FRC 3252 Trop I Pineapples 2 10 04

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Information about FRC 3252 Trop I Pineapples 2 10 04

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Fenwick


Slide1:  Pineapples World Production and Distribution:  World Production 14,853 x 1000mT Major countries Thailand (1,978) Philippines(1,635) India(1,100) World Production and Distribution World Production and Distribution:  Not produced commercially in Florida, low temperature Has been in the past, not competitive, long growing season, mealy bugs World Production and Distribution Slide4:  Widely dist. 30°N-33°S latitude Can’t withstand freezing Temperature very important for growth, flowering. Optimum 32°C for leaf, 29°C for roots. World Production and Distribution Slide5:  Temperature and irradiance affect induction to harvest Ivory Coast (150 days) Madagascar (220 days) Australia (300 days) World Production and Distribution Origin and Botany:  Origin and Botany New world origin, some debate include Amazon basin South Venezuela North Brazil Others say Paraguay, north Argentina Origin and Botany:  Origin and Botany Named Piña by Columbus, 2nd, 1493 Had been in cultivation many years pre-Colombian throughout Americas Moved to Africa 1550 and through rest of tropics Slide8:  Family, Bromeliaceae - short-stemmed epiphyte, chromosome n=25 45-50 genera, 1800-2000 species include Spanish moss (Tilandsia). Car seat packing Pineapple - Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Botany Slide9:  Xerophytic, succulent, perennial monocot. CAM plant - fix CO2 at night to conserve water. Stored as malic acid (CO2) during day. Stomata open at night, low water losses. Botany Growth and Development:  Growth and Development Seed only used in breeding of new cultivars - disease resistance. Growth and Development:  Growth and Development Pineapple grown from Slips - axil of floral bracts on peduncle Suckers - shoots from axillary buds on peduncle Crowns - top of plant Slide12:  Leaves develop around stem 5/13 phyllotaxy in rosette. 70-80/plant Stomata protected by trichomes underside of leaf (water conserving) Growth and Development Slide13:  Shallow roots also originating from stem, aid in uptake of water and nutrients Stem 30-35cm long, axillary buds at each node yield suckers and slips Growth and Development Slide14:  Flowering induced by cool temperatures, short days. Inflorescence 200-300 flowers, several flowers open each day 3-4 weeks (temperature-dependent). Growth and Development Slide15:  Flowering induced by cool temperatures, short days in subtropics Individual flower hermaphrodite, 6 stamens (2 whorls of 3) 3-carpellate inferior ovary-many ovules, usually no seeds in fruit. Growth and Development Slide16:  After flowering, apical meristem continues to grow into crown Usually 8 gentle slopping rows of flowers and 13 steep around stem Growth and Development Slide17:  Fruit Characteristics Sorosis - syncarp of fused inferior ovaries, multiple fruit all from the same central axis, (blackberry is aggregate fruit, single ovaries) Consists of core, fruitlets, flesh, shell Growth and Development Slide18:  Fruit Characteristics Sigmoid growth - all cells developed before anthesis, growth by cell enlargement only Non-climacteric See handout 1(Fig. 12.7, pg. 303) Growth and Development Slide19:  Time from floral initiation to maturity 6-7 mos. TSS increases, TA decreases Composition (see Table 12.7, p. 326). Good source of K, vitamin C (variable), vitamin A (color), TSS also (handout 2) Fruit Cultivars:  Cultivars Cayenne - cylindrical, shallow eyes, yellow flesh, good yields and taste, obviously smooth, processing Queen - spiny short leaves, smaller than Cayenne, used for fresh market, South Africa Spanish - generally not used in canning, deep eyes, poor flesh color, spiny, large core, grown in Caribbean Cultural Practices:  Cultural Practices Soils - wide range if properly drained - black sands (volcanic), red soils. pH range 4.5-5.0, often heavy soils Cultural Practices:  Cultural Practices Field prepared by plowing, often fumigated for nematodes (root knot and reniform) Problem less fumigants available Slide23:  Planting by crown (smallest), slips, suckers Use same size planting material Smallest = slowest growing plants. Planting Slide24:  Planting to harvest (months): Crown, 18-24; Slip, 15-20; Sucker 14-17; (Fig. 12.6, handout 3) Planting Slide25:  Plant (1 mo.) - treat with fungicide-dry, 15,000-75,000 plants/ha 30 cm between single rows, 60 cm between double rows Growth and Development Slide26:  Grow vegetatively for 10 mos. Forced chemically to flower (11-12 mos.) (described in next section) Red bud, flowering Growth and Development Slide27:  Fruit development of the initial, main crop from 15-18 mos. after planting Climate dependent Fruit Development- Main Crop Slide28:  Sucker development from 19-24 mos. Forcing from 25-26 months Red bud; flowering from 27-28 months Fruit development from 29-32 mos. See handout ( Fig. 12.6) Fruit Development- Ratoon Crop Slide29:  Mainly needs N (225-350 kg/ha) K (225-450 kg/ha) P only in some areas Nutrition and Fertilization Slide30:  Time of harvest can be controlled by controlling flowering using ethylene gas (burn piles) Control of Flowering Slide31:  Apply ethephon or NAA to induce flowers. Ethephon produces flowers in 40-60 days. Control of Flowering Slide32:  Depends on temperature (lower), amount of N(less), stage of development at spraying Closer to natural induction = more induction Helps to reduce number of harvests Control of Flowering Slide33:  Yields (4 kg/plant x 25,000 = 100,000 kg/ha = 100m T/ha) Yields Diseases and Pests:  Diseases and Pests Diseases (see Table 12.4, pg. 317) Mealy bug-wilt - vectored by mealy bugs, plants are stunted, may be virus or phytotoxin. Cause unknown Slide35:  Important - nematodes, major cause of yield reduction Fruit flies - Mediterranean, Oriental, melon Pests Harvesting and Utilization:  Harvesting and Utilization Time depends on area of world, related to temperature and elevation Harvesting and Utilization:  Harvesting and Utilization Months to harvest, refer to previous example East London, South Africa, 33°S, 125m, 24-36 mos. Wahiawa, Hawaii, 21°N, 200m, 23 mos. Nyombe, Cameroon, 4.5°N, 70m, 11 mos. Slide38:  Takes several trips can be programmed by ethephon for flowering 40-60 days and ethephon to color 48 hrs. before harvest Canning - harvested ½ - ¾ yellow Fresh - green to ¼ yellow - for transport Harvesting Slide39:  Procedure Harvested (cut) by hand, loaded in containers or onto conveyers Washed, waxed, packed Careful handling is essential Harvesting Slide40:  Standards Free of defects, mature, firm, 12% TSS ( total soluble solids) Crown must also be reasonable size, U.S. Fancy, No. 1, No. 2 Harvesting Slide41:  Storage - 7.5-12°C at 70-95% relative humidity Storage at 7°C for 4 wks = Chilling injury Storage

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