Published on February 18, 2014
Introduction A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. Turbines are used in boat propulsion systems, hydroelectric power generators, and jet aircraft engines.
Basic Types of Turbine Steam Turbine Water Turbine Wind Turbine
Types Based Energy Used Impulse turbine : Only kinetic energy of water is used to drive turbine. Eg.Pelton Turbine Reaction turbine : Kinetic energy as well as Pressure energy of water is used to drive turbine. Eg.Francis Turbine
Introduction Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. They operate in a water head from 10 to 650 meters (33 to 2,133 feet). They are primarily used for electrical power production. The turbine powered generator power output generally ranges from 10 to 750 megawatts
Sir James B. France This turbine was invented by Sir James B. France in Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Studying the Boyden turbine ,Francis was able to redesign it to increase efficiency. Boyden Turbine could achieve a 65 percent efficiency. So, James France redesigned this turbine and new turbine with 88% efficiency was invented. This was known as ‘Francis turbine’.
The Boyden Turbine
The Invention Studying the Boyden turbine Francis was able to redesign it to increase efficiency. Constructing turbines as “sideways water wheels,” Francis was able to achieve an astounding 88 percent efficiency rate. After further experimenting, Francis developed the mixed flow reaction turbine which later became an American standard. Twenty-two of the “Francis turbines” reside in Hoover Dam to this day. His work on these turbines was later published as The Lowell Hydraulic Experiments in 1855.
The Francis Runner Traditional runner X blade runner
The Francis Turbine
The Francis Installation
Working Penstock: It is a large size conduit which conveys water from the upstream to the dam/reservoir to the turbine runner. Spiral Casing: It constitutes a closed passage whose cross-sectional area gradually decreases along the flow direction; area is maximum at inlet and nearly zero at exit. Guide Vanes: These vanes direct the water on to the runner at an angle appropriate to the design, the motion of them is given by means of hand wheel or by a governor. Governing Mechanism: It changes the position of the guide blades/vanes to affect a variation in water flow rate, when the load conditions on the turbine change. Runner and Runner Blades: The driving force on the runner is both due to impulse and reaction effect. The number of runner blades usually varies between 16 to 24. Draft Tube: It is gradually expanding tube which discharges water, passing through the runner to the tail race.
Francis Turbine Power Plant : A Continuous Hydraulic System
Parts of A Francis Turbine
Water particle Water from spiral casing R a d i a l R a d a l runner guide ivanes runner guide vanes v i e w v e w andi stay vanes and stay vanes
Runner inlet (Φ 0.870m) Guide vane outlet for designα) (Φ 0.913m) Closed Max. Opening Position Guide vanes
Operation of Guide Vanes . Guide vane at Design Position = 12.21° Guide vane at Max. open Position = 18° Guide vane at closed position
Hydraulic efficiency of Francis Hydraulic System h1 V1 2 2 2g h3 hydraulic h1 V3 hydraulic 2g V1 2 2 2g h3 V3 2g Losses
Advantages It is a most widely used turbine in world (about 70- 80%). Effective use of water pressure as well as velocity. It is American standard turbine. Very good efficiency(80-94%).
Disadvantages Cost is High. Due to its complex design and large number of moving parts, maintenance and repair is difficult and costly. It is applicable to flow of medium head only.
Recent Advancements: New types of designs are developed to reduce cost and complexity of mechanism. Modified turbine include Inline Linkless Francis Turbine, Cross-flow Turbine,etc. These new turbine require less space, simplified designs, less moving parts, etc.
By: Prathamesh , Akash
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