Published on March 17, 2016
1. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PREFACE I. INTRODUCTION II. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY III. EPISODES EPISODE 1- PRINCIPLE OF LEARNING EPISODE 2 – INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES/ LESSON OBJECTIVES AS MY GUIDING STAR EPISPODE 3 –ORGANIZING CONTENT FOR MEANINGFUL LEARNING EPISODE 4 – THE NEEW TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: THE LEVELS OF LEARNING ACTIVITIES EPISODE 5 -TEACHING APPROACHES AND METHODS AND THE K TO 12 CURRICULUM EPISODE 6 – DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE METHODS OF TEACHING EPISODE 7 – EFGUIDING PRICIPLES IN THE SELECTION AND USE OF TEACHING METHODS EPISODE 8 – LESSON DEVELOPMENT: OUTCOMES – BASED TEACHING – LEARNING (OBTL) AND COMPETENCY – BASED/ STANDARDS-BASED TEACHING-LEARNING EPISODE 9 - EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING AND REACTING TECHNIQUES IV. EVIDENCES DTR’S (Daily Time Record) MY PERSONAL DATA
2. Episode 1: PRICIPLES OF LEARNING My Learning Episode Overview This Episode is centered on time-tested principles of learning which when applied will lead to effective learning. It is good to find out the matter and the extent to which these principles are applied in the classroom. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to identify classroom practices that apply or violate each of the principles of learning. My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) Time of submission of my portfolio My Map To realize my Intended Learning Outcomes, I will work my way through these steps: STEP 1: Guided by a questions, I will STEP 2: I will identify evidence of applications/ violations of the principles of learning. I
3. My Learning Activities STEP 4: I will review the principles of learning given in “My Learning Essentials”. STEP 3: I will observe a class
4. As I observe a class, I will use the Observation Sheet for a more focused observation then analyze and reflect on my observation with the help of guide questions. OBSERVATION SHEET Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 2 Subject Area: SCIENCE Date: JAN. 25, 2016 Principles of Learning What did the Resource Teacher do which applies/ contradicts the learning principles? Application of the Principle Non – application/ Contradiction of the Principles 1. Effective learning begins with the setting of clear and high expectations and learning outcomes. Teacher writes her intended learning outcome on the board. 2. Learning is an active process. Pupil writes letter A instead of Teacher writing for him/her. 3. Learning is the discovery of personal meaning and relevance of ideas. The teacher asks the pupils about how a mother gave birth ad how an animal gave birth to their off spring. 4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process As the teacher discuss the topic, she occasionally as the learners about their experiences. She really initiates the learners to share their experiences so that they have interaction in the class.
5. 5. Learning is enhanced in an atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration. Later on, the teacher gave an activity in their book to be answered and when it’s time for them to check, the learners are very involving and cooperative in sharing their ideas about their topic. You can see it in their eyes that they’re really paying attention on the class.
6. My Analysis The involvement of the principles in learning has a huge impact in the teaching – learning process because the teacher can provide activities that can make the class understand the lesson fast and easy. The learners will be more engage in classroom activities and it develops not only their cognitive but also affective and psychomotor. The most applied principle in the discussion is the learning is a discovery of personal meaning and relevance of ideas. I just really like the way the teacher ask her learners about their experiences and connecting it to the lesson because for me the lesson can be easily understand if you can relate to it and you easily connect yourself to it too with the use of your experience. For me, I agree with the principles of learning. The principles are the teachers’ guide in giving the learners activities that is appropriate for them. It also helps the learners in understanding the lesson easily and faster. It is really a great help in the teaching – learning process in a way that it makes the class more attentive and interactive in the class.
7. My Reflections Based on my observation, the resource teacher really adheres the different principles in learning. Even though some of the principles are not properly shown or made happen the class is still very interactive and attentive. Also, one of its factors is that the lesson itself is very interesting for the learners liking. You can really see in the class that they are very willing to learn and very ready to accept new information and knowledge. She is very alive and pleasing on delivering the lesson to her learners. She may lack in the classroom management part since the learners are quite disorganized during activities but when it comes to teaching she really delivers the lesson loud and clear. I ca say that the resource teacher definitely shown what a real and true teacher she is since majority of the class understand her lesson without a doubt. I have learned that using the principles in learning is very important in making a classroom. I also learned that the learners learn easily if they are familiar with the topic when they are connected in their experience. All these principles are really a great help to improve and increase the learning of the learners.
8. My Learning Portfolio MY OWN PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING 1. Learning is a step – by – step process. 2. Learning is developing when its connected to the learners’ experiences 3. No two individuals learn the same way. 4. Learning is not only thinking but also feeling. 5. Learning never stops. 6. Learning has different styles.
9. Episode 2: Intended Learning Outcomes/ Lesson Objectives as My Guiding Star My Learning Episode Overview Intended learning outcomes/lesson objectives set the direction of the lesson. For them to serve s guiding star they must be SMART and formulated in accordance with time – tested principles. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to: a) Identify the guiding principles on lesson objectives/ learning outcomes applied in instruction. b) Determine whether or not lesson objectives/intended learning outcomes served as guiding star in the lessons observed. c) Judge if lesson objectives/intended learning outcomes are SMART My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) Time of submission of my portfolio
10. My Map I will observe three (3) different classes I will reflect on the guide questions given below. To realize intended learning outcomes, I will follow these steps. STEP 1: Read the Learning Essentials given above STEP 2: Observe at least three (3) classes with a learning partner. I will choose one class from each of the three groups. Group 1 – Language / Science / Math Group 2 – Physical Education, TLE Group 3 – Edukasyon sa pagkatao / Araling Panlipunan My focus this time is on lesson or learning objectives/intended learning outcomes. STEP 3: Discuss my observation/answers to the questions with my partner. STEP 4: Write down my answers to the questions STEP 5: Reflect on my observation
11. My Learning Activities 1. As I observe a class, I will use the Observation Sheet for a more focused observation then analyze my observations with the help of the guide questions then reflect on my observations and answers. OBSERVATION SHEET #2.1 Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 8 Subject Area: ARALING PANLIPUNAN Date: Feb. 3, 2016 Guiding Principles Related to Lesson Objectives/Intended Learning Outcomes Teaching Behavior/s which Prove/s Observance of the Guiding Principle 1. Begin with an end mind 1. e.g. The Resource Teacher began her lesson by stating her objective. 2. Share the lesson objectives with the students. The teacher let the students’ share their own knowledge about what a social system is. She also ask for examples about the social system and how they usually operates. 3. Lesson objectives/ Intended Learning Outcomes Are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result – Oriented, Time bound (SMART) The lesson objective provided by the teacher directed the students’ thinking into rational one. Their own way of describing and explaining was also been trained into a more artistic way.
12. OBSERVATION SHEET #2.2 Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 2 Subject Area: ARALING PANLIPUNAN Date: FEB. 3 2016 Guiding Principles Related to Lesson Objectives/Intended Learning Outcomes Teaching Behavior/s which Prove/s Observance of the Guiding Principle 1. Begin with an end mind 1. e.g. The Resource Teacher began her lesson by stating her objective. 2. Share the lesson objectives with the students. The resource teacher ask the learners what they would like to be when they grow up. She also ask them to describe their choice and present it to the class. 3. Lesson objectives/ Intended Learning Outcomes Are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result – Oriented, Time bound (SMART) The teacher is very good in discussing the lesson about the different kinds of occupation. Also, the learners are very attentive to the teacher which really proves that the teacher is very effective in her teaching.
13. OBSERVATION SHEET #2.3 Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 2 Subject Area: SCIENCE Date: JAN. 26, 2016 Guiding Principles Related to Lesson Objectives/Intended Learning Outcomes Teaching Behavior/s which Prove/s Observance of the Guiding Principle 1. Begin with an end mind 1. e.g. The Resource Teacher began her lesson by stating her objective. 2. Share the lesson objectives with the students. The resource teacher let the students to discover the instructional objectives of their discussion. 3. Lesson objectives/ Intended Learning Outcomes Are Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Result – Oriented, Time bound (SMART) The teacher let the students to describe how water cycle goes and state and explain its three processes. She also gave the opportunity for the learners to actively participate in the group activities provided.
14. My Analysis Learning objectives should be followed and should be presented to the learners. Learning objectives serves as a guide for teachers on how to conduct a lesson. It is said to be objectives because it is the target goal of the teachers for that day or term. An effective teacher should follow the stated learning objectives to achieve a great performance to the learners. After I observed the three different grade level with their teachers, I observed that they are not so good in presenting the objectives of the lesson to the class. On the first class, their subject is Araling Panlipunan, I assumed that her objectives are: be able to define Feudalism, be able to appreciate the importance of the social system and to be able to demonstrate the social system. On the second class, their subject is still Araling Panlipunan, I assumed that her objectives are for the pupils to be able to: differentiate the different kinds of occupation, appreciate the importance of each occupation and lastly, to express skillfully the job of each occupation. As for the third class, their subject is Science, they are discussing about the Water Cycle. I think the objectives of the teacher is for them to be able to: define the three processes of Water Cycle, accept the processes and to make an experiment on how this processes works or made. I didn’t have a chance to have a copy of each lesson plan but I think some of the things I assumed as their objectives are right and true. Making an objective is not easy for me since I’m only a beginner. For me, it takes time to make one because you need to think of it thoroughly. You need to make considerations also for the learners and it should be SMART. Even though I didn’t have an opportunity to have my resource teachers’ lesson plan I think their objectives are SMART.
15. My Reflections Learning objectives are set of goals that the learners must cope within a period of time. Based on my observation, the resource teachers that I observe directed the learning to the students through the use of the objectives. The goals are very SMART and appropriate in each topics. It made the students more knowledgeable and equipped with the topics. The knowledge, skills and attitudes are well developed in the set aims and objectives. Learning objectives truly be considered as a guiding star in developing the lesson. It is said to be excepted learning outcome of the learners. Knowledge and learning can be controlled effectively and efficiently through following the learning objectives. Also, the set goals will make the delivery of the lesson be well – directed and concentrated on the established aims and goals. Those objectives will tied up on the success or failure of gaining learning in every presentation of the lesson.
16. My Learning Portfolio Teachers plays an important role in the teaching – learning process. It is also has an important role in molding every young minds and soul. They serve as a model and students sometimes imitate and idolize by many. So teachers should influences with them positivity and values. Like how learners won’t give up on their survival in life, the teachers should not also surrender in directing the learning of the students using the lesson objectives established. Sometime, everything was out controlled, yet how the teacher handle with those sufferings and problems will be the determinant of the success of their profession, which is not merely to teach only, but to mold, lead and inspire young minds which one day could be more successful than them. So when the time I will be a teacher, I will bear in my mind to be a very good and professional one. I will be very approachable and friendly to my learners so that they will have difficulty in understanding my lessons.
17. Episode 3: Organizing Content for Meaningful Learning My Learning Episode Overview Benjamin Bloom cited three (3) domains of knowledge – cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Kendall and Marzano also gave three (3) groups of learning – information (declarative knowledge), metacognitive procedures (procedural knowledge) and psychomotor procedures (motor or physical skills). This episode will focus on these domains and learning. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to: a) Classify the lesson/s under Bloom’s Taxonomy of knowledge and Kendall’s and Marzano’s domains of learning activities. b) Reflect on what lesson is more meaningful and relevant based on the domains of knowledge and learning activities. My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and time of submission of my portfolio My Map I will observe at least 3 different classes. Pay close information to what the resource teacher does to teach and what the learners do to learn. Step 1: Review selection and Organization of Content found in Principles of Teaching 1 Step 2: Observe one type of class – cognitive, skill and affective at a time. Step 3: Accomplish the Observation Sheet Step 4: Write down my answers to the questions Step 5: Reflect on my Observation
18. My Learning Activities OBSERVATION SHEET # 3.1 (Language/ Araling Panlipunan/ Science/ Math) Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 8 Subject Area: ENGLISH Date: MAR. 2, 2016 Kendall’s and Marzano’s Domain of Knowledge Domain of Knowledge Concrete Example/s for each Domain of Knowledge from my Observation (What did your Teacher teach? What was the focus of your teacher’s lesson?) 1. Cognitive Domain – Information (Declarative Knowledge) – Vocabulary, terms, facts, concepts, principle, hypothesis, theory The teacher focuses about the Elements of the Short Story 2. Mental Procedures (Procedural Knowledge) e.g. mental skills such as writing a paragraph The teacher asked the class to od a script writing with their own desired theme and according to a movie they’ve watched on their own. Bloom’s Domain of Learning Activities 3. Psychomotor – skills The teacher also had a paly lit about a selection in the book. And after that the audience will identify the elements on the performing group. 4. Affective – values, attitudes The teacher asked the class about the moral story of the play lit and how they will going to apply it I the real life experience.
19. OBSERVATION SHEET # 3.2 (Physical Education, ICT, TLE) Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 10 Subject Area: Business Management Date: Feb. 24, 2016 Kendall’s and Marzano’s Domain of Knowledge Domain of Knowledge Concrete Example/s for each Domain of Knowledge from my Observation (What did your Teacher teach? What was the focus of your teacher’s lesson?) 1. Cognitive Domain – Information (Declarative Knowledge) – Vocabulary, terms. Facts, concepts, principle, hypothesis, theory The teacher discussed about business Management to the class. She presented the principles of business planning. 2. Mental Procedures (Procedural Knowledge) e.g. mental skills such as writing a paragraph The teacher also discussed about the planning cycle and how complicated can business can be. She also presented about the business plan making. Bloom’s Domain of Learning Activities 3. Psychomotor – skills She let the class have a moment of writing about their experience in business. She let them wander in their own thoughts for a few minutes. 4. Affective – values, attitudes She asked the class about the importance of learning such this things and how this will help them in the near future.
20. OBSERVATION SHEET # 3.3 (Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, Literature) Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 8 Subject Area: Pyudalismo Date: Jan. 26, 2016 Kendall’s and Marzano’s Domain of Knowledge Domain of Knowledge Concrete Example/s for each Domain of Knowledge from my Observation (What did your Teacher teach? What was the focus of your teacher’s lesson?) 1. Cognitive Domain – Information (Declarative Knowledge) – Vocabulary, terms. Facts, concepts, principle, hypothesis, theory The teacher taught about this social system called Feudalism. 2. Mental Procedures (Procedural Knowledge) e.g. mental skills such as writing a paragraph She starts the class with an empty mind. She ask for their own description on what is feudalism. Bloom’s Domain of Learning Activities 3. Psychomotor – skills She had the class a role play activity about Feudalism 4. Affective – values, attitudes She had this discussion about the importance of learning about the past years in Europe and how it is important for us to learn.
21. My Analysis The lessons really focuses on the three main domains in learning. The teacher had different ways on catching the attention of the learners. Ice breakers and energizers are presented in a drill way so that the teacher can automatically connect the new lesson to it. When I was observing the classes I’ve gone, I remember my own experiences when I was my age. I’m very distracted and talkative just like them but every time quizzes and exams are given, I can still answer it. I might not get perfect but I had a good score just like the learners I’ve observe. When their teacher is discussing, they are also discussing with their friends too but in a long run they still listen to their teacher. Every student may be better suited to learning in a particular way, using distinctive modes for thinking, relating and creating. It is critical that teachers use a range of teaching strategies to effectively meet the needs of individual learners. Young learners who are both intrinsically, critically and creatively; and in the final analysis to make use of the knowledge and skills they have gained by becoming effective decisionmakers. Students should also be given the opportunity for self-assessment and be encouraged to evaluate their habits, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to personal health and well-being. This can be accomplished though real-life activities or simulations in which students can become involved in a meaningful way. Activities such as recording eating habits and designing a plan for healthy eating, taking a classmate’s pulse, analyzing advertisements for obvious and hidden messages, help young people apply their understanding of concepts to everyday situations and occurrences.
22. My Reflection A student-centered approach which actively engages the young person in the learning process is critical if skills which result in healthy behaviors are to be fostered and developed. Some of the learning strategies that could be incorporated in a comprehensive approach include self-directed learning, cooperative learning, role playing, behavioral rehearsal, peer education and parent involvement. Consideration should be given to allowing students to plan some learning experiences. They could be provided with opportunities to identify topics or areas for further study, contribute information relevant to an issue for study and/or make suggestions for follow-up activities. Within the classroom, teachers need to be sensitive to value which are promoted by family, peers, and friends, religious and cultural backgrounds. The climate of the classroom must be such that students may speak openly while being assured of the confidentiality, trust and respect of their classmates and teacher. The nature of some incidents may warrant professional intervention in which case School Board policy must be followed. It is important, too, that the learning environment of the school be extended to involve the home and the community for health ism so intricately related to both. Health education will take on more meaning as partnerships with the home, school, and community develop and grow. Throughout the teaching and learning process instruction should be guided by the goals and objectives of the program. Students must be actively involved and provided with the opportunity to experience success.
23. My Learning Portfolio Good teachers are full of passion, well prepared for their lesson, have anticipatory skills and of course live with integrity. Aside from knowledge, teachers must possess positive attitudes and admirable values. One sees these qualities throughout the way activities are facilitated by the teacher, how the materials are organized and prepared, and another thing is how to assessment tools are used. This is where positive attitudes comes in. Dedication, hard work and punctuality are also important. All teachers must realize that part of their job is to teach their students how to learn. I’ve learned that metacognition comes in when we focus on learning how to learn. Teachers must also learn from their mistakes, experiment continually with ways to improve their strategies and teaching methods.
24. Episode 4: The New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: the Levels of Learning Activities My Learning Episode Overview The Episode dwells on Bloom’s levels of cognitive processing and on the new taxonomy of processing knowledge introduced by Kendall and Marzano. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to able to identify teaching practice/s in the different levels of processing knowledge based on Bloom’s revised cognitive taxonomy and Kendall’s and Marzano’s new taxonomy. My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) time of submission of my portfolio My Map I will observe four (4) different classes. I will reflect on the guide questions given below. To hit my target, I will follow these steps. STEP 1: Read the Learning Essential STEP 2: Observe at least four (4) classes with a learning partner. I will chooses one class form each of the three groups: Group 1 – Language/ Araling Panlipunan/Science/Math Group 2 – Physical Education, ICT, TLE Group 3 – Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao/ Literature
25. My Learning Activities OBSERVATION SHEET # 4.1 Bloom’s Levels of Processing Cognitive Activities Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 2 Subject Area: C.L. Date: Mar. 2, 2016 Bloom’s Level of processing cognitive activities What learning activity/ies in the classroom did I observe in each level? 1. Remembering The students were asked to recall the lesson they had last meeting. 2. Comprehending The teacher asked the class to interpret the symbolism in the parable that she read. 3. Applying The teacher had presented scenarios where the learners can see how a certain behavior can affect one’s life 4. Analyzing The teacher asked the students to distinguish the good behavior to bad behavior 5. Evaluating The students answered their books. 6. Creating Learners were asked about other behavior that weren’t mention that are considered good things to be done to others. OBSERVATION SHEET # 4.2 Levels of processing Write down instances where Teacher made learners to do any of these. 1. Retrieval Information – Students gave information asked. The teacher asked the learners about how they help their parents in their house.
26. Mental Procedures – Students determined it information is accurate or inaccurate Students also were asked the difference of good behavior and bad behavior. Psychomotor procedures/ Motor or physical skills – Student/s executed/performed procedures. The teacher asked one of the learners to demonstrate the way they help their parents at home, like sweeping the floor and arranging things. 2. Comprehension Student/s constructed symbolic representation of information The learners were asked to draw the way they help their parents. Student/s integrated information, paraphrased information The learners also elaborate how they help their parents. 3. Analysis Student/s specified logical consequences of information The teacher asked them the consequences when they will do things that are bad. Student/s stated generalizations. The learners conclude that doing bad things is not acceptable to God and they can hurt their parents. Student/s identified factual/logical errors. Learners had found out that when they do good deeds they will be rewarded and when then they do bad deeds they will be punished. Student/s did classifying The learners are able classify the good things from the bad things. Student/s matched, identified similarities and differences The learners are able to compare and contrast the cause and effects of each deeds they’ve done. 4. Knowledge Utilization Student/s tested hypothesis The teacher is presenting scenarios that corresponds to each deeds that the learners are doing and practicing.
27. Student/s experimented The teacher made them act what they usually do and ask them if it is consider bad or good. Student/s solved problems given by the teacher The teacher are helping them to sort out the problem and guiding them to their judgement. Student/s made a decision The teacher is giving them additional scenarios and events to help them have their own judgements and conclusion. 5. Meta-cognitive system Students specified their learning goals As what I observed, the teacher didn’t specified the lessons according to each learner. She made it wholesome and general to all the learners. Students monitored their own learning The teacher is always monitoring the learners’ activity and involvement in the class by giving the learners’ points as an oral recitation. Students monitored the clarity and accuracy of their own learning process. Through the scores the teacher provided, she can tell if they really learn something from the discussion. 6. Self-system Students believed in the importance of what they learn The teacher really emphasizes the importance of learning the new topic. Students were convinced in their ability to learn. The teacher also encourage the class to do good deeds and avoid doing bad deeds. Students were motivated to learn and felt good about learning tasks The teacher motivated the class in following Christ’s works and be a good children of the Lord.
28. My Analysis Bloom’s level of processing was mostly presented in the class. I can see that the teacher is doing things according to the level of processing. She also had the ability to make the learners’ motivated and attentive to the class. I can also see that she is really doing her best to keep the class entertaining and enjoyable. The most displayed level of processing cognitive information in Bloom’s taxonomy is remembering. The teacher encourage the class to remember the activities each learners’ are doing in their own houses and classifying them if it’s a good deed or a bad deed. She presented lots of scenarios that are very common to each learners and according to their level of thinking. The level of processing cognitive information that is least used is the creating. She is more in the remembering. As for the Kendall’s and Marzano’s level of processing information, I think most of it are presented and used in the class. The teacher is guiding the class in making decisions, she also presented scenarios that is very common in each learners’ everyday life. I think Bloom’s level of processing is very similar to Kendall’s and Marzano’s level of processing because it focuses on the learner’s cognitive capacity to process information. Also, in Bloom’s. It is generalize compare to Kendall’s and Marzano’s that is specific. But all in all they are similar and familiar with each other.
29. My Reflection Analyzing the learning of level of development, I found out that having the Bloom’s and Kendall’s and Marzano’s level of development is very helpful because it can be our guide in delivering the proper lesson to the learners. It can be a great help on how we are going to transfer the knowledge to the learners. Through these level of developments given as a guide, we can trace the learners’ development and progress in learning and studying. The teacher is the greatest contributor to a learner’s level I n processing. If the learners’ are presented questions that are in high order thinking skills, the learner is very much likely answer in a more critical way. And if the learner is asked questions that is in the lower order thinking skill, of course the answer would be the obvious things, like answering the 4 W’s questions. It’s simple as that, that’s why the teacher have this kind of guiding principles to be able to give out lessons that the learners can understand easily.
30. Episode 5: Teaching Approaches and the K to 12 Curriculum My Learning Episode Overview The K to 12 Law made explicit the pedagogical approach for the K to 12 Curriculum. This Episode revolves around this pedagogical approach. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to: a) Determine the teaching approach used by the Resource Teachers b) Identify instances where the pedagogical approaches of the K to 12 Curriculum contained in the law are observed. My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) Time of submission of my portfolio
31. My Map I will observe at least one Resource Teacher teach, analyze and reflect on my observation. To realize my Target/Intended Learning Outcomes, I will follow the following steps: STEP 1: Review the notes in the Learning Essentials STEP 2: Observe one Resource Teacher STEP 3: Accomplish Observation Sheet STEP 4: Analyze my Observation
32. My Learning Activities I will observe one Resource Teacher with the use of an Observation sheet for greater focus. I will analyze my observation with the help of guide questions then reflect on my observations and analysis. OBSERVATION SHEET # 5 Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 2 Subject Area: Math Date: Mar. 7, 2016 Teacher – Centered Student – Centered Did teacher lecture all the time? The teacher give lecture at the same time giving activities to the class. Were students involved in the teaching – learning process? How? Or were they mere passive recipients of instruction? The students are involve in the discussion, like for example, the teacher would asked about their experiences. STEP 5: Reflect on my Observation
33. Was the emphasis mastery for the lesson for the test? Prove. The teacher made it clear from the beginning the importance in studying the lesson and how it will affect their lives if they try to follow it. Was the emphasis the student’s application of the lesson in real life? Give proofs. The learners are able to understand why they need to know those kinds of things and how it will affect them in the near future. Was class atmosphere competitive? Why. I can sense a bit of competitiveness from the Grade 2 learners. They are very much engage in the discussion that they want to answer everything on it. Was class atmosphere collaborative? Why? The class is also collaborative at the same time. They are also helping one another to answer the questions the teacher are asking to them. Did teacher focus only on one discipline/subject? The teacher put emphasis lots of discipline in the discussion. She tries to connect it to the other subjects so that her discussion is variety. Did teacher connect lesson to other disciplines/subjects? The teacher had able to connect it to the other lessons and she also gave some examples for better understanding. What teaching-learning practice show that teaching approach was: a) Constructivist – connected to past experiences of learners; learners constructed new lesson meanings. The teacher tries to make the learners remember past experiences and happenings and tries to connect it to the new concept that they are able discuss that day. b) Inquiry – Based The teacher pose some questions and scenarios related to the new topic and aske the learners’ opinions and ideas about it. c) Developmentally appropriate – learning activities fir the developmental stage of children She presented examples that are appropriate and exactly for the grade 2 learners’ cognitive capacity and concrete. d) Reflective She asked the class to be in a moment of silence to reflect what have they learned new today and how it will help them in the new future. e) Inclusive – no learner was excluded; teacher taught everybody. The teacher made everyone involve in learning. She made it pretty clear that she wants everybody to pay attention to the class and she had activities that can make everyone busy and attentive at the same time. f) Collaborative – Students worked together. She gave activities that requires working together, like partners activities.
34. g) Integrative – Lesson was multidisciplinary – e.g. In Science, Math concepts were taught. She tried to connect it in other subjects to make the learners’ understand more. My Analysis Base on my observation the whole instruction is student – centered. The whole time the class is going on, the students are involved and interacting in the class. They are very attentive and alive in the discussion. They are involving themselves in the discussion. If the teacher is discussing purely subject matter in the classroom, I guess the learners’ will be very intelligent academically but poor in the value integration and social orientation. It is the responsibility of the teacher to make the learners’ healthy
35. in all aspects. We are the one of the factors in molding the child for the betterment of the world that’s why we need to teach them the right thing to do and how things work. If I will be given a chance to reteach the class, I will still do it in the student- centered way because it is easier and appropriate to them in that kind of style. My Reflection For me, using both strategies maybe very difficult considering that the learners today are very complicated and attach to the technology. We need to choose one only and I suggested to use the student-centered way of teaching. Using the student-centered teaching is far better than the teacher-based teaching
36. because you will focus more on the ability of the child’s learning and understanding. You need to cater every aspects of that learner. Also, you need to consider some of the aspects of the learners because not all learners learn in the same style. Each learner has its own unique learner style that’ why we need the student-centered approach so that the learners will understand more the presented lesson. My Learning Portfolio
37. 1. A student-centered approach is very interactive. Research on at least 3 teaching-learning activities/ techniques that can be used at the beginning or end of a lesson. Put them here. Episode 6:
38. Deductive and Inductive Methods of Teaching My Learning Episode Overview After a Learning Episode on Teaching – Learning Approach, the FS students gets acquainted with methods of teaching. A teaching method is the practical realization or application of an approach. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to: a) Identify the teaching method used by my Resource Teachers b) Distinguish between deductive (direct) and inductive (indirect) method of teaching. My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) Time of submission of my portfolio My Map I will observe two (2) different classes. I will reflect on the guide questions given below. To hit my target, I will follow these steps: STEP 1: Reflect the Learning Essentials given. STEP 2: Observe at least two (2) classes with a learning partner. I will choose one class for each of the three groups. Group 1 – Language/Araling Panlipunan/Science/Math Physical Education, ICT, TLE Group 3 – Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao/ Literature
39. My Learning Activities I will observe 2 classes by using Observation sheet for greater focus then analyze my observation with the help of guide questions. I will write down my reflection on my observations and experiences. OBSERVATION SHEET # 6.1 Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 1 Subject Area: Math Date: Mar. 7, 2016 Observe how the Resource Teacher began, developed and ended her/his lesson. Start of the Lesson The teacher presented the lesson directly by telling them the new topic which is the Calendar. Development of her Lesson She make use of the LED TV in the classroom for the learners to view a video clip about the calendar. She made that as the introduction of the lesson. Ending of her Lesson She had the generalization about the calendar and she gave them an evaluation by answering some exercises from the book. OBSERVATION SHEET # 6.2 Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 2 Subject Area: Araling Panlipunan Date: Mar.2, 2016 Observe how the Resource Teacher began, developed and ended her/his lesson. Start of the Lesson She had a story about her favorite cartoon character. She asked the learners what they want to be in the future. Development of her Lesson She gave examples and scenarios about the different kinds of occupation. She also asked the learners about their parents and their desire in life. Ending of her Lesson: At the end of the lesson, she asked the class what are they discussing based on the examples and scenarios that were given to them. She proceeds to explain how they arrive at that certain conclusion that they are discussing about the different types of occupation.
40. My Analysis For the first class that I observed, I noticed that the teacher used the deductive method. She told the class about their new topic of the day and she gave examples before she had the generalization. For the second class that I observed, the teacher used the inductive method because she presented first the examples and scenarios before they had known the topic of the day. I observed that the learners’ are more interacting in the deductive way of learning because they knew what they are talking about and they know where they going in the discussion. In the inductive method, the teacher needs greater demand of questioning and organizing skills because you will let your learners discover the new lesson without directly giving them the answer. You will let them discover it on their own. There are also instances that the teacher taught the lesson inductively while it needs to be taught deductively. Teaching inductively is quite handful and using the deductive method is much easier than using the inductive method.
41. My Reflection Two very distinct and opposing instructional approaches are inductive and deductive. Both approaches can offer certain advantages, but the biggest difference is the role of the teacher. In a deductive classroom, the teacher conducts lessons by introducing and explaining concepts to students, and then expecting students to complete tasks to practice the concepts; this approach is very teacher- centered. Conversely, inductive instruction is a much more student-centered approach and makes use of a strategy known as ‘noticing’. Let’s take a closer look at the differences between inductive and deductive instruction, and find out how noticing can be used in the language classroom to better facilitate student learning.
42. My Learning Portfolio A deductive approach to teaching language starts by giving learners rules, then examples, then practice. It is a teacher-centered approach to presenting new content. This is compared with an inductive approach, which starts with examples and asks learners to find rules, and hence is more learner-centered. Example The form and use of the third conditional is explained to learners, then they have a gap-fill exercise to complete, then prepare their own examples. In the classroom The deductive approach may be suitable with lower level learners who need a clear base from which to begin with a new language item, or with learners who are accustomed to a more traditional approach and so who lack the training to find rules themselves. Episode 7:
43. Guiding Principles in the Selection and Use of Teaching Methods My Learning Episode Overview This Learning Episode is about the guiding principles in the selections and use of teaching method. It comes after the FS student has been introduced to methods of teaching. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to identify the applications of some guiding principles in the selection and use of teaching strategies. My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) Time of submission of my portfolio My Map I will observe at least three (3) Resource Teachers, analyze and reflect on my observations. To reach my Target, I will follow the following steps: STEP 1: Reflect the Learning Essentials given. STEP 2: Observe one Resource Teacher. STEP 3: Accomplish Observation Sheet STEP 4: Analyze my Observations. STEP 5: Reflect on my Observation.
44. My Learning Activities I will observe one class by using Observation sheet for greater focus then analyze my observation with the help of guide questions. I will write down my reflection on my observations and experiences. OBSERVATION SHEET # 7 Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: GRADE 2 Subject Area: Math Date: Mar. 2, 2016 Guiding Principles in the Selection and Use of Strategies Teaching Behavior of the Resource Teacher that Applies the Principles 1. The more senses that are involved, the more and better the learning. e.g. Teacher used video on how digestion takes place and a model of human digestive system. 2. Learning is an active process. The teacher presented video clip about the months in a year. In this. She presented the learners what she intended for them to learn and what she intended to teach. 3. A non-threatening atmosphere enhances learning. Just like what I stated above, the video clip makes the learners developed their sense in listening in recognizing the song. We all know that we learn more with what we see than with what we simply hear. 4. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning. Students learn fast when they fell comfortable. They can absorb the lesson fast if they are at ease and at peace. Also, if the teacher is very friendly and approachable. As what I observed, the teacher is friendly and the learners love her. 5. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information The teacher asked lower order thinking skills to higher order thinking skills. She also asked the learners to recall information’s and she also asked them about comprehension. 6. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to student’s everyday life. The teacher asked the learners activities that they are doing in a certain day. Like for example, she asked them the day they are going to church, the month we celebrate Valentine’s Day, Christmas Day and such. She connects it to the learner’s daily activities. 7. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective The teacher generalize some of the things she discusses. She made it
45. than teaching isolated bits of information. somewhat related to each other so that the learners won’t be confuse and for them to understand correctly.
46. My Analysis Brain – based learning is motivated by the general belief that learning can be accelerated and improved if educators base how and what they teach on the science of learning, rather than on past educational practices, established conventions, or assumptions about the learning process. it was commonly believed that intelligence is fixed characteristic that remains largely unchanged throughout a person’s life. However, recent discoveries in cognitive science have revealed that the human brain physically changes when it learns, and that after practicing certain skills it becomes increasingly easier to continue learning and improving those skills. This finding – that learning effectively improves brain functioning, resiliency, and working intelligence – has potentially far – reaching implications for how schools can design their academic programs and how teachers could structure educational experiences in the classroom. All that is listed in the table are brain – based teaching and learning. They motivates and encourage the learners in learning more and expanding their knowledge. Relating the lesson to a learner’s life is an example of this strategies. They encourage the learners to become attentive to the class and more responsive. Using brain – based learning makes teaching much easy and entertaining. Catering the learners need is a must and using the brain – based strategies can help.
47. My Reflection The best method in teaching for me, is relating the lesson to a child’s life. Nobody can learn for us in the same way just like nobody can eat for us, nor live for us, nor die for us. Everybody has a way of learning. Now using this as a strategy of the learner’s to learn more is the best thing. An easy way to help students feel personally connected to what they’re being taught is to talk about how they can apply the material in real life. For example, when the learner learn by interacting with their environment, they are said to be inquiring. They are asking about something to obtain information and processing that information. As more and more substantiations unravel they compare classify, analyze, and evaluate collected observations. Depending on the weight and relevance of the evidence, they formulate their own conclusion. In that sense, the learner is learning on his/her own way through the experience.
48. My Portfolio Are the pedagogical approaches to K to 12 as stipulated in the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 based on these principles of teaching-learning? (Refer to R.A. 10533, Sec. 4 for the pedagogical approaches). Come up with a Table like this one. Pedagogical Approach of K to 12 1. Constructivist Principle of Teaching 1. Good Teaching goes beyond recall of information 2. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to student’s everyday life. 2. Inquiry – based 3. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information 3. Developmentally appropriate 4. Emotions has the power to increase retention and learning 4. Reflective 5. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to student’s everyday life. 6. An integrated approach is far more better than teaching isolated bits of information 5. Inclusive 7. The more senses involved in learning, the more and the better the learning. 8. Learning is a collaborative process. 6. Collaborative 9. Learning is a collaborative process. 10.Learning is meaningful when it is connected to student’s everyday life. 7. Integrative 11.Learning is meaningful when it is connected to student’s everyday life. 12.An integrated approach is far more better than teaching isolated bits of information
49. Episode 8: Outcomes-Based Teaching-Learning (OBTL) and Competency- Based/Standards-Based Teaching- Learning My Learning Episode Overview This Episode tackles lesson development, the OBTL way. The K to 12 Curriculum and teacher education curriculum are focused on the outcomes, standards and competencies. This means that lessons must be delivered with focus on outcomes. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to: a) Trace the development of the lesson of my Resource Teacher/s b) Determine whether or not the lesson development was in accordance with outcomes-based teaching and learning c) Outline a lesson in accordance with Outcome-Based Teaching- Learning My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) Time of submission of my portfolio
50. My Map 1. I will read Learning Essentials above 2. I will observe one class of a Resource Teacher STEP 1: Read Learning Essentials above. STEP 2: Observe one Resource Teacher. STEP 3: Accomplish Observation Sheet STEP 4: Analyze My Observation STEP 5: Reflect on my observation.
51. My Learning Activities I observe a class by using Observation Sheet for greater focus then analyze my observations with the help of guide questions. I will write down my reflections on my observation and experiences. OBSERVATION SHEET Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: Grade 2 Subject Area: Filipino Date: Mar. 8, 2016 1. Did the teacher state the learning objectives/ intended learning outcomes (ILOs) at the beginning of the class? Did she share them with the class? How? She didn’t share her class objectives in the class. She automatically begin her discussion without presenting her objectives, I can tell what her objectives are based on how she asked questions to the class and based on her discussion. 2. What teaching-learning activities (TLAs) did he/she use? Did these TLAs help him/her attain his/her lesson objectives/ILOs? Explain your answer. She had a coloring activity in her class. She asked the learners to color their book after answering the exercises inthe book. I can say that see somewhat achieved her objectives because the learners can answer her questions. 3. What assessment task/s did Teacher employ? Is/Are these aligned to the lesson objectives/ILOs? The teacher made the class answer the exercises from the book. For me, it is aligned to her objectives because it corresponds to the lesson she is discussing but I don’t think the coloring part is connected to her lesson .This somewhat confused me a little.
52. My Analysis If the intended learning outcome and teaching-learning activity and amusement task are properly aligned and connected then teaching in the class is very easy as one two three. When this three is complimenting each other, then teaching a lesson to the learners is very harmonious and enjoyable. There are teaching learning activities that are more appropriate than what the teacher used. All you have to do is research more about it and you can apply it to your class, but make sure it is appropriate and easy for the learners to do. As for the assessment task, it’s up for the teacher what he/she will give to his/her learners but make sure it is easy and justifies what you have discussed in the class. I really agree that some of the teacher are confusing their very own learnings, it’s because they didn’t made their objectives precisely and SMART. The objectives must connected to each other and compliments each other. It should be aligned with each other so that the learners won’t be confuse and feel complicated.
53. My Reflections Mastery learning is used in order to advance an individual’s potential for learning. Compared to traditional learning models, sufficient time, attention, and help are afforded to each student. This paper investigates the mastery learning model and changes that have taken place in its use as an effective teaching strategy. It also provides a comparison of Bloom’s and Keller’s approaches as well as a critique of both approaches using historical data. This paper shows that by applying mastery learning as a teaching strategy, students achieve higher learning and better academic performance. Mastery learning is an alternative method of teaching and learning for many students who do not respond well to traditional instruction. Traditional instruction has not been successful for many students in schools, colleges, and universities. Like the mastery learning theory, cooperative learning is a strategy that looks unfavorably on competition among individual students when learning the subject matter. In addition, it is a strategy like mastery learning that makes the students responsible for their learning the subject. Constructivism, on the other hand, has been described as the unifying theory of education that has succeeded in tying together all learning theories in all academic areas. The teacher is more of a facilitator rather than traditional controller of the classroom. Unlike cooperative learning, the literature does not provide a positive tie between constructivis
54. Episode 9: Effective Questioning and Reacting Techniques My Learning Episode Overview This Episode dwells on types of questions, questioning and reacting techniques that teachers make use of. The type of questions that teachers ask and their manner of questioning and reacting to student responses have a bearing on class interaction. My Intended Learning Outcome In this Episode, I must able to: a) Identify my Resource Teachers’ questioning and reacting techniques. b) Select types of questions, questioning and reacting techniques that promote/discourage interaction My Performance Criteria I will be rated along the following: a) Quality of my observations and documentations b) Completeness and depth of my analysis c) Depth and clarity of my classroom observation – based reflections, d) Completeness, organization, clarity of my portfolio and e) Time of submission of my portfolio
55. My Map I will observe at least 3 Resource Teachers, analyze and reflect on my observations. To reach my Target, I will follow the following steps: STEP 1: Read Learning Essentials above. STEP 2: Observe at least 3 Resource Teachers. STEP 3: Accomplish Observation Sheet. STEP 4: Analyze my Observations. STEP 5: Reflect on my observations.
56. My Learning Activities I observe 3 classes by using Observation Sheets for greater focus then analyze my observations with the help of guide questions. I will write down my reflections on my observation and experiences. OBSERVATION SHEET # 9.1 – Types of Questions Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: Grade 1 Subject Area: C.L. Date: Mar. 7, 2016 Types of Questions Examples of Questions that the Resource Teacher Asked 1. Factual/ Convergent/ Closed/ Low Level What is a Good Samaritan? 2. Divergent/ Higher – Order/ Open – Ended/ Conceptual How can you say you’re a Good Samaritan? a. Evaluation Do you like the story? b. Comparison How did the first passer react upon seeing the person beside the road? c. Application If you are the first passerby, would you help the injured person? d. Problem – solving In what way will you help the injured person? 3. Affective How would you feel if you had help from the least person you’ve imagine?
57. OBSERVATION SHEET # 9.2 – Questioning Behavior Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: Grade 2 Subject Area: English Date: Mar. 8, 2016 Questioning Behavior Tally of Use Frequency 1. Varying type of Questions ///// - // Every time she points out important things. 2. Asking non-directed questions (ask the question first before calling a student to answer) ///// - / 3. Calling on non- volunteers ///// - ///// When she can see that they are not attentive anymore. 4. Prompting by rephrasing or by providing partial answer ///// 5. Probing (to seek more details for clarification) //// If she can sense that the class is confuse. 6. Requiring abstract thinking (not just simple recall but require HOTS) ///// - ///// - //
58. 7. Asking open-ended questions (divergent) ///// - ///// - //// 8. Allowing sufficient time ///// - //// 9. Involving as many as possible EVERYTIME OBSERVATION SHEET # 9.3 – Reacting Techniques Resource Teacher: Teacher’s Signature: School: Grade/ Year Level: Grade 9 Subject Area: Math Date: Mar. 8, 2016 Reacting Behavior Tally of Use Frequency 1. Providing acceptance feedback /// The class is silent 2. Providing corrective feedback // 3. Giving appropriate and sincere praise ///// - ///// Constantly 4. Repeating the answer ///// 5. Explaining the answer/ expanding the answer ///// - ///// - ///// After the solving, he tries to run through it again. 6. Rephrasing the question // 7. Asking follow up questions ///// 8. Redirecting the questions to other pupils /////-///// If the student is not listening. 9. Soliciting student questions ///// - ///// 10.Encouraging through non-verbal behavior ///// 11.Criticizing respondent for his/her answer // 12.Scolding for misbehavior or for not listening. ///// - ///// - //
59. 13.Overusing expressions such as “okay”, “right” ///// - ///// - ///// My Analysis The teacher should encourage the learners in answering higher order thinking skills. The teacher should ask more HOTS rather than LOTS to develop their critical thinking and for them to think deeply. As I had my last observation for this FS, I observe that mostly of the teachers are questioning LOTS rather than HOTS. They are also basing more on the books and rather not expanding the lesson. It’s like they are not doing farther research on the lesson. Some of the questioning that are mostly asked are convergent questions that requires lower thinking. The commonly used reacting techniques are saying “okay’s” and calling those non-volunteer learners.
60. My Reflection The kinds of questions we ask determine the level of thinking we develop. Low level questions demand low level responses. They required responses of the simple recall or memory types of answers. High level questions call for higher – order thinking ability. “Why” and “how” questions require analysis of observations. The conclusion is arrived at after weighing evidence or establishing a pattern out of a recorded tabulation of data. A question is taken as a request for information, it is simply an inquiry about something. Class interaction is not dependent only on teacher’s questioning skills. It also depends on teacher’s reacting techniques. Some reacting techniques that have been proven to be effective are: 1) providing feedback, 2) giving appropriate praise to high quality responses, 3) following up a student’s response, 4) explaining the question, 5) rephrasing the seemingly unclear question, 6) showing non – verbal encouragement, 7) re – directing the question to other students, 8) soliciting students’ questions to satisfy curiosity or to better understand something.
61. My Learning Portfolio 1. Choose competencies from the K to 12 Curriculum Guide then formulate sample questions for each question type: Type of Question 1. Convergent Summarize our discussion today about the planets of the Solar System 2. Divergent What are the planets in the Solar System? 3. Evaluation Is my power point presentation entertaining you? 4. Inference Among the planets on the solar system, what planet do you like? Why? 5. Affective How are you going to show your love to Mother Earth? 6. Comparison Compare and contrast Jupiter and Saturn 2. Research on at least five (5) expressions which you must use to inspire your students to be actively involved in class interaction. E.g. “You are on the right track!” Excellent! Amazing! Brilliant! Nice Answer! That’s good!
62. Daily Time Record (DTR) Episode 1
63. Episode 2
64. EPISPODE 3
65. EPISODE 4
66. EPISODE 5
67. EPISODE 6
68. EPISODE 7
69. EPISODE 8
70. EPISODE 9
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