Freaks of Nature

50 %
50 %
Information about Freaks of Nature
Education

Published on March 15, 2009

Author: greendivers

Source: authorstream.com

Freaks of Nature : Freaks of Nature Freaks : Freaks Many years ago if there was something physically abnormal with you, you were considered a “Freak” and could get a job with a traveling carnival. You could be bought and sold and put on display for people to see. Bearded Lady : Bearded Lady Age six Grace Mac Daniel and son : Grace Mac Daniel and son John Dougs : John Dougs Miss Mignon : Miss Mignon Pin Head : Pin Head What Causes Freaks? : What Causes Freaks? Physical Abnormalities are usually caused by some sort of flaw in your genetic make up. DNA contained in the nucleus provides the blueprint for who you are. DNA is divided into 46 strands in humans (23 from your mum and 23 from your dad) and each strand is called a chromosome. Each chromosome has a matching partner and they are called a homologous pair. Human Karyotype (23 pairs) : Human Karyotype (23 pairs) Chromosomes : Chromosomes Information contained on your chromosomes determines what you look like. A section of a chromosome that codes for a characteristic is called a GENE Mutations in genes can cause deformities. Mutations, additions or deletions of whole chromosomes can cause serious deformities. When things go wrong… : When things go wrong… Things can go wrong with your genes when you are first being made. Things can get left out or you can get extra bits. When this happens, abnormalities start to occur……. Extra chromosomes:Down Syndrome (3 x chromosome number 21) 1 in 700 live births : Extra chromosomes:Down Syndrome (3 x chromosome number 21) 1 in 700 live births Average life expectancy is 16 years. Down syndrome Karyotype : Down syndrome Karyotype Patau Syndrome(3 x chromosome number 13)Causes Cleft lip and other abnormalities1 in 5000 live births : Patau Syndrome(3 x chromosome number 13)Causes Cleft lip and other abnormalities1 in 5000 live births Usually die within 3 months, few to 5 years. Edwards syndrome(3 x chromosome number 18)1 in 10,000 live births : Edwards syndrome(3 x chromosome number 18)1 in 10,000 live births Live to 6 months, but some until teen years. Turner syndrome: 1 X but no Y Chromosome1 in 5000 live births Females have no ovaries and limited to secondary sexual characteristics. Also short, abnormal jaws, webbed neck, shieldlike chest but no mental deficiency. : Turner syndrome: 1 X but no Y Chromosome1 in 5000 live births Females have no ovaries and limited to secondary sexual characteristics. Also short, abnormal jaws, webbed neck, shieldlike chest but no mental deficiency. Cri-Du-Chat (Cry of the Cat) Syndrome 1 in 200,000 : Cri-Du-Chat (Cry of the Cat) Syndrome 1 in 200,000 Heredity deficiency in short arm of chromosome 5. Comes from high pitched mewing cry of the babies + small head IQ 20-40. Usually die young. Slide 19: Also problems with chromosomes No. 4, 13, 18 all cause severe mental defects. Boys with an extra X:Kleinfelters syndrome1 in 500 live births : Boys with an extra X:Kleinfelters syndrome1 in 500 live births Due to XXY can be XXYY, XXXY, XXXXY, X5Y. Sterile males with some tendency towards ?, undeveloped testes, little body hair, larger breasts, IQs in normal range but the greater No. of X’s the more retarded MUTATIONS OF SINGLE GENES : MUTATIONS OF SINGLE GENES Mutations in the ABCA12 gene cause harlequin ichthyosis. Slide 23: Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is a serious condition in which the red blood cells can become sickle-shaped (that is, shaped like a “C”). Normal red blood cells are smooth and round like a doughnut without a hole. They move easily through blood vessels to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. Sickle-shaped cells don’t move easily through blood. They’re stiff and sticky and tend to form clumps and get stuck in blood vessels. The clumps of sickle cells block blood flow in the blood vessels that lead to the limbs and organs. Blocked blood vessels can cause pain, serious infections, and organ damage. Normal red blood cells last about 120 days in the bloodstream and then die. In sickle cell anemia, a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells occurs because sickle cells don’t last very long. Sickle cells die faster than normal red blood cells, usually after only about 10 to 20 days. The bone marrow can’t make new red blood cells fast enough to replace the dying ones. The result is anemia! : Normal red blood cells last about 120 days in the bloodstream and then die. In sickle cell anemia, a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells occurs because sickle cells don’t last very long. Sickle cells die faster than normal red blood cells, usually after only about 10 to 20 days. The bone marrow can’t make new red blood cells fast enough to replace the dying ones. The result is anemia! Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease caused by a single base change on a gene! : Sickle Cell Anemia is a disease caused by a single base change on a gene! Slide 31: CODOMINANCE Slide 32: People with normal haemoglobin are susceptible to death from malaria. People with sickle cell disease are susceptible to death from the complications of sickle cell disease. People with sickle cell trait, who have one gene for haemoglobin A and one gene for haemoglobin S, have a greater chance of surviving malaria and do not suffer adverse consequences from the haemoglobin S gene. MALERIA PROTECTION

Add a comment

Related presentations