FOUNDATION OF GROUP BEHAVIOR AND UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAM

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Information about FOUNDATION OF GROUP BEHAVIOR AND UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAM
Education

Published on November 18, 2008

Author: nishah21

Source: slideshare.net

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understanding the formation of group and how they operate in an organization

NISHA HARIYANI Foundations of Group Behavior & Understanding Work Team

Definition of a Group A collection of individuals, the members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment Harold H. Kelley and J.W. Thibaut

A collection of individuals, the members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment

Harold H. Kelley

and J.W. Thibaut

The Nature of groups Three views : Normative views describes how a group is to be organized and how its activities are to be carried out. Group dynamics consists of a set of techniques. Regarding internal nature of groups

Three views :

Normative views describes how a group is to be organized and how its activities are to be carried out.

Group dynamics consists of a set of techniques.

Regarding internal nature of groups

Theory of Propinquity - People associate with one another due to geographical proximity. Balance Theory - People who have similar attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend to form a group. Exchange Theory - The reward-cost outcomes of interactions serve as the basis for group formation Dynamics of Group Formation

Theory of Propinquity - People associate with one another due to geographical proximity.

Balance Theory - People who have similar attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend to form a group.

Exchange Theory - The reward-cost outcomes of interactions serve as the basis for group formation

Various Types of Groups Formal groups Informal Groups Small groups Large groups Primary groups Secondary groups Coalitions Membership groups Reference groups Command groups Task groups Friendship groups Interest groups

Small groups

Large groups

Primary groups

Secondary groups

Coalitions

Membership groups

Reference groups

Command groups

Task groups

Friendship groups

Interest groups

These groups are formed by the organization to carry out specific tasks. It includes two types: Command group Task groups Formal Groups

These groups are formed by the organization to

carry out specific tasks.

It includes two types:

Command group

Task groups

Command Group: Represented in the organization chart. Permanent in nature. Members report to common supervisors. Functional reporting relationship exists. Task groups: Formed to carry out specific tasks. Temporary in nature. Formal Groups contd…

Command Group:

Represented in the organization chart.

Permanent in nature.

Members report to common supervisors.

Functional reporting relationship exists.

Task groups:

Formed to carry out specific tasks.

Temporary in nature.

Informal groups are formed by the employees themselves. Hence they are not formally structured. They are of two types: Friendship groups Interest groups Informal Groups

Informal groups are formed by the employees

themselves. Hence they are not formally

structured.

They are of two types:

Friendship groups

Interest groups

Small groups: Only a few members. Face-to-face interaction and better communication is possible. Large groups: Members is very high. Personal interaction is not possible. Other types Include

Small groups:

Only a few members.

Face-to-face interaction and better communication is possible.

Large groups:

Members is very high.

Personal interaction is not possible.

Primary group: It is made up of members who have similar and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship towards each other. Secondary groups: They share same values and beliefs, but because of the size of the group, they do not interact often with each other Coalitions: They are created by members for a specific purposed and do not have a formal structure.

Primary group:

It is made up of members who have similar and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship towards each other.

Secondary groups:

They share same values and beliefs, but because of the size of the group, they do not interact often with each other

Coalitions:

They are created by members for a specific purposed and do not have a formal structure.

Membership groups: They are the groups to which individual actually belongs. Reference groups: It is actually the groups to which an individual would like to belong.

Membership groups:

They are the groups to which individual actually belongs.

Reference groups:

It is actually the groups to which an individual would like to belong.

Stages of Group Development

Stages of Group Development The five-Stage Model: Adjourning/Mourning Completion, ending or evolution Performing Achieving the purpose Norming Agreeing purpose and conduct Storming Resolving differences Forming Initial meeting together

Punctuated Equilibrium Model Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. Sequence of actions: Setting group direction First phase of inertia Half-way point transition Major changes Second phase of inertia Accelerated activity

Sequence of actions:

Setting group direction

First phase of inertia

Half-way point transition

Major changes

Second phase of inertia

Accelerated activity

It helps shape the behavior of its members, predict the behavior and guide the performance of the group as a whole. Group Structure

It helps shape the behavior of its members, predict the behavior and guide the performance of the group as a whole.

Leader’s behavior has a significant impact on the group behavior and performance Style of a leader is imitated by the members of the group. Formal leadership

Leader’s behavior has a significant impact on the group behavior and performance

Style of a leader is imitated by the members of the group.

Set of behavior pattern which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display. Dimensions of role are: Role Identity Role perception Role Expectations Role Conflict Roles

Set of behavior pattern which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display.

Dimensions of role are:

Role Identity

Role perception

Role Expectations

Role Conflict

Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members. Norms pertaining to performance related process Appearance norms Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements Norms that regulate the allocation of resources Norms

Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members.

Norms pertaining to performance related process

Appearance norms

Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements

Norms that regulate the allocation of resources

A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Example : a cabin of one’s own an air conditioner etc Status

Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best elements of both small and large groups. Social Loafing - The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Size of a Group

Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best

elements of both small and large groups.

Social Loafing - The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.

Most group activities require a variety of skills and knowledge. Research studies show that heterogeneous groups are likely to perform more effectively. Composition of a Group

Most group activities require a variety of skills and knowledge. Research studies show that heterogeneous groups are likely to perform more effectively.

The effectiveness of a group is influenced by the complexity and the interdependence of the task to be performed by its members. Large groups facilitate pooling of information e.g. addition of a diverse perspective to a problem-solving committee. Group Tasks

The effectiveness of a group is influenced by the complexity and the interdependence of the task to be performed by its members.

Large groups facilitate pooling of information e.g. addition of a diverse perspective to a problem-solving committee.

The processes that go on within a work group e.g. communication patterns, group decision processes, leader behaviour, power dynamics, conflict interactions etc. Synergy. Social facilitation effect. Group Processes

The processes that go on within a work group e.g. communication patterns, group decision processes, leader behaviour, power dynamics, conflict interactions etc.

Synergy.

Social

facilitation effect.

Norms and roles in informal groups Norms: Roles: sharper, plant, monitor evaluator, team worker, implementer, co coordinator, complete fisher, resource investigator, specialist Dynamics of Informal Groups

Norms and roles in informal groups

Norms:

Roles: sharper, plant, monitor evaluator, team worker, implementer, co coordinator, complete fisher, resource investigator, specialist

Significance of Informal Groups: Informal group are quite powerful and influential because the members of the group have a lot in common and depend on each other to carry our organizational activities.

Informal group are quite powerful and influential because the members of the group have a lot in common and depend on each other to carry our organizational activities.

Prevent organizational changes Role conflict Increased scope for rumor Pressure to conform to group norms Difficulties and problems Associated with informal Groups

Prevent organizational changes

Role conflict

Increased scope for rumor

Pressure to conform to group norms

Dynamics of formal work Groups Although group dynamics is generally associated with informal norms and roles, formally designated work groups also have noticeable dynamics. Example: Committee

Positive Attributes of Committees It facilitates the integration of the ideas and opinions of the members. It brings together people with varied experience, knowledge and abilities. It helps in the development and growth of human resources It helps in the development and growth of human resources

It facilitates the integration of the ideas and opinions of the members.

It brings together people with varied experience, knowledge and abilities.

It helps in the development and growth of human resources

It helps in the development and growth of human resources

Negative Attributes of Committees very time-consuming and costly. responsible for a bad decision or mistake

very time-consuming and costly.

responsible for a bad decision or mistake

Understanding Work Teams

Definition of Work Teams A small number of people with complemen-tary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable”. -G. Moorhead and R.W. Griffin

A small number of people with complemen-tary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable”.

-G. Moorhead and R.W. Griffin

Enhanced performance Employee benefits Reduced costs Organizational enhancements Benefits of Work Teams

Enhanced performance

Employee benefits

Reduced costs

Organizational enhancements

Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.

 

Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.

Types of Teams (cont’d) Task forces Committees Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.

Task forces

Committees

Types of Teams Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.

Team Effectiveness Providing a supportive environment: Relevant skills and role clarity: Focus on superordiante goals. Team rewards: .

Providing a supportive environment:

Relevant skills and role clarity:

Focus on superordiante goals.

Team rewards:

Shaping Individuals Into Team Players Selection: Good interpersonal skills Training: Can be trained by specialists Rewards: Financial or non financial rewards

Selection:

Good interpersonal skills

Training:

Can be trained by specialists

Rewards:

Financial or non financial rewards

Applying Group Concepts to Teams: T owards Creating Effective Teams Size of work teams Abilities of members Allocation of work roles Strong commitment to a common purpose Specifying clear and realistic performance goals

Size of work teams

Abilities of members

Allocation of work roles

Strong commitment to a common purpose

Specifying clear and realistic performance goals

Good leadership and effective structure Preventing social loafing and determining accountability Proper evaluation and reward systems Generating mutual trust among team members

Good leadership and effective structure

Preventing social loafing and determining accountability

Proper evaluation and reward systems

Generating mutual trust among team members

Teams and Total Quality Management TQM means process improvement and employee involvement is the key to process improvement.

TQM means process improvement and employee involvement is the key to process improvement.

Teams and Workforce Diversity Diversified teams provide unique and innovative solutions, but at the same time, they are cohesive.

Teams and Workforce Diversity Advantages Multiple perspectives Greater openness to new ideas Multiple interpretations Increased creativity Increased problem actions solving skills Disadvantages Ambiguity Complexity Confusion interpretations Miscommunication Difficulty in reaching a single agreement Difficulty in agreeing on specific

Advantages

Multiple perspectives

Greater openness to new ideas

Multiple interpretations Increased creativity

Increased problem actions solving skills

Disadvantages

Ambiguity

Complexity

Confusion

interpretations Miscommunication

Difficulty in reaching a single agreement

Difficulty in agreeing on specific

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