From competence to capability - Salais (Robert)

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Information about From competence to capability - Salais (Robert)
Business & Mgmt

Published on December 5, 2008

Author: Anact

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Quality of work in Europe : 2010 and beyond ?

From competence to capability Robert Salais (IDHE-ENS Cachan)

Plan Definitions: from competence to capability Enterprises: A move towards a capability-friendly approach? The example of firms’ training policies in France: preliminary outcomes of a joint-venture representative inquiry between INSEE, DARES and CEREQ Labour market public policies: A move towards capability-adverse approaches? Applying New Public Management tools based on increasing performance and its consequences Professional Social Security: true openness or false windows? The uncertainties of the current French debate Developing professional security by capability-friendly approaches ? What ingredients

Definitions: from competence to capability

Enterprises: A move towards a capability-friendly approach?

The example of firms’ training policies in France: preliminary outcomes of a joint-venture representative inquiry between INSEE, DARES and CEREQ

Labour market public policies: A move towards capability-adverse approaches?

Applying New Public Management tools based on increasing performance and its consequences

Professional Social Security: true openness or false windows? The uncertainties of the current French debate

Developing professional security by capability-friendly approaches ?

What ingredients

Dimensions Domain Focus on Context Definition Competence Sociology of work; management Individual autonomy at work Narrow (the goals and objectives of the organisation for which one works) Individual ability to grasp the opportunities offered and to best perform for achieving the goals fixed by the organisation to which one belongs Capability Economics and theories of social justice; from the works of Amartya Sen Personal development over the life and work cycle (focus on freedom of choice and of participation) Both wide and situated (the space and time schedule of the professional and private life of the person) Take on board four objectives for capabilities development: Choice Personal accomplishment Realisation -Deliberation / Voice From competence to capability

Capability

Economics and theories of social justice; from the works of Amartya Sen

Personal development over the life and work cycle (focus on freedom of choice and of participation)

Both wide and situated (the space and time schedule of the professional and private life of the person)

Take on board four objectives for capabilities development:

Choice

Personal accomplishment

Realisation

-Deliberation / Voice

Resources Capabilities Valuable outcomes Freedom of choice Participation to the decisional process Conversion factors within the situation: institutional social work and life organisation personal The capability toolbox at the level of the person No person can be considered as responsible of his/her future without effective freedom of choice and without being put in a position to achieve a valuable outcome The more capabilities a person has, the more responsible can she be considered; idem, the less …., the less

Methodological requirements to operationalise the capability approach Bridging quantitative and qualitative inquiries Looking both at subjective data and at objective circumstances of life and work (problem of adaptive preferences and answers) For a firm, gathering and confronting data coming from its management and its employees Collecting information both on the “opportunity” side (freedom of choice) and the “process” side (organisational framework and involvement into the decisional process)

Bridging quantitative and qualitative inquiries

Looking both at subjective data and at objective circumstances of life and work (problem of adaptive preferences and answers)

For a firm, gathering and confronting data coming from its management and its employees

Collecting information both on the “opportunity” side (freedom of choice) and the “process” side (organisational framework and involvement into the decisional process)

The French vocational system Act of July 1971 on vocational training system Access to training through two channels: the training plan on the employer’s initiative; individual training leave Every year (at the beginning of the 2000s), 5 millions employees had access to companies training plans, and 45000 to individual training leave 2. Act of May 2004 on lifelong learning and social dialogue New ways of organising vocational training within companies training plans Creation of an individual right to vocational training (DIF: Droit Individuel à la formation), the activating of which being negotiated between the employee and the employer The French linked employer-employee survey on continuing vocational training (2006) Based on two European surveys: the “Adult Education Survey” (16000 individuals); the “Continuing Vocational Training Survey” (4800 employers) A data-linking process has been undertaken between these two surveys (matching of 1800 employees with their company survey). It leads to the “Dispositif d’Information sur la Formation Employeur Salarié” (DIFES), combining interviews of employees and employers. Objectives: To confront points of views and understand, if this is the case, the gap between employers and employees’ perceptions To open the blind box of individual surveys: activity of the firm, organisational change and management, training policies, etc.

The French vocational system

Act of July 1971 on vocational training system

Access to training through two channels: the training plan on the

employer’s initiative; individual training leave

Every year (at the beginning of the 2000s), 5 millions employees had

access to companies training plans, and 45000 to individual training leave

2. Act of May 2004 on lifelong learning and social dialogue

New ways of organising vocational training within companies training plans

Creation of an individual right to vocational training (DIF: Droit Individuel

à la formation), the activating of which being negotiated between the employee

and the employer

The French linked employer-employee survey on continuing vocational training (2006)

Based on two European surveys: the “Adult Education Survey” (16000 individuals);

the “Continuing Vocational Training Survey” (4800 employers)

A data-linking process has been undertaken between these two surveys (matching

of 1800 employees with their company survey). It leads to the “Dispositif d’Information

sur la Formation Employeur Salarié” (DIFES), combining interviews of employees and

employers.

Objectives:

To confront points of views and understand, if this is the case, the gap between

employers and employees’ perceptions

To open the blind box of individual surveys: activity of the firm, organisational change

and management, training policies, etc.

Thanks to Josiane Vero and Marion Lambert (CEREQ): from the Working Paper of the CAPRIGHT European Integrated Project (IP) 2007-2010, “Capability for Learning in French Companies”, 24-26 September 2008. I remain the only responsible for the interpretation. Preliminary outcomes of the DIFES survey jointly carried by the CEREQ, INSEE and the DARES in 2006 (not to be quoted)

Clusters of firms and their mains specificities No or minor interest about training Pure competence logics Towards a capability-friendly logics (and career development concerns) From the “opportunity” dimension to the integration of the “participative” dimension: Steps Step 1. Offering a set of training opportunities + Step 2. Implementing a concern about equality of access + Step 3. Informing employees on the training opportunities set + Step 4. Having a collective and individual say on the firms’ training policies and choices Proportion in the sample 47,5% 27% 5% 7% 3% 10,5% Cluster 1 (39%) 5 (6%) 6 (2,5%) 4 8 7 3 2 Size of the firms 10-49 10-49 More than 50 (belongs to a group) Mean distribution More than 50 10-49 10-49 50-249 (belongs to a group) Merger Restructuring YES YES YES YES Innovation into products and manufacturing NO YES YES YES Job security YES YES (sample’s mean) NO YES YES (sample’s mean) NO NO YES (at the sample’s mean)

Diagram 1. How to conceive policies? Two conceptions of the relationship between public policy and evaluation Improving the power of conversion of means into achievement of valuable outcomes Capabilities of the person in situation (scope of effective freedom, accomplishment and participation) THE CAPABILITY APPROACH (DERIVED FROM Amartya SEN) Public means (policies’ design and implementation, individual and collective rights,…) THE INSTRUMENTAL APPROACH (DERIVED FROM THE New Public Management) Public schemes or policies Quantitative performance targets (ex: rate of return into employment) Achievement of valuable outcomes for the person (ex: quality of employment, durable inclusion, professional development, ..) Maximising the statistical profile

Diagram 2. Two conceptions for implementing public policy Favouring a situated process of learning through open deliberative procedures Situated process of learning and implementation (procedures, relevant actors, participation of the people concerned) THE CAPABILITY APPROACH (DERIVED FROM Amartya SEN) Public means (policies’ design and implementation, individual and collective rights,…) THE INSTRUMENTAL APPROACH (DERIVED FROM THE New Public Management) Public schemes or policies Quantitative performance targets (ex: rate of return into employment) Achievement of valuable outcomes for the person (ex: quality of employment, durable inclusion, professional development..) Incentives – Penalties Systems for Applicants and for the Personnel of Local Agencies

Shaping the debate on SSP: Cahuc/Kramarz Report versus CGT proposal. Main issues Is protecting employment economically negative? Mutual engagement and the inequality of contracting between the job seeker and the employment service Obligation versus freedom of choice Profiling versus evaluating future capabilities Why claiming for new social rights? Putting into competition individual and collective rights? Where, when and how securising personal trajectories begins? In the job within the firm or on the labour market

Is protecting employment economically negative?

Mutual engagement and the inequality of contracting between the job seeker and the employment service

Obligation versus freedom of choice

Profiling versus evaluating future capabilities

Why claiming for new social rights?

Putting into competition individual and collective rights?

Where, when and how securising personal trajectories begins? In the job within the firm or on the labour market

Developing professional security by capability-friendly approaches ? Stop making people believe to some magic potion Implementing existing policies, schemes and rights in a logic of capabilities’ development along the working life For that, primacy should be given to situated procedures, collective and deliberative: the search for actors, levels and rules adequate to the issue at stake in each case

Stop making people believe to some magic potion

Implementing existing policies, schemes and rights in a logic of capabilities’ development along the working life

For that, primacy should be given to situated procedures, collective and deliberative: the search for actors, levels and rules adequate to the issue at stake in each case

Some references From and about Amartya Sen Amartya Sen, 1999, Development as Freedom, New York, Anchor Books [translated in French, 2000, 2003 (Pocket), Un nouveau modèle économique. Développement, justice et liberté , Paris, Editions Odile Jacob] Flavio Comim, Mozaffar Qizilbash and Sabine Alkire, eds, 2008, The Capability Approach. Concepts, Measures and Applications, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press With regards to employment, training and social policies Bénédicte Zimmermann and Jean De Munck, eds., 2008, La liberté au prisme des capacités. Amartya Sen au-delà du libéralisme, Editions de l’EHESS, coll. “Raisons pratiques”, n° 18, January CEREQ, 2007, Pour une approche par les capacités, Formation et Emploi , special issue, n° 98, April-June Robert Salais and Robert Villeneuve, eds., 2006, Développer les capacités des hommes et des territoires en Europe , Lyon, Editions de l’ANACT [French version of: same authors, eds., 2004, Europe and the Politics of Capabilities, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press] Robert Salais, 2003, “Work and Welfare: Toward a Capability Approach” , in Jonathan Zeitlin and David Trubek, eds, Governing Work and Welfare in a New Economy. European and American Experiments , Oxford, Oxford University Press, p. 317-344

From and about Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen, 1999, Development as Freedom, New York, Anchor Books [translated in French, 2000, 2003 (Pocket), Un nouveau modèle économique. Développement, justice et liberté , Paris, Editions Odile Jacob]

Flavio Comim, Mozaffar Qizilbash and Sabine Alkire, eds, 2008, The Capability Approach. Concepts, Measures and Applications, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

With regards to employment, training and social policies

Bénédicte Zimmermann and Jean De Munck, eds., 2008, La liberté au prisme des capacités. Amartya Sen au-delà du libéralisme, Editions de l’EHESS, coll. “Raisons pratiques”, n° 18, January

CEREQ, 2007, Pour une approche par les capacités, Formation et Emploi , special issue, n° 98, April-June

Robert Salais and Robert Villeneuve, eds., 2006, Développer les capacités des hommes et des territoires en Europe , Lyon, Editions de l’ANACT [French version of: same authors, eds., 2004, Europe and the Politics of Capabilities, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press]

Robert Salais, 2003, “Work and Welfare: Toward a Capability Approach” , in Jonathan Zeitlin and David Trubek, eds, Governing Work and Welfare in a New Economy. European and American Experiments , Oxford, Oxford University Press, p. 317-344

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