FRC 3252 Trop M Cacao 2 11 04

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Information about FRC 3252 Trop M Cacao 2 11 04

Published on January 3, 2008

Author: Natalia


Cacao:  Cacao World Production and Distribution:  World Production and Distribution World Production (2,895 x 1000MT) Produced throughout tropical Americas and Africa World Production and Distribution:  World Production and Distribution Major Producers Cote Divoire (1,119 x 1000MT) Ghana (370 x 1000MT) Indonesia (370 x 1000MT) World Production:  Not Produced in Florida (too cold) Introduced to Africa from Americas from Fernando Po and by missionaries World Production Origin and Botany:  Origin and Botany Originated in American rainforests Purely tropical, needs high rainfall & RH will not tolerate freezing Origin and Botany:  Origin and Botany Family- Sterculiaceae Includes Bottle tree and African cola tree 50 genera, 750 species Origin and Botany:  Origin and Botany Scientific name- Theobroma cacao, 22 species in genus Subtropical and tropical trees and shrubs Cacao grows to 8-10 m tall in shade Growth and Development:  Temperature has a major effect No freezing tolerance Optimum 18-22ºC. 15º C minimum for growth Growth and Development Seed and Seedling Development:  Seed has epigeal germination 3cm above ground level Seedling grows upright (orthotrophic) until 1-2m tall called a chupon Seed and Seedling Development Seed and Seedling Development:  Branching then occurs, 3 to 5 branches at right angles called jorquettes (handout) Process repeats itself in flushes Leaves usually change from red to green color with development Seed and Seedling Development Seed and Seedling Development:  Root Development Forms deep tap root depending on amount of water in soil. Then forms secondary roots. Seed and Seedling Development Slide12:  Flowering Flowers are produced on trunk (cauliferous) on older, leafless wood of chupons & jorquettes Leaf scar bearing flowers is called a “cushion”. Staminodes( sterile) Slide13:  Flowering Flower is small (15mm) 5 sepals, 5 petals, 10 stamens in whorls 5 fused carpels with a superior ovary. Hermaphrodite Stamens(5) are fertile, 5 are staminodes( sterile) Slide14:  Pollination Primarily by midges, also aphids and thrips Self incompatibility is a problem Can be done by hand, increases set Slide15:  Fruit characteristics Fruit is called a “pod”, botanically it is a drupe, 10-32cm in length Fruit mature in 5 to 6 months, temperature dependent Small fruit are called “cherelles”. Considerable fruit drop occurs before harvest Slide16:  Fruit characteristics Fruit contains 20-50 seeds surrounded by tissues containing citric acid and sugars Fruit color- green or green-white, ripen to yellow or red Slide17:  Cultivars- several distinct Criollo cocoa- central Americas, long, narrow pods, white cotyledons, excellent cocoa Amasonian Forastero (Amelonado)-purple cotyledons, less flavor Many hybrids (Trinitareo, from Trinidad) Soil Types:  Soil Types Grows over a wide range Must be well-drained pH range, 5.0-7.5 Planting Density and Yield:  Planting Density and Yield Depends on growing area 2.5 x 2.5(1600 t/ha) to 5 x 5(400 t/ha) m is typical Yield related to density, ranges from 2 to 15 tons/ha Slide20:  Site Selection Well-drained Favorable pH Not too steeply sloped Minimize winds, may be planted as an under-story tree Slide21:  Planting Most grown as seedlings- inexpensive Remove musilage for faster germination Young seeds germinate poorly Germination takes 7-15 days Slide22:  Leaf Cuttings Rooted in sand or other dry material or plastic bags Have 2-5 leaves, and 1-2 buds Dipped in a rooting hormone Rooting takes about 21 days Slide23:  Growing conditions Young plants need moderate shade- too much light gives a bushy tree Mature plants, also grows under shade but needs low fert and yields, also grown without shade with high fert, equals high yields Slide24:  Growing conditions Often planted under coconuts if soil is suitable for both Slide25:  Fertilization (nutrition) Requires major elements, N, P,K, Ca, Mg Requires minor elements, Mn, B, AL, CL N is most important for vegetative growth Slide26:  Pruning Seedlings- develop jorquette at correct ht Remove at ground level, develop higher in the canopy Slide27:  Pruning Remove excessive leaves to improve light penetration, possibly reduce disease Remove diseased jorquettes Slide28:  Pests (Cause annual crop loss of 5-15%) Insects Mirids, shield bugs, leafhoppers, psyllids, aphids, scales, thrips, borers, moths, ants, beetles, etc. Slide29:  Nematodes Several species Control Sanitation Biological Chemical Diseases (cause annual crop loss of 20-45%) :  Diseases (cause annual crop loss of 20-45%) Viruses Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus, causes swelling of shoots, yield reduction, chlorosis, Vectored by mealybugs Also other viruses, less important Slide31:  Fungi Black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora species, infects flowers, leaves, pods especially Slide32:  Fungi Witches broom, caused by Marasmius ( Major problem) Causes abnormal thickening of stems and buds, abnormal growth and pod abscission Slide33:  Harvesting Fruit develop over 4-8 month period dependent on temperature, i.e., high T=faster development The pod “cushion” should not be damaged when removing pods. Will reduce future crop. Slide34:  Harvesting Pods must be harvested ripe and the seeds removed and fermented. Harvested throughout year, but most during times with highest T Slide35:  Processing Fermentation (3-8 d in boxes) Removes musilage Kills the embryo so no germination occurs Encourages chemical changes to enhance flavor Slide36:  Processing Fermentation (3-8 d in boxes) Reduces moisture content Changes sugars to alcohol and acetic acid,Temp to 45-50C Beans must be “turned” and temp again increases Slide37:  Drying- Sun or forced air, reduces spoilage Cleaning- vibrating sieve removes husks Roasting- 100-150º C for 20-50 min, develops flavor Slide38:  Kibbling-breaks beans into nibs (cotyledons) Nibs are ground at 50-70ºC,remove butter w press Sold as bulk cocoa, (95%) or fine cocoa (5%) Slide39:  Unsweetened= chocolate liquor + 50% cocoa Butter Bittersweet- 35% liquor + 50% cocoa butter +sugar + vanilla Semi-sweet =above +more sugar Milk = 10% liquor + 12% milk solids White= cocoa butter + milk + sugar + vanilla

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