Functions of Speaking

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Published on February 17, 2018

Author: halafawzi

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Teaching English Speaking & Listening 2017-2018 Dr. Hala Fawzi : Teaching English Speaking & Listening 2017-2018 Dr. Hala Fawzi From Theory to Practice (1): Functions of Speaking Slide2: Interviewing someone, or being interviewed It helps to prepare students for real life speech. www.themegallery.com 10 Golden minutes Class activity Week 2.1 Slide3: What are the challenges, if any, that you, or your students, may face when you used the strategies we’ve used (or the one you wish to use). P.S. You can write in points, bullets, circles, swirls or any other creative writing style AS LONG AS you will share the answer with us next class! Don’t forget to write your name on the paper! Homework?? Slide4: 10 Golden minutes Class activity Week 2.2 https://docs.google.com/document/d/1uq7OP-OzX1nBx8KWD4ssT4nIcUEPJxPUW6GglYaNT9E/edit?usp=sharing Week 1 wrap up: Week 1 wrap up Define speaking and teaching speaking. Distinguish most important terminologies used in current professional discourse Decide whether indigenizatio n can be applied to the Bahraini context after reading about issues of local varieties of English and the context mentioned in Richardon’s article. Recognize your new briefly summarized list of principles of current approaches to the teaching of speaking; on the basis of comparing and contrasting (the similarities and differences) between Hadley’s (1993) five principles for proficiency-oriented teaching and Richard’s (2004) principles that form the focus of the current approaches to the teaching of speaking. Explain the five factors in planning & teaching a speaking class listed by Flose , K. (2006) in his book The art of teaching speaking . USA: The University of Michigan Press. Add a related factor (s) to the Folse’s factors which you believe must be considered as fundamental factors in planning & teaching a Bahariani speaking class at elementary schools. Slide6: Functions of speaking Slide7: What are the functions of the activities below: Role play A simulation. Telling a friend about an amusing weekend experience, and listening to him/ her a similar experience he/she once had. Giving a welcoming speech. Students are solving a problem. Functions of Speaking Functions of Speaking: Functions of Speaking Talk as Interaction: 2. Talk as Transaction: 3. Talk as Performance: Richards, J. (2000). Teaching listening and speaking: From theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Primarily a social function. Focus? To establish and maintain social relations. ( The speaker, is #1!!Not the message.) Public speaking, form of monolog, mimics written language. Focus? What is said or done. (The focus on the exchange of information. The message is #1!) Functions of Speaking: Functions of Speaking What do you think the topics can cover? Do you think they result in real conversation? How useful are they for young children? Uncontroversial topics: the weekend, the weather, work, school. No! They c reate a comfort zone between people who might be total strangers. Talk as Interaction: https://www.professorjackrichards.com/teaching-speaking-interactional-versus-transactional-purposes/ Functions of Speaking: Functions of Speaking What are the skills involved in mastering small talk for young children? Talk as Interaction: Selecting vocabulary appropriate to the topic Using appropriate intonation and stress patterns to express meaning. Turn taking Using back-channelling expressions such as really, mm, Is that right?, yeah, etc., nodding of the head, and, very commonly, short rhetorical questions, such as Do you? Are you? or Did you? Opening, developing and closing conversations depending on the social relationship between them (e.g. teacher– student, friend–friend, et.) Using discourse strategies repairing misunderstanding open and close conversation https://www.professorjackrichards.com/teaching-speaking-interactional-versus-transactional-purposes/ Functions of Speaking: Functions of Speaking What do you think the topics can cover? Do you think social interaction takes place here? How useful are they for young children? https://www.professorjackrichards.com/teaching-speaking-interactional-versus-transactional-purposes/ Ordering food in a restaurant, borrowing a book from the library , buying something in a store. No! Because the focus on the ability to use English to accomplish different kinds of transactions- on getting something done. 2. Talk as Transaction: Functions of Speaking: Functions of Speaking What are the skills involved in mastering small talk for young children? 2. Talk as Transaction: Selecting vocabulary related to particular transactions and functions. Using fixed expressions and routines. Using scripts for specific situations. Asking and answering questions. Clarifying meanings and intentions. Confirming and repeating information. Using communication strategies. https://www.professorjackrichards.com/teaching-speaking-interactional-versus-transactional-purposes/ Slide13: What are the functions of the activities below: Role play A simulation. Telling a friend about an amusing weekend experience, and listening to him/ her a similar experience he/she once had. Giving a welcoming speech. Students are solving a problem. Functions of Speaking Slide14: Functions of Speaking Change partners Class activity 2…2 minutes. With your partner, categorize each activity with the types of talks (functions of speaking). (There is a prize for the winner!) 1.Talk as Interaction : 1.Talk as Interaction A student chatting to his or her teacher while waiting in the cafeteria line (polite conversation between the two participants). Telling a friend about an amusing weekend experience, and listening to him/ her a similar experience he/she once had. (sharing personal experiences) Chatting to a passenger during a plane flight (polite conversation that does not seek to develop the basis for future social contact). Chatting to a school friend over coffee (casual conversation that serves to mark an ongoing friendship) I’m going to Dubai for my next holiday. B: ________________. A: Yeah, my dad is taking me there because I got good marks in my exams. B: ________________. And what do you plan to do there? A: Well, I guess I’ll spend a lot of time at the skiing place. Activities to promote s peaking 2.Talk as Transaction : 2.Talk as Transaction Classroom group discussions and problem-solving activities. Role play or a simulation. A class activity during which students design a poster. A class activity during which students design a poster. Information g ap Interview Story c ompletion Activities to promote s peaking 3. Talk as Performance : 3. Talk as Performance Making a sales presentation. Giving a speech of welcome. Giving a lecture. Activities to promote s peaking Task one…: What is our responsibility, as teachers, towards our students when we teach any of the functions of speaking? As teachers, we have the responsibility to… ..prepare students, as much as possible, to be able to speak in English both in the real world and in tests/ exams. Task one… Whole class… Our responsibility as teachers… What is your role as a teacher in/during a good speaking task?: What is your role as a teacher in/during a good speaking task? Manager Provider Diagnostician Observer Assessor More? Our roles as teachers… What is your role as a teacher in a good speaking task?: What is your role as a teacher in a good speaking task? Manager (manages students and activities during class time) Provider (gives expert information about target language) Diagnostician (finds out the needs and interests of the students) Observer ( analyzes what hinders communication) Assessor (mentally, records oral language produced by the students) Implications (and challenges?) for Teaching: Implications ( and challenges?) for Teaching Identifying teaching strategies for each kind of talk. Talk as Interaction: “small talk”, personal experiences Talk as Transaction: role play, small group activities Talk as Performance: examples of speeches What kinds of speaking skills does the course focus on? How to develop fluency, accuracy, and appropriateness of language use? Move from linguistic competence (mastery of linguistic system) to communicative competence (know how to use English appropriately for a range of different purposes). Class activity…with your same partners In a group of 4+3 : Class activity…with your same partners In a group of 4+3 Design ‘specific’/ ‘actual/ ‘concreate’ example of an activity for one function of speaking. Each group will present an activity to the class. Reminder: Don’t forget to think of: Who is the audience? The skills involved. The two languages: one in the task and the other for the task. Your role keys to success of each of the functions of speaking covered (type of talk)? 20 minutes Slide23: Report to Class: What have you thought about carefully in the beginning? Did you reject some of the ideas suggested? Why? Based on…. Slide24: A balanced approach that combines: language input structured output communicative output To reach the goal of teaching speaking… Next Class… Slide26: https://padlet.com/halafawzi/d0oonc8alpsj Slide27: Functions of Speaking Matching activities to functions Teacher’s role References : References Richards, J. (2000). Teaching listening and speaking: From theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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