispersal

Figure 22-4 , p. 426, illustrates the chytrid fungus Allomyces in the midst of sexual reproduction

 

The Chytrids Most feed on dead aquatic material Some species are parasites of plants and animals One chytrid species is a frog pathogen believed to be a major cause of the current worldwide die-off of frogs Primitive chytrids are believed to have given rise to the other groups of modern fungi

Most feed on dead aquatic material

Some species are parasites of plants and animals

One chytrid species is a frog pathogen believed to be a major cause of the current worldwide die-off of frogs

Primitive chytrids are believed to have given rise to the other groups of modern fungi

Zygomycetes Most live in soil or on decaying plant or animal material Reproduce both asexually and sexually Sexual spores are thick-walled zygospores During asexual reproduction: Haploid spores are produced via mitosis in black spore cases called sporangia Spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae

Most live in soil or on decaying plant or animal material

Reproduce both asexually and sexually

Sexual spores are thick-walled zygospores

During asexual reproduction:

Haploid spores are produced via mitosis in black spore cases called sporangia

Spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae

Zygomycetes During sexual reproduction Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse Nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygospore , a tough, resistant structure that can remain dormant for long periods until conditions are favorable Meiosis occurs as the zygospore germinates Resulting spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae that can enter either the asexual or sexual cycle

During sexual reproduction

Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse

Nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygospore , a tough, resistant structure that can remain dormant for long periods until conditions are favorable

Meiosis occurs as the zygospore germinates

Resulting spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae that can enter either the asexual or sexual cycle

 

 

 

Ascomycetes Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats Reproduce both asexually and sexually Sexual spores form in saclike asci During asexual reproduction Haploid spores are produced via mitosis at the tips of specialized hyphae Spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae

Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats

Reproduce both asexually and sexually

Sexual spores form in saclike asci

During asexual reproduction

Haploid spores are produced via mitosis at the tips of specialized hyphae

Spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae

Ascomycetes During sexual reproduction Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse, resulting in the formation of a fruiting body

During sexual reproduction

Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse, resulting in the formation of a fruiting body

 

Ascomycetes Better known examples include Most of the food-spoiling molds Morels and truffles (edible delicacies) Penicillium , the mold that produces penicillin (the first antibiotic) Yeasts (single-celled fungi)

Better known examples include

Most of the food-spoiling molds

Morels and truffles (edible delicacies)

Penicillium , the mold that produces penicillin (the first antibiotic)

Yeasts (single-celled fungi)

Some Ascomycetes (a) Scarlet Cup Fungus (b) Morel

Basidiomycetes Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats Usually reproduce sexually Sexual spores form in club-shaped basidia During sexual reproduction: Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse, resulting in the formation of a fruiting body

Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats

Usually reproduce sexually

Sexual spores form in club-shaped basidia

During sexual reproduction:

Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse, resulting in the formation of a fruiting body

Basidiomycete Life Cycle Haploid 1 n Diploid 2 n Mushroom gills bear reproductive basidia. Basidia on gills Haploid Nuclei Fusion forms diploid zygote. MEIOSIS Basidiospores (haploid)

Basidiomycete Life Cycle Haploid 1 n Diploid 2 n Basidia on gills Basidiospores (haploid) “ +” Mating Strain “ -” Mating Strain Basidiospores germinate forming hyphae (haploid). + - Hyphae fuse, but haploid nuclei remain separate in binucleate cells Hyphae aggregate to form mushroom

Basidiomycetes Better known examples include Mushrooms (some are edible, others are poisonous) Puffballs Shelf fungi (decomposers of wood) Stinkhorns Rusts and smuts (plant parasites) Yeasts

Better known examples include

Mushrooms (some are edible, others are poisonous)

Puffballs

Shelf fungi (decomposers of wood)

Stinkhorns

Rusts and smuts (plant parasites)

Yeasts

Some Basidiomycetes (a) Giant Puffball (b) Shelf Fungi

Fairy Rings A fairy ring is a circular pattern of mushroom growth Fairy rings form at the leading edge of an expanding underground fungal mycelium The wider the diameter of the ring, the older the mycelium Some fairy rings are estimated to be 700 years old

A fairy ring is a circular pattern of mushroom growth

Fairy rings form at the leading edge of an expanding underground fungal mycelium

The wider the diameter of the ring, the older the mycelium

Some fairy rings are estimated to be 700 years old

A Mushroom Fairy Ring

Symbiotic Relationships A symbiosis is a close interaction between organisms of different species over an extended period of time The fungal member of a symbiotic relationship may be harmful (a parasite of plants or animals) or beneficial (lichens and mycorrhizae)

A symbiosis is a close interaction between organisms of different species over an extended period of time

The fungal member of a symbiotic relationship may be harmful (a parasite of plants or animals) or beneficial (lichens and mycorrhizae)

Lichens Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi (usually an ascomycete) and algae or cyanobacteria Fungus provides photosynthetic partner with shelter and protection Photosynthetic partner provides fungus with food (sugar)

Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi (usually an ascomycete) and algae or cyanobacteria

Fungus provides photosynthetic partner with shelter and protection

Photosynthetic partner provides fungus with food (sugar)

Lichens: Symbiotic Partnerships Algal Layer Fungal Hyphae Attachment Structure

Lichens Grow on a wide variety of materials (soils, tree trunks and branches, rocks, fences, roofs, and walls) Are able to survive environmental extremes (newly formed volcanic islands, deserts) Are very diverse in form

Grow on a wide variety of materials (soils, tree trunks and branches, rocks, fences, roofs, and walls)

Are able to survive environmental extremes (newly formed volcanic islands, deserts)

Are very diverse in form

Lichens Covering a Rock

Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae (singular, mycorrhiza) are symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots Fungus provides plant with water, minerals, and organic nutrients it absorbs from the soil Plant provides fungus with food (sugar) 80% of plants with roots have mycorrhizae Relationship may have helped plants colonize land

Mycorrhizae (singular, mycorrhiza) are symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots

Fungus provides plant with water, minerals, and organic nutrients it absorbs from the soil

Plant provides fungus with food (sugar)

80% of plants with roots have mycorrhizae

Relationship may have helped plants colonize land

Mycorrhizae Enhance Plant Growth Mycorrhizae

Recyclers Fungi are Earth’s undertakers, feeding on the dead of all kingdoms Fungal saprophytes (feeding on dead organisms) release extracellular substances that digest the tissues of the dead and liberate carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus compounds, and minerals that can be reused by plants

Fungi are Earth’s undertakers, feeding on the dead of all kingdoms

Fungal saprophytes (feeding on dead organisms) release extracellular substances that digest the tissues of the dead and liberate carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus compounds, and minerals that can be reused by plants

Fungi Attack Plants Fungal parasites cause the majority of plant diseases Ascomycete parasites cause Dutch elm disease and Chestnut blight Rusts and smuts are basidiomycete parasites that cause considerable damage to grain crops

Fungal parasites cause the majority of plant diseases

Ascomycete parasites cause Dutch elm disease and Chestnut blight

Rusts and smuts are basidiomycete parasites that cause considerable damage to grain crops

Corn Smut

Fungi Cause Human Diseases Athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringworm are caused by fungi that attack the skin Valley fever and histoplasmosis are caused by fungi that attack the lungs Infection occurs when victim inhales spores Most vaginal infections are caused by the yeast Candida albicans

Athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringworm are caused by fungi that attack the skin

Valley fever and histoplasmosis are caused by fungi that attack the lungs

Infection occurs when victim inhales spores

Most vaginal infections are caused by the yeast Candida albicans

Yeasts Candida sp.

Fungi Produce Toxins Claviceps purpurea (an ascomycete) produces several toxins Infects rye plants and causes ergot disease Symptoms of ergot poisoning include vasoconstriction of blood vessels, vomiting, convulsive twitching, hallucinations, and death Penicillin First antibiotic to be discovered Used to combat bacterial diseases

Claviceps purpurea (an ascomycete) produces several toxins

Infects rye plants and causes ergot disease

Symptoms of ergot poisoning include vasoconstriction of blood vessels, vomiting, convulsive twitching, hallucinations, and death

Penicillin

First antibiotic to be discovered

Used to combat bacterial diseases

Penicillium

Fungi Contribute to Gastronomy Certain ascomycete molds impart flavor to some of the world’s most famous cheeses Roquefort Camembert Stilton Gorgonzola Yeasts are used in the production of wine, beer, and bread Wine is produced when yeasts ferment fruit sugars; ethyl alcohol is retained, while CO 2 is released

Certain ascomycete molds impart flavor to some of the world’s most famous cheeses

Roquefort

Camembert

Stilton

Gorgonzola

Yeasts are used in the production of wine, beer, and bread

Wine is produced when yeasts ferment fruit sugars; ethyl alcohol is retained, while CO 2 is released

Fungi Contribute to Gastronomy Beer is derived when yeasts ferment sugars in germinating grains (usually barley); ethyl alcohol and CO 2 are retained Bread rises when yeasts ferment sugar that has been added to bread dough; both ethyl alcohol and CO 2 escape during baking Some fungi are consumed directly Mushrooms (a basidiomycete) Morels (an ascomycete) Truffles (an ascomycete)

Beer is derived when yeasts ferment sugars in germinating grains (usually barley); ethyl alcohol and CO 2 are retained

Bread rises when yeasts ferment sugar that has been added to bread dough; both ethyl alcohol and CO 2 escape during baking

Some fungi are consumed directly

Mushrooms (a basidiomycete)

Morels (an ascomycete)

Truffles (an ascomycete)

Truffles

Fungal Ingenuity The truffle has evolved an effective adaptation for dispersal of its spores Releases an odor which causes pigs and other animals to dig it up, scattering spores to the winds The zygomycete Pilobolus has evolved bulb tops that blast off, spreading spores

The truffle has evolved an effective adaptation for dispersal of its spores

Releases an odor which causes pigs and other animals to dig it up, scattering spores to the winds

The zygomycete Pilobolus has evolved bulb tops that blast off, spreading spores

Pilobolus : An Explosive Zygomycete

Fungal Ingenuity Arthrobotrys cleverly traps and “strangles” microscopic roundworms called nematodes to obtain nutrients

Arthrobotrys cleverly traps and “strangles” microscopic roundworms called nematodes to obtain nutrients

The Nemesis of Nematodes Special hypha with noose Unfortunate nematode

The End

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