Fruit Insects

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Information about Fruit Insects
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Published on December 1, 2007

Author: Mee12

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Welcome to class! Insect Pests of Fruit Crops MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT PESTS IN THE HOME GARDEN:  MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT PESTS IN THE HOME GARDEN INSTRUCTOR: Dan Mahr Extension Fruit Entomologist University of Wisconsin -- Madison A Guide to Where We Are Going:  A Guide to Where We Are Going A quick review of insect biology. An overview of the general methods and approaches to pest management. Tree fruit pests. Biology and damage. Control. Berry pests. Biology and damage. Control. Resources in Your Manuals:  Resources in Your Manuals Some Introductory Concepts: Entomology 101:  Some Introductory Concepts: Entomology 101 Insect Growth:  Insect Growth Progress through various stages. Must shed their skin (molt). Metamorphosis (change). Simple: egg > nymph > nymph > nymph > adult Complete: egg > larva > larva > larva > pupa > adult Simple Metamorphosis:  Simple Metamorphosis Major Insect Groups:  Major Insect Groups Simple metamorphosis: aphids and leafhoppers plant bugs and predatory bugs grasshoppers Complete Metamorphosis:  Complete Metamorphosis Major Insect Groups:  Major Insect Groups Complete metamorphosis: beetles (including weevils) moths and butterflies lacewings flies, gnats, midges, mosquitoes bees, wasps, ants Pests vs. Beneficials:  Pests vs. Beneficials Pests Beneficials: Pollinators Predators Parasites Recyclers Transients Beneficials -- Predators:  Beneficials -- Predators Beneficials -- Parasites:  Beneficials -- Parasites Types of Plant Damage:  Types of Plant Damage Chewing: defoliation leaf mining fruit and stem boring Chewing Mouthparts:  Chewing Mouthparts Types of Plant Damage:  Types of Plant Damage Sucking: removal of moisture and nutrients. Injection of toxic saliva. plant disease transmission. Sucking Mouthparts:  Sucking Mouthparts Sucking Mouthparts:  Sucking Mouthparts Oystershell Scale San Jose Scale Types of Plant Damage:  Types of Plant Damage Egg laying. Types of Pests:  Types of Pests Direct pests Types of Pests:  Types of Pests Indirect pests Types of Pests:  Types of Pests Key pests vs. Secondary pests Slide23:  …any questions? End of insect biology… Pest Management Approaches Overview of Control Methods:  Pest Management Approaches Overview of Control Methods Chemical control (insecticides). Physical control (traps; barriers). Mechanical control (hand picking). Biological control (beneficial natural enemies of the pests). Cultural controls (sanitation). Resistant crop varieties. Do nothing. Integrated pest management (IPM). Pest Management Approaches Everyone has different needs!:  Pest Management Approaches Everyone has different needs! Pest Management Approaches General Approaches to Control:  Pest Management Approaches General Approaches to Control Traditional, routine use of pesticides. Reduced pesticide use based on monitoring. True IPM. Organic gardening, including use of accepted pesticides. Non-chemical pest control. No controls applied. Pest Monitoring: An Essential Key to Insect Management:  Pest Monitoring: An Essential Key to Insect Management Visual inspection. Trapping. Knowledge of pests. Dedication. Insect Traps:  Insect Traps Odor traps (pheromone traps). Visual traps. Combination traps. Insect Traps:  Insect Traps Slide30:  …any questions? End of overview of control … Apple Pests:  Apple Pests Apples are attacked by more types of insect pests than any other Wisconsin fruit crop. Apple Pests:  Apple Pests Key Pests Plum curculio Codling moth Apple maggot Secondary Pests Leafrollers Aphids Leafminers Spider mites Plum curculio:  Plum curculio Plum curculio:  Plum curculio Plum curculio – Control :  Visual monitoring for injury (no traps). Limb-tapping. Insecticides. Conventional or botanical (not Bt, oils, or soap). 1-2 applications (petal fall; first cover); more often if using botanicals. Plum curculio – Control Plum curculio – Summary :  One generation per year. Overwinter as adults. Enter orchard around petal fall. Produce crescent-shaped egg-laying scars. Result in misshapen fruit. Rarely larvae in fruit. Visual monitoring. Control by limb-tapping or insecticides: Petal fall First cover Plum curculio – Summary Codling moth:  Codling moth Codling moth:  Codling moth Codling moth:  Codling moth Codling moth – Control :  Visual monitoring for injury; pheromone traps. Sanitation (destroy dropped fruit). Insecticides. Conventional or botanical (not Bt, oils, or soap). 1-2 applications per generation (begin at first cover). Codling moth – Control Codling moth – Summary :  Two generations per year. Adults start egg laying around petal fall. Larvae feed in core of fruit. Usually one tunnel to outside; may be frass. Second generation in July – August. Visual monitoring for damage; pheromone traps. Control by insecticides: Petal fall First cover Destroy dropped fruit. Codling moth – Summary Apple maggot (railroad worm):  Apple maggot (railroad worm) Apple maggot is the most serious home apple pest. Apple maggot (railroad worm):  Apple maggot (railroad worm) Apple maggot (railroad worm):  Apple maggot (railroad worm) Apple maggot – Trapping :  Apple maggot – Trapping Apple maggot – Trapping :  Apple maggot – Trapping Apple maggot – Control :  Baited visual traps for monitoring and control. About 1 trap per 50 fruit. Hang July 1. Insecticides. Conventional or botanical (not Bt, oils, or soap). 1-3 applications (start about July 10, or based on trapping); more often if using botanicals. Pick up fallen fruit. Apple maggot – Control Apple maggot – Summary :  One generation per year. Adults flying about July 1 – Sept. 1. Adults must feed before laying eggs. Larvae tunnel throughout fruit, leaving trails. Fruit fall from tree and rot. Monitor using traps. Control by trapping or insecticides: mid-July to late August. Apple maggot – Summary Secondary pests – Leafrollers :  Secondary pests – Leafrollers 3-4 species of leafrollers are common on apple and other fruit trees in Wisconsin. Secondary pests – Leafrollers :  Secondary pests – Leafrollers Secondary pests – Leafrollers :  Secondary pests – Leafrollers Secondary pests – Leafrollers :  Secondary pests – Leafrollers 1-2 generations per year (depending on species). Primarily a problem immediately after bloom. Leaf feeding is not important. Feeding on fruit surface is mostly cosmetic. Control with conventional insecticides or Bt: Immediately after bloom. Secondary pests – Aphids :  Secondary pests – Aphids Secondary pests – Aphids :  Secondary pests – Aphids Several types. Usually have no impact on established trees. Heavy infestations may retard young trees. Heavily attacked by beneficial insects. If needed, control with conventional insecticides or insecticidal soap. Secondary pests – Leafminers :  Secondary pests – Leafminers Secondary pests – Leafminers :  Secondary pests – Leafminers Usually only a curiosity on home trees. Usually controlled by beneficial insects. Damage occurs at numbers greater than 5/leaf. Three generations per year. Secondary pests – Spider mites :  Secondary pests – Spider mites Secondary pests – Spider mites :  Secondary pests – Spider mites Usually not a problem on home trees. High populations can cause stress and reduce tree vigor. A summer pest. Usually under good biological control. If necessary, use dormant oil or summer oil. Slide59:  …any questions? End of apple insects… Pests of Stone Fruits:  Pests of Stone Fruits Stone Fruit Pests:  Stone Fruit Pests Key Pests Plum curculio Cherry fruit fly Secondary Pests Leafrollers Aphids Spider mites Wood borers Plum curculio is the most serious pest of plums and apricots. Cherry fruit flies are the most serious pests of cherries. Cherry fruit flies:  Cherry fruit flies Black cherry fruit fly Cherry fruit fly Cherry fruit flies:  Cherry fruit flies Cherry fruit flies:  Cherry fruit flies Cherry fruit flies – Control :  Baited visual traps (yellow boards) for monitoring. Insecticides. Conventional or botanical (not Bt, oils, or soap). 1-3 applications (start about June 10, or based on trapping); more often if using botanicals. Cherry fruit flies – Control Cherry fruit flies – Summary :  Two species; similar biology and damage. One generation per year. Adults flying about June 10 – July 20. Larvae tunnel throughout fruit, causing rot. Monitor using traps. Control by insecticides: mid-June to mid-July. Cherry fruit flies – Summary Secondary pests – Wood borers :  Secondary pests – Wood borers American plum borer Lesser peachtree borer Peachtree borer Secondary pests – Wood borers :  Secondary pests – Wood borers Secondary pests – Wood borers :  Secondary pests – Wood borers Secondary pests – Wood borers :  Secondary pests – Wood borers Cultural controls Avoid injury. Remove tight mouse guards and wraps. Clean wounds and apply tree-wound compound. Chemical controls Difficult to kill larvae in wood. Aimed at killing young larvae as they hatch. Timing lengthy; varies with insect species. Slide71:  …any questions? End of tree fruit pests… Strawberry Pests:  Strawberry Pests Strawberry Pests:  Strawberry Pests Key Pest Tarnished plant bug Secondary Pests Strawberry leafroller Strawberry bud weevil (clipper) Spittlebug Tarnished plant bug:  Tarnished plant bug Tarnished plant bug:  Tarnished plant bug TPB – Control :  Visual monitoring for injury; tapping flower clusters. Control with insecticides. Conventional or botanical (not Bt, oils, or soap). 1-2 applications: 1 prebloom and the second toward the end of flowering. TPB – Control TPB – Summary :  Two generations per year; only the first is important. Nymphs (mostly) feed on flowers and young fruit. Cause cat-facing and apical seediness. Visual monitoring or flower-tapping. Control by insecticides: Prebloom Toward the end of bloom. TPB – Summary Secondary pests – Strawberry Leafroller :  Secondary pests – Strawberry Leafroller Secondary pests – Strawberry Leafroller :  Secondary pests – Strawberry Leafroller Relatively uncommon. Usually under good biological control. Outbreaks can be substantial. Plants are defoliated; production is lost. Control with conventional insecticides or Bt. Pheromone traps available for timing sprays. Secondary pests – Strawberry Bud Weevil :  Secondary pests – Strawberry Bud Weevil Very common. Clips off flower buds. Plants may compensate. Insecticide application at flower bud development (before bloom). Secondary pests – Spittlebug :  Secondary pests – Spittlebug Secondary pests – Spittlebug :  Secondary pests – Spittlebug Very common. Attacks many kinds of plants, including weeds. Usually more noticeable than damaging. Control broadleaf weeds. If a major problem, control with conventional or botanical insecticides. Slide83:  …any questions? End of strawberry insects… Raspberry Pests:  Raspberry Pests Raspberry Pests:  Raspberry Pests Key Pests None! Secondary Pests Aphids Leafrollers Tarnished plant bug Cane & crown borers Picnic beetles Secondary pests – Cane and crown borers :  Secondary pests – Cane and crown borers Secondary pests – Cane and crown borers :  Secondary pests – Cane and crown borers Secondary pests – Cane and crown borers :  Secondary pests – Cane and crown borers At least 4 types in Wisconsin. Occur throughout the year. Cause canes to wilt and die. Widespread, but relatively uncommon in many areas (depending on wild host plants). Prune out as soon as canes wilt. Dig out infested crowns. Destroy prunings. Eliminate wild brambles. Insecticides generally impractical. Secondary pests – Picnic (sap) beetles :  Secondary pests – Picnic (sap) beetles Secondary pests – Picnic beetles :  Secondary pests – Picnic beetles Widespread and very common throughout Wisconsin. Usually do not breed in raspberries; most come from outside. Attracted to sweet odors, especially ripe and over-ripe fruit. Insecticides impractical. Sanitation important. Some success with floating row covers. Some success with fermenting bait traps. Slide91:  …any last questions? End of class…

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