Published on March 18, 2014
Framework and methods for integrating gender in REDD (+) Gender & Environmental Change Conference IIED, London Dr. Delia C. Catacutan ICRAF-Vietnam
Our challenge 2 • There is lack of tools to elicit and understand gender-specific preferences over REDD benefits, and the distribution of those benefits. • REDD implementers often do not have time to apply available tools. • Gender equity is not an explicit goal of REDD.
Equity Framework • Equity framework promoted by McDermott et al (2012) • 3 dimensions of framework: Distributive equity—the costs of REDD are not disproportionately passed on to women; benefits are proportionately distributed to women and men. Procedural equity---procedures that facilitates inclusiveness and fairness in the REDD process; Contextual equity-- overall capacity of men and women to participate and capture program benefits, e.g., information, knowledge, networks, land, technology, culture, rights. Together, they describe the substantive content of equity. 3
Meta-order equity questions • Target of equity---equity for whom? At what scale? • Goal of equity----ignore equity? Do no harm? Ensure that women are not worse off? advance equity? • Parameters of equity---conflicting views of equity prevailing in societies and cultural contexts. 4
Project Dimensions of equity Distributive Procedural Contextual RUPES, Indonesia Women’s participation conform to traditional gender roles; Women not enlisted as co-signatories on HKm contracts; Women’s representation on management board token Women were consulted and their views were sought Contextual barriers to women’s participation identified REALU/RED D+, Vietnam Separate consultation with women to ensure their voice in program design Contextual barriers to women’s participation identified RUPES, Philippines Women’s participation conforms traditional gender roles Women were consulted Contextual barriers to women’s participation identified PRESA, Tanzania Threats to women’s land rights No special procedures to identify women who might be disadvantaged Social context, women’s resource rights situation not assessed adequately PRESA, Kenya Women’s bids honored & women awarded contracts Special care to invite women to PES auctions Barriers to women’s participation identified and incorporated into procedures
Some methods used • Structured Decision-Making (SDM)--- an organized, inclusive and transparent approach to understanding complex problems and generating and evaluating creative alternatives (Vietnam). • Modified REDD Game---elicits preferences over payment or benefits to a hypothetical village when they were conditional on the quality outcomes of a hypothetical forest of 500 hectares (Vietnam). • Role Play Game (RPG)—players assume roles or characters, and take control of their real-life roles/characters in a fictional setting. RPG was used to observe and document the behaviours of men and women toward land use decision-making in rubber agroforest landscapes and its implications to REDD+ (Indonesia). • Gender purposive conservation auctions—an economic approach that uses a discriminatory price to determining the cost of environmental service provision (Kenya). 6
Sample result in Bac Kan province, Northwest Vietnam---a UN-REDD pilot 7 • High poverty • Heavily forested • Mountainous • ICRAF’s REALU demonstration site; pilot payment scheme for agroforestry and farmer-managed natural forest regeneration
33% 33% 33% Women 17% 33% 50% Men Cash LURC Cash for infrastructure Cash for agricultural services Benefit type
Sample result of RPG application in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia Women from both the upland and lowland villages approached land use change in a more dynamic way than men from the same villages, reacting more positively to external investors proposing logging or oil palm conversion. Contrary to expectations and gender stereotypes, the increased involvement of women in landscape-level decision making may serve to increase emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the area, thus posing further challenges to emission reduction efforts. Villamor et al. 2013
Sample result in Kenya • Women’s bids where lower than men. • 55% of contracts were awarded to women; they were helped to implement the contracts through training and support on tree-planting and care.
Key messages • While the distributional and procedural equity dimensions of a REDD+ project fall within the scope and control of its proponents, the capacity to achieve distributional and procedural equity is conditioned by context, which is not amenable to control. • Nonetheless, achieving procedural equity through gender transformative approaches engenders distributive equity and alleviates contextual inequity.
• Identification of inequity ensures deployment of procedural measures that facilitates equitable distribution of outcomes. • REDD benefits and distribution should be gender- specific. • One-off or recurrent carbon payments (2USD/ton) do not make sense. Paying 2USD/ton + differential incentive may be attractive to men and women. • Governments and partners pursuing REDD need to be explicit about incorporating gender as a goal at the onset.
Thank you for your attention For more information, please contact: D. C. CATACUTAN@CGIAR.ORG
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