fossils fuels

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Information about fossils fuels

Published on July 28, 2009

Author: djb131966


Slide 1: Coal, (solid fuel of plant) originated,durning the Carboniferous period, much of the world was covered with vegetation growing in swamps. Many of these plants were ferns, some as large as trees. This vegetation died and became submerged under water, where it gradually decomposed. As decomposition took place, the vegetable matter lost oxygen and hydrogen atoms, leaving a deposit with a high percentage of carbon. In this way peat bogs were formed. As time passed, layers of sand and mud settled from the water over some of the peat deposits. The pressure of these overlying layers, movements of the Earth's crust, and, sometimes, volcanic heat, acted to compress and harden the deposits, thus producing coal. Slide 3: Various types of coal are recognized, according to their fixed carbon content. Peat, the first stage in the formation of coal, has a low fixed carbon content and a high moisture content, (50 to 60 %) and is the lowest in quality. The carbon content is greater in lignite (60 to 70 %), it is also called as Brown coal. Bituminous coal has even more carbon (70 to 90 %) and a correspondingly higher heating value, also known as Black coal. Anthracite coal has the highest carbon content (over 90 %) and highest heating value. Coal may be transformed by further pressure and heat into graphite, which is almost pure carbon. Other components of coal are volatile hydrocarbons, sulphur and nitrogen, and the minerals that remain as ash when the coal is burned. Slide 5: Estimates of world coal reserves vary widely. According to the World Energy Council, world reserves of anthracite, bituminous, and sub- bituminous coal in the late 1980s exceeded 1.2 trillion tonnes. Of this, China held about 43 per cent, the United States 17 per cent, the former Soviet Union 12 per cent, South Africa 5 per cent, and Australia 4 per cent. The World Coal Institute has estimated that, at 1998 levels of production, coal reserves are likely to last about another 200 years. The Institute's data, based on statistics, show that South and Central America have 7.8 billion tonnes of coal reserves; Western Europe 25.8 billion tonnes; Australasia 47.3 billion tonnes; Africa and the Middle East 61.4 billion tonnes; China 62.2 billion tonnes; other countries in Asia (excluding the former Soviet Union republics) 74.9 billion tonnes; Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (both in Asia and Europe) 113.3 billion tonnes; and North America 116.7 billion tonnes. Slide 7: Petroleum is formed under the Earth’s surface by the decomposition of marine organisms. The remains of tiny organisms that live in the sea—and, to a lesser extent, those of land are carried down to the sea in rivers and of plants that grow on the ocean bottoms—are mixed with the fine sands and silts that settle to the bottom of sea basins. Such deposits, which are rich in organic materials, become the source rocks for the generation of crude oil. The process began many millions of years ago with the development of abundant life, and it continues to this day. The sediments grow thicker and sink into the sea floor under their own weight. As additional deposits pile up, the pressure on the ones below increases several thousand times, and the temperature rises by several hundred degrees. The mud and sand harden into shale, sandstone and skeletal shells harden into limestone; and the remains of the dead organisms are transformed into crude oil and natural gas. Once the petroleum forms, it flows upward in the Earth’s crust because it has a lower density. The crude oil and natural gas rise into the microscopic pores of the coarser sediments lying above. Frequently, the rising material encounters an impermeable rock that prevents further coming upwards; the oil has become trapped, and a reservoir of petroleum is formed. Slide 16: The world’s Proved Reserves of crude oil are not distributed uniformly: 65 per cent of the world’s oil is located in the Middle East, notably in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait. The second-largest reserves of crude oil are located in Latin America, with Mexico and Venezuela jointly contributing some 12 per cent of the world’s reserves. Much of the remaining oil is located in Russia (5 per cent), Libya (3 per cent), the United States (3 per cent), Nigeria (2 per cent), and China (2 per cent). Saudi Arabia is the world’s number one producer of oil, providing 12.5 per cent of global production each year. In India oil was first found at Digboi in Assam, after which many oil fields were later developed in many areas of upper Assam. The other important oil producing areas in India are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Arabian sea, Gulf of Khambhat and the delta area of Godavari and Krishna. Slide 18:  Hydro-Power,  produced by the fall of water from a higher to a lower level, and extracted by means of hydraulic turbines. Hydro-power is a natural resource, available wherever a sufficient volume of steady water flow exists. The development of large-scale hydro-power needs storage lakes, dams, and the installation of large turbines and electric generating equipment. . The earliest hydroelectric plant was constructed in 1880 in Cragside, Northumberland. The rebirth of water-power came with the development of the electric generator, further improvement of the hydraulic turbine, and the growing demand for electricity by the turn of the 20th century The basic principle of operation of most major installations has remained the same during the 20th century. Plants depend on a large water-storage reservoir upstream of a dam where water flow can be controlled and a nearly constant water level can be assured. Electric Generator Slide 20: solar energy Slide 21: 1. Solar Energy, radiant (ray) energy produced in the Sun as a result of nuclear fusion reactions. It is transmitted to the Earth through space by electromagnetic radiation of energy called photons, which interact with the Earth’s atmosphere and surface. 2. The strength of solar radiation at the outer edge of the Earth’s atmosphere when the Earth is taken to be at its average distance from the Sun is called the solar constant, the mean value of which is 1.37 kW per sq m. The intensity is not constant, however; it appears to vary by about 0.2 per cent in 30 years. The intensity of energy actually available at the Earth’s surface is less than the solar constant because of absorption and scattering of radiant energy as photons interact with the atmosphere. 3. The strength of the solar energy available at any point on the Earth depends on the day of the year, the time of day, and the latitude of the collection point. Furthermore, the amount of solar energy that can be collected depends on the collecting object. Slide 22: Solar energy can be trapped using solar collectors, which can heat water for homes. Photo voltaic cells convert sunlight directly into electricity Slide 23: Machine that converts wind into useful energy. This energy is derived from the force of wind acting on oblique blades or sails that radiate from a shaft. The turning shaft may be connected to machinery used to perform such work as milling grain, pumping water, or generating electricity. When the shaft is connected to a load, such as a pump, the device is typically called a windmill. When it is used to generate electricity, it is known as a wind turbine generator. Slide 24: Geothermal Power, energy extracted from the heat generated by natural concentrations of hot water and steam in the Earth’s interior, for use in electric power generation Heat is produced within the crust and upper mantle of the Earth primarily by the decay of radioactive elements. This geothermal energy is transferred to the Earth's surface by conduction and convection, aided by the movement of magma (molten rock) and deep-lying circulating water. Geothermal energy was developed for electrical power in 1904 in Tuscany, Italy, where power production continues today. Geothermal fluids are also used to heat groups of buildings in Budapest, Hungary; a Paris suburb; all of Reykjavík and other Icelandic cities; most of Klamath Falls, Oregon; and (since 1890) part of Boise, Idaho. Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The world's largest geothermal power complex is in the United States at The Geysers of northern California

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