Frying With Palm

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Information about Frying With Palm

Published on July 20, 2009

Author: muslimin2002


Slide 1:  Things To Know About Frying Impart texture, flavor, color Reduce moisture content Efficient medium of heat transfer Very quick process Shallow frying Deep-fat frying Slide 2:  How significant is Frying? Domestic household Restaurants – High end, mamak, warung Catering business Fast Food Outlets Food Manufacturing Industry Snack Food – Chips, pretzels, peanuts Instant Noodles/Ramen Cooked/processed canned food sardine, meat curries etc. Slide 3: Source of Fats & Oils What are available in the Global Market? Liquid oils Semi solid fat Sunflower oil Soy bean oil Groundnut oil Cottonseed oil Rapeseed oil Olive Oil Palm kernel olein Coconut oil Palm olein Hydrogenated marine oil Hydrogenated vegetableoil (32-34ºC) Lard Butter oil Hard stock Hard fraction butter oil Hard fraction beef fat Hydrogenated oils or fats (49-51ºC) Tallow Palm stearin Slide 4: Oil Selection Price (huge range) Heavy Duty – Reliability & Stability Taste/Flavor/Colour Nutritional Value – Healthy/trans free Halal Non-GMO What are the Major Criteria's? Slide 5: 5 Oil Stability/Deterioration Trans Fatty Acid Saturated Fat Safety of byproducts of deterioration Health/Nutrition Frying Issues Slide 6: Heating Dehydration Hydrolysis Fission Free Radicals Food Vaporization Oxidation Aeration Absorbtion Solubilization oxygen Hydroperoxides volatile air steam Free fatty acids colored compounds Cyclic compounds dimers hydrocarbons acids Ketones dimers hydrocarbons trimers alcohols Food lipids diglyceride glycerine monoglyceride alcohols aldehydes What happen in a fryer? Slide 7: Main Agents of Deterioration Frying Oils/Fats are Perishable items and they undergo spoilage & deterioration Polymerization Hydrolysis Oxidation Agents of Deterioration Reaction of fatty acids creation of long chain molecule Increase oil viscosity - less effective heat transfer Cause increased oil absorbtion in fried products produce gums which stick to fryer wal Reaction of hot unsaturated oil with oxygen Give rise to off flavours (rancidity) Initiates polymerization Action of water Splitting of fatty acids Creates FFA & reduces smoke point Creates monoglucerides which stabilize foaming Slide 8:  Monomers, dimmers, trimers other high-molecular-weight compounds Peroxides, monoglycerides, diglycerides Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids What do we know about by products of oil deteriorations? 3rd Int. Symp. DGF. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. echnol. 102 (2000)Deteriorated fried oil and fat products Total Polar Compounds TPM Volatile TPM Non-Volatile Free Fatty Acids (FA) Dimeric and polymerized FA Dimeric and polymerized triglycerides (TG) Slide 10: Volatile compounds in SF oil and HOSF oil (HS-SPME-GC/MS analysis) Katharina D. Placke1, Kim K. Kleeberg2, Jan Fritsche1* Analyses of the oxidative stability of deep-frying oils Slide 11: We don’t really know Insufficient data Results on animal tests? Take precautionary measures Are they safe to consume? Slide 12: Legislative Limits for Used Frying Oils Source : K. G Berger Frying Review Sensory: Darkening, smoke, foaming, thickening, rancid taste. Laboratory: Acidity, anisidine value, viscosity, total polar compounds, polymeric triglycerides. Slide 13: Reduce the amount of water released into the frying fat (water is generally introduced from the food that is being fried). Use moderate frying temperature (the higher the temperature, the more rapid the rate of free fatty acid production). Fat turn overrate (the more rapid the replacement of used oil/fat with fresh, the slower the rate of free fatty acid development). Good Overall Frying Practice Use additives Use a good-quality & stable frying oil, (e.g Palm Olein) To Minimize Deterioration/breakdown Slide 14:  What can you expect Frying Oil From Palm Oil? Slide 15: Standard TOP QUALITY Our Commitment Slide 16: Palm olein available in the supermarket Slide 17:  Liquid Solid/semi-solid PALM FRACTIONS WITH DIFFERENT IV RANGE FOR FOOD Palm Fractions Palm Oil Olein Hard Stearin Soft Stearin Super Stearin Top Olein Super Olein Soft PMF Hard PMF IV 51-53 IV 70-72 IV 32-36 IV 64-66 IV 42-48 IV 17-21 IV 40-42 IV 32-36 IV 57-59 Versatility Slide 18:  Liquid Solid/semi-solid PALM FRACTIONS WITH DIFFERENT IV RANGE FOR FOOD Refined Palm Oil Olein (single fractionated) Hard Stearin Super Olein (double fractionated) IV 51-53 IV 32-36 IV 64-66 IV 57-59 Red Palm Olein Top Olein (Triple fractionated) IV >70 Oil Palm Fractions Suitable for Frying Applications. Slide 19:  Stability Withstand high temperature without excessive chemical changes Resistant against oxidative degradation Slide 20: coconut Palm Kernel Oil Cocobutter Palm Oil Palm Olein (liqid Fraction) Olive HO Sunflower Canola Soya Corn Safflower Mono unsaturated Poly unsaturated Saturated 100% 50% saturated unsaturated Relationship Between Stability & Saturation Not all saturated fats are cholestrolemic and they contributes significantly to stability of the frying oil. PUFA are easily oxidized and are not recommended for deep frying Increased Stability Decreased Stability Slide 21:  Oxidative stability of some oils (Oven test at 98 º C) Slide 22: 22 Oxidative stability of some oils (Rancimat 120C) Slide 23: Fatty Acid Profile of Various Vegetable Oils Balance in Saturated and Unsaturated Low in Polyunsaturated fatty acids Rich in natural antioxidants (vitamin E (tocotrienol/tocopherols) Why is Palm Oil Stable ? Slide 24: Tocopherol/Tocotrienol Content of Palm Oil (ppm) An important function of the tocopherols/Tocotrienols is to protect the unsaturated fatty acid components of the oils from oxidation Slide 25: Gapor, A.T., Berger, K.G., Hashimoto,T., Kato, H., Tanabe,K., Mamuro,H., Yamaoke,M. Effect of processing on the content and composition of tocopherols and tocotrienols in palm oil. In: Pushparajah,E., Rajadurai,M. eds. Palm Oil Product Technology in the Eighties. Kuala Lumpur: Incorporated Society of Planters, 1983, pp145-156 Tocol Content and Unsaturation of some Refined Vegetable Oils Palm oil and palm olein have a markedly higher proportion of tocols in relation to their poly-unsaturated acid content than other oils. It is thought that this is an important factor in their exceptionally good resistance to oxidation at high temperature during frying. Slide 26:  ‘Trans Free’ Cooking Oil Because of its stability, Palm based Cooking Oil does not require HYDROGENATION. What about other edible Oils? Slide 27: H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C C C C _ _ _ ...... = = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ...... _ H H H H H H H H H H _ _ _ C C C = C _ C _ C C _ C _ C _ C _ ... ...... _ Partial Hydrogenation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H _ H H H H H H H H poly -unsaturated trans -unsaturated Soybean oil Sunflower oil Corn oil e.g Corn fat Sunflower fat Soybean fat High Trans Most if not all soft oils are Hydrogenated! Fact : :  Better keeping quality of fried food Longer shelf life of fried food with no rancid or off flavors produced for longer period as compared to other oils. Minimum of 6 to 12 months – therefore can stay much longer on the shelf as compared to others. :  Excellent for blending Improved stability of other soft oils by blending An excellent alternative to Hydrogenation Slide 30: PO = palm olein (IV 56) (H)RSO = (hydrogenated) rapeseed oil POS = palm stearin (IV 48) It was concluded that the quality of potato products fried in rapeseed oil / palm olein blends was superior to that using rapeseed oil alone. Palm Vs Rapeseed Slide 31: Palm blending in US Slide 32: Palm blending in US Slide 33: Palm blending in Japan :  Other Frying Attributes of Palm Oil Bland taste – Enhance natural flavor to fried food Very resistant to foaming Maintains acceptable color after several frying cycle Less Volatile Compound form – Cleaner Kitchen Slide 35:  Nutritious & healthy Oil from Palm Slide 36: MPOB – Brandeis Univeristy Patent Technolgy Blending of palm olein with Canola & Soybean oil “Smart Balance” Patented Blending Technology Based on AHA Step 1 Diet ( <30% calorie intake from fat with equal ratio of SAT : MONO : PUFA) Slide 38:  Summary & Take Home Message Palm Based Cooking Oil offers Stability, which is the most important attribute of Deep Frying Oil. And it does so at a fraction of the cost as compared to the other oils including from the new GMO varieties Slide 39: Free Publications & Information on various topics on Palm Oil Slide 40: Thank You

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