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Published on January 3, 2008

Author: brod

Source: authorstream.com

Lightweighting and Alternative Vehicle Propulsion Systems:  Lightweighting and Alternative Vehicle Propulsion Systems Alexandra Frangi April 20, 2001 Motivation:  Motivation How to create a vehicle with less environmental impact? Wide range of novel vehicle propulsion and drivetrain technologies are in varying stages of development Many do not have similar energy density as gasoline Motivation (cont.):  Motivation (cont.) Automaker’s Goal: produce a vehicle that achieves high fuel economy without sacrificing vehicle performance for a reasonable cost Given energy density differences in powertrains: Lightweighting May Be Required Research Questions:  Research Questions For various powertrain technologies: If/When lightweighting is required? What lightweight strategies are required by specific powertrains? Maintaining performance targets How much lightweighting is required to achieve specific fuel consumption? What is the impact of lightweighting? What are the costs? What is the environmental performance? Design trade-off What is the cost of environmental performance? Research Approach - Overview:  Research Approach - Overview Designers must consider three criteria: Performance, Costs and Environmental performance Want to comment on relationship between cost and environmental performance Address this by fixing 3rd dimension Assume iso-driving performance Assume alternative powertrains fit in package space Study scope: Environmental performance (EP) limited to driving cycle impacts Costs limited to body and closures production First step in assessing cost and EP tradeoffs Research Approach - Detail:  Research Approach - Detail Catalog Lightweight (LW) Strategies Catalog Propulsion Technology (PT) Characteristics Assessed Cost TCM of each Lightweighting Design Cost of Powertrain not yet included Assess Environmental Performance Matched LW Design and Propulsion Technology Constant Performance Modeled Environmental Performance of combined LW Design and Propulsion Technology Research Approach - Detail (cont.):  Research Approach - Detail (cont.) Assumptions:  Assumptions All vehicles (combined LW & PT) perform like today’s Power density: 75 W/kg or 95 W/kg Propulsion System: Select optimum powertrain for each LW body Freedom in selecting hypothetical powertrains Available package space is sufficient Lightweighting Design: PNGV-class sized vehicle Baseline Vehicle: Steel Unibody 350.2 kg, including closures Mass distribution of all vehicles derived from baseline Secondary weight savings: 50% of body mass saved Lightweighting Strategies:  Lightweighting Strategies Propulsion Technologies:  Propulsion Technologies Propulsion Technologies Gasoline Engine Diesel Engine Electric Motor Gasoline/Diesel Hybrid Hydrogen/Methanol Fuel Cell Key Characteristic for assessing impact of lightweighting: Power Density For analysis needed correlation between Mass and Power Fundamental relationship generally not known Equations derived based on empirical data Propulsion Technologies Strategies - Example:  Propulsion Technologies Strategies - Example Propulsion Technology Correlation:  Propulsion Technology Correlation Correlation of mass to power of powertrain technologies y= mass of powertrain [kg], x= power of powertrain [kW] Gasoline: y = 0.8*x + 62.8 Diesel: y = 0.8*x + 85.8 Electric: y = 0.7*x Hybrid: y = 12.5*x - 1002 H2 Fuel Cell: y = 2.402*x Meth. Fuel Cell: y = 3.571 *x Research Approach (cont..):  Research Approach (cont..) Matching LW & PT Strategies:  Matching LW & PT Strategies What size of powertrain will provide necessary performance? Mass of Vehicle (Mv) = Mass of Engine (Me) + Mass of Body (Mb) + Mass of other components (Mo) Mv = (Ptw Engine/Ptw Vehicle)*Me Solve for Mass of Propulsion System or Mass of Body Secondary Weight Savings: 50% Mass distribution of baseline vehicle known Isoperformance of PT for 75 W/kg:  Isoperformance of PT for 75 W/kg Results of LW & PT Strategies @ 75W/kg:  Results of LW & PT Strategies @ 75W/kg Preparing for a Selection Decision:  Preparing for a Selection Decision How to choose among the alternatives? Three basic characteristics: vehicle performance environmental performance total cost Decision depends on value function for environmental performance & cost This study provide initial information for this decision Assessing Environmental Performance:  Assessing Environmental Performance Mathlab/Simulink Model developed by ETH Zurich Fuel Economy calculated for US Federal urban and highway driving cycles Input parameters: Mass of Vehicle, Mass of Battery, Motor, Passengers, etc. Vehicle Geometry Power of Propulsion System: Torque Curve Engine Displacement Power of Motor Tracked ONLY tailpipe emissions Driving Energy Consumed @ 75 W/kg:  Driving Energy Consumed @ 75 W/kg Driving Gas Equivalent Economy @ 75 W/kg:  Driving Gas Equivalent Economy @ 75 W/kg Driving Cycle Carbon Emissions @ 75 W/kg:  Driving Cycle Carbon Emissions @ 75 W/kg Total Production & Assembly Cost of Body:  Total Production & Assembly Cost of Body Total Production & Assembly Cost of Body:  Total Production & Assembly Cost of Body Environm. Performance & Body Cost - Example 1:  Environm. Performance & Body Cost - Example 1 Steel Light Steel CO- CIV Al SF CIV Al Uni C-CIV PV: 125,000 Environm. Performance & Body Cost - Example 2:  Environm. Performance & Body Cost - Example 2 Steel Light Steel CO- CIV Al SF CIV Al Uni C- CIV PV: 125,000 Environmental Performance & Body Cost:  Environmental Performance & Body Cost PV: 125,000 Roughly Estimated Cost of Propulsion System Technologies:  Roughly Estimated Cost of Propulsion System Technologies Environmental Performance & Total Cost:  Environmental Performance & Total Cost PV: 125,000 Conclusions:  Conclusions Lightweighting Strategies: lead to broad range in vehicle mass and fuel economy range in cost of body depending on production volume and material Propulsion technologies: lead to broad range in fuel economy Examined PT can provide the desired vehicle performance with reasonable weight or power PT lead to broader range of energy efficiency than LW Future work Cost for producing the engine needs to be assessed in more detail Need to assess package space feasibility

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