Functional Strategies

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Information about Functional Strategies

Published on December 1, 2008

Author: suresh.singh

Source: slideshare.net

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Functional Strategies Presented By: Presented To: 02 Amit Kumar Mr. Amit Sharma 06 Apoorv Mittal (Faculty-Retail Strategy) 15 Harsh Vardhan Singh (CRM,FDDI) 19 Kunal Sharma 23 Meenal Batra 40 Ravi Adhikari 43 Shikha 49 Sunny Kaura 53 Vaibhav Eshank

Presented By: Presented To:

02 Amit Kumar Mr. Amit Sharma

06 Apoorv Mittal (Faculty-Retail Strategy)

15 Harsh Vardhan Singh (CRM,FDDI)

19 Kunal Sharma

23 Meenal Batra

40 Ravi Adhikari

43 Shikha

49 Sunny Kaura

53 Vaibhav

Eshank

CONTENTS Refrences What is Strategy? Different Levels Of Strategy Functional Strategy Key Goals Objectives Types Of Functional Strategy Marketing Strategy Human Resource Management Strategy Financial Strategy Research & Development Strategy Informational Management Strategy

Refrences

What is Strategy?

Different Levels Of Strategy

Functional Strategy

Key Goals

Objectives

Types Of Functional Strategy

Marketing Strategy

Human Resource Management Strategy

Financial Strategy

Research & Development Strategy

Informational Management Strategy

Refrences Strategic management and business policy- Azhar Kazmi. www.csuchico.edu ( california state university) www.andrews.edu http://learning.north.londonmet.ac.uk www.sbmt.bsu.by

Strategic management and business policy- Azhar Kazmi.

www.csuchico.edu ( california state university)

www.andrews.edu

http://learning.north.londonmet.ac.uk

www.sbmt.bsu.by

What is Strategy? A strategy could be: A plan or course of action or set of decision rules making a pattern or creating a common thread. The pattern or common thread related to the organization's activities which are derived from the policies, objectives and goals Related to pursuing those activities which move an organization from its current position to the desired future state. Concerned with the resources necessary for implementing a plan or following a course of action Connected to the Strategic positioning of a firm, making trade-offs between its different activities and creating a fit among these activities. The planned or actual coordination of the firm’s major goals and actions, in time and space that continuously co-align the firm with its environment.

A strategy could be:

A plan or course of action or set of decision rules making a pattern or creating a common thread.

The pattern or common thread related to the organization's activities which are derived from the policies, objectives and goals

Related to pursuing those activities which move an organization from its current position to the desired future state.

Concerned with the resources necessary for implementing a plan or following a course of action

Connected to the Strategic positioning of a firm, making trade-offs between its different activities and creating a fit among these activities.

The planned or actual coordination of the firm’s major goals and actions, in time and space that continuously co-align the firm with its environment.

DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STRATEGY CORPORATE OFFICE SBU A SBU B SBU C FINANCE MARKETING OPERATIONS HRM INFORMATION LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT LEVELS OF STRATEGY CORPORATE SBU FUNCTIONAL CORPORATE LEVEL BUSINESS LEVEL FUNCTIONAL LEVEL

FUNCTIONAL STRATEGY Function - the intended role or purpose of a person or thing Strategy : Strategy – Greek word ‘ strategos’ – generalship Definition : Functional strategy is the approach a functional area takes to achieve corporate and business unit objectives and strategies by maximizing resource productivity .

Function - the intended role or purpose of a person or thing

Strategy : Strategy – Greek word ‘ strategos’ – generalship

Definition : Functional strategy is the approach a functional area takes to achieve corporate and business unit objectives and strategies by maximizing resource productivity .

Continued.. It is concerned with developing and nurturing a distinctive competence to provide a company or business unit with a competitive advantage. For eg: A multi- dimensional corporation has several business units. Each unit has its own business strategy Each unit has its own set of Departments And, each department has its own Functional Strategy

It is concerned with developing and nurturing a distinctive competence to provide a company or business unit with a competitive advantage.

For eg:

A multi- dimensional corporation has several business units.

Each unit has its own business strategy

Each unit has its own set of Departments

And, each department has its own Functional Strategy

Continued.. The orientation of the functional strategy is dictated by its Parent Business Unit’s Strategy . For Eg: A Manufacturing Functional Strategy that emphasizes EXPENSIVE, QUALITY ASSURANCE process over CHEAPER, HIGH VOLUME PRODUCTION. A Human resource Functional Strategy that emphasizes the hiring and training of a highly skilled, but costly, WORKFORCE. A Marketing Functional Strategy that emphasizes DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL “PULL” using advertising to increase consumer demand over “PUSH” using promotional allowances to retailers.

The orientation of the functional strategy is dictated by its Parent Business Unit’s Strategy . For Eg:

A Manufacturing Functional Strategy that emphasizes EXPENSIVE, QUALITY ASSURANCE process over CHEAPER, HIGH VOLUME PRODUCTION.

A Human resource Functional Strategy that emphasizes the hiring and training of a highly skilled, but costly, WORKFORCE.

A Marketing Functional Strategy that emphasizes DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL “PULL” using advertising to increase consumer demand over “PUSH” using promotional allowances to retailers.

Key Goals To achieve corporate and business unit objectives and strategies by maximizing resource productivity To develop & nurture a distinctive competence to provide a company (BU) competitive advantage

To achieve corporate and business unit objectives and strategies by maximizing resource productivity

To develop & nurture a distinctive competence to provide a company (BU) competitive advantage

FUNCTIONAL STRATEGY OBJECTIVES Profitability ––producing at a net profit in business. Market share ––gaining and holding a specific share of a product market. Human talent ––recruiting and maintaining a high-quality workforce. Financial health ––acquiring financial capital and earning positive returns. Cost efficiency ––using resources well to operate at low cost. Product quality ––producing high-quality goods or services. Innovation ––developing new products and/or processes. Social responsibility ––making a positive contribution to society.

Profitability ––producing at a net profit in business.

Market share ––gaining and holding a specific share of a product market.

Human talent ––recruiting and maintaining a high-quality workforce.

Financial health ––acquiring financial capital and earning positive returns.

Cost efficiency ––using resources well to operate at low cost.

Product quality ––producing high-quality goods or services.

Innovation ––developing new products and/or processes.

Social responsibility ––making a positive contribution to society.

Types of Functional Strategies: Marketing Strategy R & D Strategy HRM Strategy Financial Strategy Information Management Strategy

Marketing Strategy

R & D Strategy

HRM Strategy

Financial Strategy

Information Management Strategy

Marketing Strategy Marketing strategy deals with Pricing, selling and distributing a Product. Here the companies use 2 types of strategies: Market Development. And Product Development. In Market Development a Company or a Business Unit: Capture larger market share of an existing market-Market saturation and Market Penetration Develop new markets for current products

Marketing strategy deals with Pricing, selling and distributing a Product.

Here the companies use 2 types of strategies:

Market Development.

And Product Development.

In Market Development a Company or a Business Unit:

Capture larger market share of an existing market-Market saturation and Market Penetration

Develop new markets for current products

CONTD.. eg. Companies like UNILEVER, COLGATE-PALMOLIVE, and PROCTER & GAMBLE Firstly, These companies are experts at using ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION to implement market saturation/penetration strategy Secondly, They extend PLC by introducing “ New and Improved” variations of the products Thirdly, they follow the “ second market strategy”

eg. Companies like UNILEVER, COLGATE-PALMOLIVE, and PROCTER & GAMBLE

Firstly, These companies are experts at using ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION to implement market saturation/penetration strategy

Secondly, They extend PLC by introducing “ New and Improved” variations of the products

Thirdly, they follow the “ second market strategy”

Contd… Now using the Product Development Strategy A Company or A Business Unit can, 1) develop new products for existing markets 2) develop new products for new markets. For Eg: Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation developed new products to sell to its existing customers Then through AMUL it introduced ICE-CREAMS and DESSERTS, HEALTH DRINKS AND SOUPS Line Extension- using a successful brand name to market other products

Now using the Product Development Strategy A Company or A Business Unit can,

1) develop new products for existing markets

2) develop new products for new markets.

For Eg: Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation

developed new products to sell to its existing customers

Then through AMUL it introduced ICE-CREAMS and DESSERTS, HEALTH DRINKS AND SOUPS

Line Extension- using a successful brand name to market other products

Contd.. PUSH STRATEGY Followed by large food Retailers-India Trade Promotions- discounts, in store special offers, and advertising allowances to push the product through the DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Now this is done to Gain or Hold shelf space in Retail Outlets. PULL STRATEGY KELLOG Changed its strategy from push to pull Advertising pulls the products through the DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS Company spends huge money-CONSUMER ADVERTISING BUILDING BRAND AWARENESS

PUSH STRATEGY

Followed by large food Retailers-India

Trade Promotions- discounts, in store special offers, and advertising allowances to push the product through the DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Now this is done to Gain or Hold shelf space in Retail Outlets.

PULL STRATEGY

KELLOG Changed its strategy from push to pull

Advertising pulls the products through the DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS

Company spends huge money-CONSUMER ADVERTISING

BUILDING BRAND AWARENESS

Other marketing strategies.. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: Should a company sell directly to mass merchandisers? Or should a company use distributors and dealers to sell its products? Example: John Deere ( sells tractors and lawn movers) In order to increase the sales he decided to use his dealers plus mass merchandisers like HOME DEPOT PROBLEM AREA: dealers considered HOME DEPOT- COMPETITOR( ability to underprice the product) Therefore they will be mere repair centers with insufficient sales

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:

Should a company sell directly to mass merchandisers?

Or should a company use distributors and dealers to sell its products?

Example: John Deere ( sells tractors and lawn movers)

In order to increase the sales he decided to use his dealers plus mass merchandisers like HOME DEPOT

PROBLEM AREA: dealers considered HOME DEPOT- COMPETITOR( ability to underprice the product)

Therefore they will be mere repair centers with insufficient sales

Contd.. PRICING : Here the company can follow 2 strategies : Skim Pricing- for new products As it offers to “skim the cream” from the top the demand curve with HIGH PRICE while the product is novel and competitors are few Penetration Pricing- it offers the PIONEER the opportunity to use the EXPERIENCE CURVE - to gain the market share with LOW PRICE - therefore dominate the industry

PRICING : Here the company can follow 2 strategies :

Skim Pricing- for new products

As it offers to “skim the cream” from the top the demand curve with HIGH PRICE while the product is novel and competitors are few

Penetration Pricing- it offers the PIONEER the opportunity to use the EXPERIENCE CURVE

- to gain the market share with LOW PRICE

- therefore dominate the industry

Contd.. Depending on the Corporate and Business unit Objectives and strategies choices are made PENETRATION PRICING however is more likely to raise a units operating profit in the long term than SKIM PRICING.

Depending on the Corporate and Business unit Objectives and strategies choices are made

PENETRATION PRICING however is more likely to raise a units operating profit in the long term than SKIM PRICING.

4PS OF MARKETING It is important that functional strategies be supportive of the overall business strategy and consistent between themselves. Price:     What is included in the initial price     Price level     Discounts     Terms Product     Quality     Features and options     Styling     Brand name     Product line and related products     Warranties and guarantees     Service and after-sale items Promotion     Advertising     Personal selling     Promotion     Publicity Place     Distribution channels     Distribution coverage     Inventory levels and locations     Transportation methods

It is important that functional strategies be supportive of the overall business strategy and consistent between themselves.

Price:     What is included in the initial price     Price level     Discounts     Terms

Product     Quality     Features and options     Styling     Brand name     Product line and related products     Warranties and guarantees     Service and after-sale items

Promotion     Advertising     Personal selling     Promotion     Publicity

Place     Distribution channels     Distribution coverage     Inventory levels and locations     Transportation methods

Research and Development Strategy R & D strategy deals with 2 very important things: Product Innovation Process Improvement It also deals with the questions like, - how new technology should be assessed? -internal development -external acquisition etc. Now here the company has two choices, Either be a TECHNOLOGICAL LEADER- Here one pioneers an INNOVATION.

R & D strategy deals with 2 very important things:

Product Innovation

Process Improvement

It also deals with the questions like,

- how new technology should be assessed?

-internal development

-external acquisition etc.

Now here the company has two choices,

Either be a TECHNOLOGICAL LEADER- Here one pioneers an INNOVATION.

CONTD.. Or be a TECHNOLOGICAL FOLLOWER- Here one imitates the products of competitors Now according to porter, depending on the choice the company makes it can either achieve, Differentiation Or overall low cost.

Or be a TECHNOLOGICAL FOLLOWER- Here one imitates the products of competitors

Now according to porter, depending on the choice the company makes it can either achieve,

Differentiation

Or overall low cost.

Contd.. NIKE (differentiation) Spends more than most on R & D- to differentiate its Athletic shoes from others Favourite of serious athletes Dean foods company (low cost) They produce X,Y,Z product of the same quality and service but at LOWER PRICE That’s how they achieve LOW COST COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

NIKE (differentiation)

Spends more than most on R & D- to differentiate its Athletic shoes from others

Favourite of serious athletes

Dean foods company (low cost)

They produce X,Y,Z product of the same quality and service but at LOWER PRICE

That’s how they achieve LOW COST COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

Contd.. Strategic Technology Alliances are one way to combine the R & D capabilities of two companies. For example: Claritas Inc. and MapInfo Corporation announced the formation of a strategic technology alliance to develop a new mapping and reporting solution to support market and site analysis the alliance combines Claritas' geo-demographic data and applications expertise with MapInfo's spatial technology expertise. According to CEO Bob Nascenzi (claritas), This relationship is a natural fit for both companies. By combining our strengths, we will be able to offer tailor made, state-of-the-art solutions for reporting, mapping, analysis and data integration.

Strategic Technology Alliances are one way to combine the R & D capabilities of two companies. For example:

Claritas Inc. and MapInfo Corporation announced the formation of a strategic technology alliance to develop a new mapping and reporting solution to support market and site analysis

the alliance combines Claritas' geo-demographic data and applications expertise with MapInfo's spatial technology expertise.

According to CEO Bob Nascenzi (claritas), This relationship is a natural fit for both companies. By combining our strengths, we will be able to offer tailor made, state-of-the-art solutions for reporting, mapping, analysis and data integration.

DR. REDDY’ LAB - STRATEGY Major focus on discovery of new chemical entities R&D expenditure – 8% of sales in 2003 Focus areas : diabetes, anti-cancer, non-sterodial anti-infectives, anti- inflammatories Progress – licensed two anti-diabetes molecules to Novo Nordisk, five molecules in pipeline

Major focus on discovery of new chemical entities

R&D expenditure – 8% of sales in 2003

Focus areas : diabetes, anti-cancer, non-sterodial anti-infectives, anti- inflammatories

Progress – licensed two anti-diabetes molecules to Novo Nordisk, five molecules in pipeline

Findings 2008 Top ten R & D spenders in the world are 1) TOYOTA, 2) P’fizer, 3) FORD, 4) JOHNSON AND JOHNSON, 5) DAIMLER AND CRYSLER, 6) GM, 7) MICROSOFT, 8) GLAXO SMITHKLINE, 9) SIEMENS, 10) IBM Companies are now investing less in R & D The NYSE CEO report 2008 shows how a huge 57.7% of global CEO’S have refused any increase in R&D spending. Of all CEO’S only 10% thought that, “New Product Development” was the most important internal factor influencing productivity. One of the Killer Fact is that WAL-MART( the worlds largest corporations) does not even feature in the top ten.

Top ten R & D spenders in the world are 1) TOYOTA, 2) P’fizer, 3) FORD, 4) JOHNSON AND JOHNSON, 5) DAIMLER AND CRYSLER, 6) GM, 7) MICROSOFT, 8) GLAXO SMITHKLINE, 9) SIEMENS, 10) IBM

Companies are now investing less in R & D

The NYSE CEO report 2008 shows how a huge 57.7% of global CEO’S have refused any increase in R&D spending.

Of all CEO’S only 10% thought that, “New Product Development” was the most important internal factor influencing productivity.

One of the Killer Fact is that WAL-MART( the worlds largest corporations) does not even feature in the top ten.

HRM Strategy Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people Here it addresses whether a company should, Hire large no of LOW SKILLED employees( low pay), perform repetitive jobs and quit after a short time( Mc Donald’s restaurant strategy) Or, Hire SKILLED EMPLOYEES who receive high pay and are trained to participate in self-managing work teams Research indicates that the use of work teams leads to increased quality and productivity as well as higher employee satisfaction and commitment.

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people

Here it addresses whether a company should, Hire large no of LOW SKILLED employees( low pay), perform repetitive jobs and quit after a short time( Mc Donald’s restaurant strategy)

Or, Hire SKILLED EMPLOYEES who receive high pay and are trained to participate in self-managing work teams

Research indicates that the use of work teams leads to increased quality and productivity as well as higher employee satisfaction and commitment.

Contd.. Using PART-TIME employees- Many North American and European countries are using part time employees -Firm does not need to pay fringe benefits like health benefits and pension According to companies having a Diverse Workforce can be a competitive advantage Research reveals that with a ‘higher degree of racial diversity’ following a growth strategy have higher productivity than firms with lower degree of racial diversity

Using PART-TIME employees- Many North American and European countries are using part time employees

-Firm does not need to pay fringe benefits like health benefits and pension

According to companies having a Diverse Workforce can be a competitive advantage

Research reveals that with a ‘higher degree of racial diversity’ following a growth strategy have higher productivity than firms with lower degree of racial diversity

Contd.. AVON company was able to turn around its unprofitable inner-city markets by putting African-American and Hispanic managers in charge of marketing to these markets. Human resources are the most important resources in any organization . It is the responsibility of the human resources department to ensure that the organization recruits the correct staff, and that staff receive appropriate training to ensure that the business meets its aims. Therefore, this function is central to the success of the business

AVON company was able to turn around its unprofitable inner-city markets by putting African-American and Hispanic managers in charge of marketing to these markets.

Human resources are the most important resources in any organization .

It is the responsibility of the human resources department to ensure that the organization recruits the correct staff, and that staff receive appropriate training to ensure that the business meets its aims. Therefore, this function is central to the success of the business

FINANCIAL Strategy It focuses on the alignment of financial management within an organization with its business and corporate strategies to gain strategic advantage.

It focuses on the alignment of financial management within an organization with its business and corporate strategies to gain strategic advantage.

Cont… Evaluation Forecasting, planning, budgeting Financial mix Credit strategies Liquidity strategies Capital investment methods and systems. Other decisions Capital budget Stock dividend Cash flow Working capital Loans or leases

Evaluation

Forecasting, planning, budgeting

Financial mix

Credit strategies

Liquidity strategies

Capital investment methods and systems.

Other decisions

Capital budget

Stock dividend

Cash flow

Working capital

Loans or leases

INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Strategy It focuses on the alignment of information management within an organisation with its business and corporate strategies to gain strategic advantage.

It focuses on the alignment of information management within an organisation with its business and corporate strategies to gain strategic advantage.

L&T (Larsen &Toubro) Complex and diversified organization 62 different operationsion Engineering and construction Electricals and electronics Machniery and industrial products Financial services

Complex and diversified organization

62 different operationsion

Engineering and construction

Electricals and electronics

Machniery and industrial products

Financial services

THANK YOU

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