Fractional distillation of liquid air

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Information about Fractional distillation of liquid air

Published on February 26, 2014

Author: ali_rehman


PowerPoint Presentation: FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF LIQUID AIR Group 1 :- Arhaam bin Touqeer Ali ur Rehman Ibad ur Rahman S.M. Usman PowerPoint Presentation: Slide number Topic 3 Definition of Distillation 4 Uses of Distillation 5 Definition of Fractional distillation 6 Use of Fractionating column 7 Composition of Air 8 Apparatus for Fractional Distillation 9 Advantages of Fractional Distillation 10 Disadvantages of Fractional Distillation 11 Practical Example of Fractional Distillation 12 Practical Example of Fractional Distillation 13 Uses of Oxygen and Nitrogen 14 Photo Gallery 15 Photo Gallery TABLE OF CONTENTS PowerPoint Presentation: Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatility of components in a boiling liquid mixture using evaporation and condensation. Distillation is a  physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. Definition of Distillation 3 PowerPoint Presentation: Commercially, distillation has a number of applications. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from seawater. Air is distilled to separate its components notably oxygen, nitrogen, and argon for industrial use. Liquid chemicals for diverse uses are often distilled after synthesis to remove impurities and unreacted starting materials. Distillation of fermented solutions has been used since ancient times to produce distilled beverages with a higher alcohol content. The premises where distillation is carried out, especially distillation of alcohol, are known as a distillery. A still is the apparatus used for distillation. Uses of Distillation 4 PowerPoint Presentation: Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize. It is a special type of distillation. Generally the component parts boil at less than 25 °C from each other under a pressure of one atmosphere ( atm ). If the difference in boiling points is greater than 25 °C, a simple distillation is used. Definition of Fractional Distillation 5 PowerPoint Presentation: Fractionating columns help to separate the mixture by helping the mixed vapors to cool, condense, and vaporize again in accordance with  Raoult's law. With each condensation-vaporization cycle, the vapors are enriched in a certain component. A larger surface area allows more cycles, improving separation. Use of Fractionating Column PowerPoint Presentation: This is composition of air in percent by volume, at sea level at 15°C Nitrogen -- N 2  -- 78.084% Oxygen -- O 2  -- 20.9476% Argon -- Ar -- 0.934% Carbon Dioxide -- CO 2  -- 0.0314% Neon -- Ne -- 0.001818% Methane -- CH 4  -- 0.0002% Helium -- He -- 0.000524% Krypton -- Kr -- 0.000114% Hydrogen -- H 2  -- 0.00005% Xenon -- Xe -- 0.0000087% Ozone -- O 3  -- 0.000007% Nitrogen Dioxide -- NO 2  -- 0.000002% Iodine -- I 2  -- 0.000001% Carbon Monoxide  -- CO -- trace Ammonia -- NH 3  -- trace Composition of Air PowerPoint Presentation: heat source, such as a hot plate with a bath, and ideally with a magnetic stirrer. distilling flask, typically a round-bottom flask receiving flask, often also a round-bottom flask fractionating column distillation head thermometer and adapter if needed condenser, such as a Liebig condenser, Graham condenser or  Allihn condenser vacuum adapter (not used in image to the right) boiling chips, also known as anti-bumping granules Standard laboratory glassware with ground glass joints, e.g.  quickfit apparatus. A pparatus 8 PowerPoint Presentation: Fractional distillation  Advantages   Fractional distillation is the only commercial means to separate or fractionate in pure form the organic compounds having boiling points close to each other. The crude oil distillation unit (CDU) is the first processing unit in virtually all petroleum refineries.  Can separate gases and material which are considered inseparable by normal distillation Gives purer air Can be used to extract different gases from the air 9 PowerPoint Presentation: High capital cost  Compared to simple distillation and other types of distillation, fractional distillation is capital intensive. It has a high investment cost. Not flexible  Fractional distillation process being a continuous process has no flexibility. It is not simple in a fractional distillation to change from one type of feed to another type feed composition  It is not economical for small volume productions  Not easy to sterilize  Because of huge size, huge hold up, and complex construction  Not preferable for processing of temperature-sensitive products Not useable for all materials as it has a minimum temperature requirement  Does not provide product integrity  Fractional distillation being a continuous process does not provide product integrity to be achieved: each batch of product cannot be clearly identified in terms of the feeds involved and conditions of processing. This is particularly important in industries such as pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs. Disadvantages 10 PowerPoint Presentation: You will recall that about 78% of the air is nitrogen and 21% is oxygen. These two gases can be separated by fractional distillation of liquid air. Liquefying the air Air is filtered to remove dust, and then cooled in stages until it reaches –200°C. At this temperature it is a liquid. We say that the air has been liquefied. Here's what happens as the air liquefies: water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed oxygen liquefies at –183ºC nitrogen liquefies at –196ºC The liquid nitrogen and oxygen are then separated by fractional distillation. What is Fractional distillation of liquid air and practical use of fractional distillation of liquid air 11 PowerPoint Presentation: Fractional Distillation                                       The liquefied air is passed into the bottom of a fractionating column. Just as in the columns used to separate oil fractions, the column is warmer at the bottom than it is at the top. The liquid nitrogen boils at the bottom of the column. Gaseous nitrogen rises to the top, where it is piped off and stored. Liquid oxygen collects at the bottom of the column. The boiling point of argon - the noble gas that forms 0.9% of the air - is close to the boiling point of oxygen, so a second fractionating column is often used to separate the argon from the oxygen. What is Fractional distillation of liquid air and practical use of fractional distillation of liquid air 12 PowerPoint Presentation: Uses of nitrogen and oxygen liquid nitrogen is used to freeze food food is packaged in gaseous nitrogen to increase its shelf life oil tankers are flushed with gaseous nitrogen to reduce the chance of explosion oxygen is used in the manufacture of steel and in medicine All of this is only possible due to obtaining methods of nitrogen and oxygen via fractional distillation 13 PowerPoint Presentation: Photo Gallery PowerPoint Presentation: Photo Gallery

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