Found of Rec pres

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Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Teresa1

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Parks, Recreation and Leisure: A Foundational Perspective Dr. Chad Kinder Parks and Recreation Management Department, SWOSU:  Parks, Recreation and Leisure: A Foundational Perspective Dr. Chad Kinder Parks and Recreation Management Department, SWOSU Historical Foundations: Prehistory:  Historical Foundations: Prehistory Whole life: food, shelter, clothing, protection, warfare No dualism Recreation: Adults: to meet life requirements Children: reinforce gender roles, training Early Western Civilization:  Early Western Civilization Recurring Themes: 1. Class Systems: Lower Classes: Strong relationship between utility & recreation (pottery, weaving, gardening) Leisure Class: Gold Slavery: provided time for leisure & reflection How? War / Conquest Training Recreation & Sport Slide4:  Recurring Themes: 2. Social Control recreation to prevent revolution True in the Modern World? Egypt (5000 B.C. - 30 B.C.):  Egypt (5000 B.C. - 30 B.C.) Polytheistic: Ra, Isis, etc. Rigid Social Structure: Upper classes: ruling class / Pharaoh religious officials / priests military Lower classes: workers artisans slaves Slide6:  Recreation in Ancient Egypt Evidence of elaborate self-expression “Egyptian energies were directed toward the art of living and the art of dying.” Art: tombs, painting, statuary, hieroglyphs Love of music: full orchestras Theater: dramas, plays Public spectacles: dancing battle reenactments bull fighting Slide7:  Sports: recreation & training wrestling, gymnastics, weights, ball games Mental games: chess, backgammon Parks: (1st civilization to do so) hunting preserves leisure classes trespassing & poaching laws hunting & fishing laws (scientific mgmt) Slide8:  Recreation for the masses: Beer drinking: lower classes gov’t supplied Holidays & Festivals: religious over 100 per year Toys: gender “appropriate” Therapeutic Recreation: mentally ill sent to resorts to recover Recreation & Leisure in the Fertile Crescent:  Recreation & Leisure in the Fertile Crescent Assyria & Babylonia (2900 B.C. - 330 B.C.) Polytheistic Multiple religious holidays & festivals Rigid class structures Recreation Activities: Sports: Hunting Boxing Wrestling Archery Slide10:  Parks in the Fertile Crescent: Hunting Preserves hunting & fishing laws feasts assemblies royal gatherings Vineyards Fish Ponds Hanging Gardens of Babylon (1000-900 B.C.) botanical & zoological garden 200 acres, enclosed, climate controlled, irrigated Recreation in Ancient Israel (1000-323 B.C.):  Recreation in Ancient Israel (1000-323 B.C.) Monotheistic Nomadic / Shepherds Less classed than neighbors Rigid gender roles Recreation Activities: Survival & Subsistence: hunting & fishing Military Training: wrestling, sword, javelin Religious Celebration: dance Slide12:  Ancient Israel’s major influence on recreation & leisure Work is our duty: to atone for the original sin Protestant work ethic (Luther, Calvin) A day of leisure: the 7th day, the Sabbath Feeling about wilderness: “wilderness was the backdrop against which the drama of Christianity was played” Adam & Eve Moses & the Burning Bush Israelites 40 years of wandering John the Baptist The Temptation of Christ Recreation & Leisure in Ancient Greece (Prehistory - 338 B.C.):  Recreation & Leisure in Ancient Greece (Prehistory - 338 B.C.) The Homeric Greeks (Pre 776 B.C.) The poet Homer: Iliad & Odyssey Emergence of the “Greek Ideal” merging of the “man of action” with the “man of wisdom” known as “arete” personified by the Gods excellence in: mind, body, & spirit Slide14:  Recreation & Leisure in Sparta (776 - 371 B.C.) a militaristic city-state conquered many lands dropped the Greek Ideal for strict discipline Spartan educational system: designed to ensure that all served the state “The Agoge” Inspection of children Female roles dispassionate, nurse-like mothers bear healthy children Slide15:  Spartan Female Roles cont.: Engaged in recreational sports to prepare them for their duties gymnastics wrestling swimming horseback riding dancing Spartan Male Roles:  Spartan Male Roles Soldier (7 to death) Qualified for citizenship & expected to marry at 30 Engaged in recreational sports to prepare them for their military duties: Running Horseback riding Jumping Discus Swimming Javelin Hunting Ball games Wrestling Boxing Pancratium Slide17:  Role of Music & Art: restorative (for battle) Sparta dominated athletically Olympic Games Sparta dominated militarily Persian Wars Thermopylae Ancient Athens:  Ancient Athens The Greek Ideal: Excellence in Mind, Body and Spirit The Athenian Ideal / the “balanced” Greek soldier athlete artist statesman philosopher Role of Women:  Role of Women Mothers Stayed at home with their mothers until marriage Little or no education Athenian Educational System:  Athenian Educational System Males Dominated lives of upper class Privately funded (fathers) Two major schools: music school & wrestling school: boys attended both both equally important (due to Greek Ideal) Slide21:  Music School: Math Literature Music Wrestling School (Palaestra) owned & directed by Paidotribes wrestling boxing jumping dancing swimming Athenian Leisure:  Athenian Leisure The Gymnasium: Athletic Events Philosophical Discussions Leisure Aristotle: The major influence on Greek leisure theory Raphael’s The School of Athens:  Raphael’s The School of Athens Aristotle & Leisure:  Aristotle & Leisure Aristotle had three notions of use of time: leisure (scholia) vs. occupation (ascholia) recreation (anapausis) & amusement (paidia) The Paradigm of Leisure contemplation (highest form) recreation (accepted) amusement (derided) Leisure (schole vs. ascholia) “we are not at leisure (ascholia) in order to be at leisure (scholia) (Dualism) Slide25:  nature…requires that we should be able, to not only work well, but to use leisure well….leisure is better than occupation and is its end; and therefore the question must be asked, what ought we to do when at leisure? Clearly we ought not to be amusing ourselves, for then amusement would be the end of life. But if this in inconceivable, and amusement is needed more amid serious occupations than at other times (for he who is hard at work has need of relaxation, and amusement gives relaxation, whereas occupation is always accompanied with exertion & effort, we should introduce amusements only at suitable times, and they should be our medicines, for the emotion which they create in the soul is a relaxation, and from the pleasure we obtain rest. (Aristotle, Politics Book VIII, p. 1307) Slide26:  How was this life of leisure supported? After age 20, males no longer worked Slaves: 2 to 3 per Athenian The Late Athenians (480 B.C.-338 B.C.) (Effects of the defeat of the Persians) Emergence of Athens as dominant Hellenic city-state Golden Age of Athens (443 B.C.-429 B.C.) evolution of democracy increase in pleasure seeking less emphasis on physical aspects of the ideal professional athletes and mercenaries Recreation and Leisure in Ancient Rome:  Recreation and Leisure in Ancient Rome Roman Societal Influences:  Roman Societal Influences Greece Sparta Athens Middle East Israel Babylon Assyria Northerners Britons Gauls Germanic Tribes Ancient Rome:  Ancient Rome Republic vs. Empire Republic (500 B.C. - 27 B.C.) Began as small civilization on the Tiber Romulus & Remus warlike tribe duty to rule the world Republic est. 500 B.C. wealthy landowners military men gained land through service demanded a voice in gov’t democracy Slide30:  Primary Roman focus: SPQR service to the state Roman Ideal citizen soldier Roman qualities of mind and character: 1. authoritas: principle of authority. Roman authority was single and final 2. pietas: respect for authority / sense of duty 3. dignitas: sense of the value of the individual Roman Aqueduct Roman Education:  Roman Education Widespread desire for education present in all classes most were literate no free public schools brutal discipline (whipping, caning) Goal of Roman Education: well rounded citizens mental & physical readiness for war instill respect for the law reverence for the gods Military Influence in Rome:  Military Influence in Rome Military Camps archery fencing javelin throwing marching riding running swimming wrestling bodily strength courage obedience of commands Military Service (17-47) reserve capacity Role of Women in Rome:  Role of Women in Rome Mothers: raise children instill a love of Rome the importance of protecting the state instill a sense of strong obedience (military value) Socially active: esp. upper classes hostesses Roman Recreation and Leisure:  Roman Recreation and Leisure Leisure: licere: to be permitted otium: activities freely chosen, denoting industrious leisure (worthwhile mental & physical pursuits away from the distractions of business, politics & society). negotium: business Roman Recreation:  Roman Recreation Recreation: recreatio: to refresh recreare: to restore Slide36:  Recreation during the Republic Religious Events: Holidays Many festivals to honor gods Public Spectacles: Chariot racing Gladiatorial events (less prominent than during the Empire period) Slide37:  Recreation and Leisure in the Empire (27 B.C. - 476 A.D.) Est. by Augustus Caesar Fewer economic and political freedoms Harsh economic conditions forced many landowners to give up control of their lands to the rich So: they moved to Rome many lived on the public “dole” Professional armies replaced the citizen soldiers Explosion of public spectacles, festivals, & gambling:  Explosion of public spectacles, festivals, & gambling 200 holidays Circus Maximus 260,000 seats Chariot racing Slide39:  The Colosseum aka Flavian Amphitheater 90,000 seats Animal fights Criminals Christians Gladiators gain freedom popularity Chariot races Sea battles Slide40:  Colosseum Interior Colosseum & Circus Maximus:  Colosseum & Circus Maximus Slide43:  Retiarius Slide44:  Murmillo Purple Recreation in Rome:  Purple Recreation in Rome Recreation in excess (Nash) eating drinking sexual behavior (as evidenced by Vesuvius eruption, 79 A.D.) Fall of the Western Empire:  Fall of the Western Empire Romans interests changed less emphasis on mental & physical activity new emphasis on decadence feasting drinking Thermae calidarium frigidarium Fall of Rome 476 AD Visigoths

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