Fungi

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Information about Fungi
Product-Training-Manuals

Published on September 24, 2007

Author: Gulkund

Source: authorstream.com

There’s a FUNGUS among us!:  There’s a FUNGUS among us! Mycena lux-coeli Historically:  Historically 'true fungi' Oomycetes Slime Molds Oomycota :  Oomycota include the so-called water molds and downy mildews filamentous protists 'Oomycota' means 'egg fungi,' and refers to the large round oogonia, or structures containing the female gametes (as shown) Oomycetes:  Oomycetes Oomycetes: Historical Importance:  Oomycetes: Historical Importance Phytophthora infestans : late blight of Potato – Irish potato famine Plasmopara viticola : downy mildew of grapes – nearly wiped out French wine industry – discovery of the first fungicide Slime Molds (Photographs by Michel Poulain):  Slime Molds (Photographs by Michel Poulain) Plasmodial Slime Molds:  Plasmodial Slime Molds Cellular Slime Molds:  Cellular Slime Molds Labyrinthulomycota :  Labyrinthulomycota Slide10:  What are True FUNGI?:  What are True FUNGI? Eukaryotic organisms Heterotrophic, lacking chlorophyll Obtain nutrients via enzyme secretion and absorption of resulting byproducts Cells walls containing chitin and beta glucans Glycogen as primary food storage More About Fungi:  More About Fungi Can reproduce both sexually and asexually Heterotrophic – as such can consume almost any carbonaceous substrate including jet fuel and wall paint Biggest role is in the recycling of dead plant material Relationships:  Relationships More closely related to animals than to plants Emerged onto dry land about the same time as plants. Myccorhizal relationships likely date from this time as well. Four divisions One form-division Basidiomycete Life Cycle:  Basidiomycete Life Cycle Divisions:  Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Dueteromycota Chytridiomycota:  Chytridiomycota Aquatic Flagellated gametes Basal group in kingdom Oldest known fungal fossil found in northern Russia – from the Devonian Period (650-543 mya) Slide17:  Zygomycota:  Zygomycota Sexual reproduction via production of a zygospore Asexual reproduction common Occur on a wide variety of substrates May be saprophytic or parasitic Slide19:  Ascomycota:  Ascomycota The 'Sac Fungi' Account for ca. 75% of all described fungi Spores produced in ASCI (ascus) – typically 8 ascospores produced Sexual reproduction female gametangia grow toward male gametangia Ascomycota cont.:  Ascomycota cont. True truffles, morels, cup fungi, most lichens Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae – used in baking and brewing) Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), Dutch Elm Disease (ophiostoma ulmi), Pneumonia (Pneumocystis carinii) Aspergillus flavus – produces aflatoxin (the most powerful known carcinogen and toxin) Slide22:  Basidiomycota:  Basidiomycota Gametangia not formed, nuclear material exchanged in various ways Many have clamp connections Spores produced on Basidia (basidium) Mushrooms (toadstools), puffballs, jelly fungi, bird nest fungi, bracket, smuts, rusts, and stinkhorns Oldest known fossil from New Jersey Amber dating from the Cretaceous age (90-95 mya) Basidiomycota cont.:  Basidiomycota cont. Play significant role in the carbon cycle Form ectomycorrhizal partnerships (principally with forest trees) and symbiotic relationships Divided into three major groups Clamp connection:  Clamp connection Fossil:  Fossil Slide27:  Deuteromycota:  Deuteromycota Form-group, artificial grouping Sexual reproduction stage unknown (maybe lost) Members transferred to proper group when sexual stage is observed Penicillium, Aspergillus Slide29:  Lichens:  Lichens Symbiotic relationship between a fungal partner and photosynthetic autotroph (typically an alga or cyanobacterium) Fungal partners tend to be Ascomycetes Sensitive to air pollution Several forms – crustose (flat and crust-like), foliose (leaf-like, loosely attached to the substrate), fruticose (strap shaped to cylindrical, upright or pendulous); intermediate forms common Typically divided into 1 or more layers internally Lichens cont.:  Lichens cont. Identification based on form, layers, color, chemical tests, and substrate Play a significant role in nitrogen fixation, water absorption and retention, and soil building Are a major part of the cryptobiotic soils of desert regions Slow growth rates – age often measured in decades or centuries Crustose Lichens:  Crustose Lichens Foliose Lichens:  Foliose Lichens Fruticose Lichens:  Fruticose Lichens Fungal Ecology :  Fungal Ecology Saprobe decomposer of all terrestrial organic matter (and some aquatic matter) Pathogen purveyor of plant and animal disease Mycorrhizae symbiosis of plant and fungus (fungi) Mycorrhizae:  Mycorrhizae The term mycorrhiza, which literally means fungus-root first applied to fungus-tree associations described in 1885 95% of all plant species Mycorrhizae Cont.:  Mycorrhizae Cont. Symbiotic associations that form between the roots of most plant species and fungi characterized by bi-directional movement of nutrients where carbon flows to the fungus and inorganic nutrients move to the plant HYPHAE:  HYPHAE Twine together to form large masses called mycelium (Some even glow in the dark, as in this Mycena) Slide39:  hyphae septa Fruiting Bodies:  Fruiting Bodies Ascocarp Basidiocarp Elegant designs for spore dispersal Wind dispersal Water dispersal Animal dispersal Ascocarp:  Ascocarp Basidiocarp:  Basidiocarp Wind Dispersed:  Wind Dispersed Water Dispersed:  Water Dispersed Animal Dispersal:  Animal Dispersal Fungal Structure:  Fungal Structure Pileus Stipe Hymenium surface Ascomycete -vs- Basidiomycete The Pileus:  The Pileus The mycological way of saying a cap Yes, you will need to know the proper name Pileus Features:  Pileus Features Stipe:  Stipe The mycological name for the stem Not always present !!! Slide50:  volva annulus :  volva annulus Hymenium Surface:  Hymenium Surface Where the sexually produced spores are produced Different arrangements for maximizing surface area Lamellae, pores, teeth, folds, smooth, pitted, packaged Slide53:  Ascomycota -vs- Basidiomycota:  Ascomycota -vs- Basidiomycota Photo and Text Credits:  Photo and Text Credits Tom Volk: Boletus conferigera, Bolete pores, Dacrymyces sp., Cortinarius cortina, Hericium coralloides, Geupeniopsis alpina, Tuber gibbosum Michael Wood: Xylaria hypoxylon, Sarcoschypha coccinea, Ramariopsis kunzei, Lenzites betulina, Morchella sp., Amanita constricta, Nidula candida, Calbovista subsculpta, Sparassis crispa, Geopyxis vulcanalis, Amanita caesarea Taylor Lockwood: Hydum repandum, Aluria aurantia, clamp connection Bruce McCune: Hypogymnia enteromorpha, Hydrothyria venosa Eric B. Peterson: Letharia vulpina, Esslingeriana idahoensis Anki Camacho: Omphalina umbellifera, Nodobryoria oregana Roger Roetreter: Texosporium sanci-iacobi Kathy Merrifield Usnea filipendula Mold-Help: Aspergillus niger Malloch Lab, Univ. of Toronto: Penicillium sp. U. of Wisc. Med. School: Penicillium sp. Intermountain Herbarium, U.S.U. Michael B. Piep: text and content All photos are copy write protected by the photographer. All rights reserved.

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