Fri 04 Killar

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Published on December 29, 2007

Author: Altoro

Source: authorstream.com

NUCLEAR Non-Proliferation and Security:  NUCLEAR Non-Proliferation and Security "SCIENCE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY & RADIATION" JULY 20, 2007 UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND Overview:  Overview Define Non-Proliferation History Three Legs Peaceful Use of Nuclear Technology Non-Proliferation Disarmament Security Nuclear Security vs. Radioactive Material Security Non-Proliferation Nuclear Area:  Non-Proliferation Nuclear Area Non-proliferation is the prevention of the spread of technology, equipment, and nuclear material which can be used in the development and deployment of a nuclear device (Nuclear bomb) into countries that do not currently have this technology. Officially Recognized Countries: United States Russia United Kingdom France China Non-recognized Countries India Pakistan North Korea History:  History First concepts following World War II Gained momentum in 1950s during the cold war Officially proposed by Ireland and Finland in early 1960s The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty NPT or NNPT) was opened for signature on July 1, 1968 Required United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and 40 countries to ratify it before it would come into force On March 5, 1970 the NPT entered into force There are 189 countries who have signed the NPT India, Pakistan, and Israel have not signed the NPT and are known or presumed to have nuclear weapons programs Iran and North Korea have signed the NPT In 1995 the parties decided to indefinitely extend the NPT Reviewed on a 10 year cycle Three Legs of the NPT:  Three Legs of the NPT Peaceful use of nuclear energy Any NTP country has the right to develop a domestic nuclear energy program Non-proliferation The nuclear weapons countries will not assist, encourage, or induce a non-weapons country to become a weapons country. Non-weapons countries will not divert nuclear materials or technology for the purposes of development of nuclear weapons. Weapons countries will only use the weapons against other weapons countries. Disarmament Provisions for the halt of nuclear weapons production, liquidation of current inventory, and the reduction of delivery devices. Peaceful use of nuclear technology:  Peaceful use of nuclear technology Domestic nuclear energy program Including enrichment and reprocessing facilities 13 countries have enrichment capability 5 countries have reprocessing capabilities Subject to IAEA Inspections Diversion of nuclear material or technology Protection of technology Protection of nuclear material Peaceful use of nuclear technology:  Peaceful use of nuclear technology North Korea Participated in program Regular IAEA inspections Withdrew from program Developed a nuclear device Rejoining the program, including IAEA inspections Iran Participating in the program Limited IAEA inspections Currently reauthorizing IAEA Brazil, South Africa, Libya Enrichment facility Non-Proliferation:  Non-Proliferation The nuclear weapons countries will not assist, encourage, or induce a non-weapons country to become a weapons country. Protection of technology, material, and equipment from non-weapons country Weapons facilities are not open to IAEA inspectors Non-weapons facilities are subject to IAEA inspection Non-weapons countries will not divert nuclear materials or technology for the purposes of development of nuclear weapons. Peaceful purposes remain peaceful IAEA inspection Declaring of facilities Weapons countries will only use the weapons against other weapons countries. Disarmament:  Disarmament Provisions for the halt of nuclear weapons production, liquidation of current inventory, and the reduction of delivery devices. Megatons to megawatts program Disposition of surplus weapons material (plutonium) The Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty (1988) between the US and the Soviet Union (now Russia) eliminated all ground-based, medium-range nuclear missiles stationed in Europe. The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START 1 [1991] & 2 [1993]) Between the US and Russia which began the process of cutting back long-range missiles and bombers. Disarmament:  Disarmament Short Range Nuclear Weapons All US, Russian, French and British short range missiles and nuclear artillery have been withdrawn from Europe The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1992) Allowed the US and Soviet Union to set up one ABM-protected area each. The Soviets decided on Moscow and the US settled on an area in North Dakota where many of their strategic missiles were based. Both systems have since been scrapped. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) (1996) The 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTB) banned nuclear explosive tests in the atmosphere, under water and outer space. Testing was literally driven underground. The CTBT is designed to put an end to all explosive testing. All the nuclear weapons states (Britain, France, China, Russia and US) have signed and stopped testing, although China, Russia and the US have yet to ratify Security:  Security Protection of technology The technology to produce weapons grade material Enrichment Plutonium production Reprocessing Protection of material Weapons grade plutonium Weapons grade enriched uranium Protection of equipment Reactors Dual-use equipment Commercial application but can also be used for producing weapons material Natural uranium Aluminum cylinders Nuclear Security vs. Radioactive Material Security:  Nuclear Security vs. Radioactive Material Security Nuclear Security (weapons grade enriched uranium and plutonium) Based on the requirements to the NPT Import export permits Physical security at nuclear facilities Physical security during transport Screening of personnel who have access or control over nuclear materials Radioactive Material Security Protection from radioactive exposure Physical security at nuclear facilities Physical security during transport Screening of personnel who have access or control over nuclear materials Graded approach (more consequences = greater security)

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