Published on June 8, 2007
Forward Thinking: A Study in Transportation, Land Use and Urban Design in Naga City Professor Nora Angeles Jeff Deby Holly Foxcroft R.J. McCulloch Cathy Pasion
Overview Research Question and Methodology Key findings Case studies and Principles Recommendations
Research Question How can the vitality of Naga’s city centre be sustained through transportation, land use and urban design? Methodology: interviews, lectures, policy and visioning documents, public hearing minutes
Stakeholders Citizens of Naga • Urban poor • Naga City Government • (Planning and Land Use, PSO, CENR) • Developers • Drivers of jeepneys/tricycles/padyaks • Jeepney/tricycle associations and cooperatives • ( eg. PISTTON)
Project Goals Sustain the vitality of CBDI • Decrease congestion • Foster accessibility/equity and affordability • Sustain the livelihoods of drivers • Limit encroachment of development on Mt. Isarog and • agricultural lands Plan for future mass transportation needs • Create livable communities •
Policy and Visioning Existing Policies: • Comprehensive Land Use Plan 2000 • Transit Study 2001 • City of Naga Transportation Ordinances • Clean Air Act
Policy and Visioning Visioning Framework: Millennium Development Goals • 2007 State of the City Report • The Executive Legislative • Agenda 2007-2010 Road Map to 2015
Key Findings Existing Assets: Rapid growth • Strong culture of citizen participation • Long term planning for growth is recognized as a need • 2001 Traffic Study • Drivers represented on the NCPC council •
Key Findings (cont.) Constraints: • Transportation planning is not performed by one dedicated department. • The objectives of the 2001 Traffic Study are yet to be implemented. • New subdivisions and the incoming SM mall are directing the growth of the city.
Key Findings (cont.) Major Citizen Concerns: • Traffic congestion. • Driver’s livelihoods and wages. • Transportation is very costly for the urban poor.
Guiding Principles: Smart Growth and Transportation Demand Management
Smart Growth and Transportation Demand Management Topics • Urban sprawl • Smart Growth • Sustainability • Traffic congestion • Transportation Demand Management
Urban sprawl What is Urban Sprawl? • Unlimited outward expansion • Low density residential areas • Single-use zoning – residential, commercial, industrial • No centralized planning of development • Transportation mainly by private vehicle • Car-oriented development along major roadways
What’s wrong with sprawl?
Smart Growth What is Smart Growth? • Develop for mixed use • Keep the city compact • Preserve green space • Prioritize sustainable transportation • Plan in participatory ways
Sustainability Social Environmental Economic
Sustainability “Sustainable development is What development that is meets the needs of the Sustainable present without compromising the development ability of future generations to meet their own needs” UN World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987
Transportation planning: Supply and demand Traditional method: Manage supply • Increase road capacity to meet demand • Increase parking availability to meet demand
Congestion and demand Congestion encourages So… people to change: The demand for space • Routes on a congested road is greater than just the • Modes number of vehicles on it • Time of travel when congested
Induced demand When capacity is expanded, those users start driving their own cars again, on the expanded route, at the busiest times… …so the route is congested again, but even more so
You can’t build your way out of congestion
Costs typically Costs typically reduced increased by increased by increased road capacity road capacity • Congestion • Vehicle costs • Parking • User travel time • Road facilities • Accidents • Municipal • Equity and services option barrier effect • Air pollution • Noise • Waste generation • Water • Land use impacts pollution • Resource • Roadway land consumption use
Transportation planning: Supply and demand Supply management Demand management • Increase road • Use road capacity capacity more efficiently • Increase parking • Promote availability transportation that doesn’t require increased road capacity
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies Education, promotion Sustainable travel and outreach options Travel incentives and Supportive land use disincentives practices
Smart Growth and TDM: Concerns • It’s an experiment • Evidence is promising but mixed • Practice doesn’t always meet theory o Too much planning for built form only Economic > Environmental o > Social
Case Study: Curitiba, Brazil Growth Pre Growth Post 1968 Master 1968 Master Plan Plan
Case Study: Curitiba, Brazil Results: – Reduced congestion – Concentrated growth corridors – High public transportation use – Affordability of transit fare – Revitalization of downtown core through pedestrianization and promotion of non-motorized transportation “Cities that are growing… need to start identifying and preparing corridors for such public transit systems even if they cannot yet afford them.” – Sustran network
Case Study: Surabaya, Indonesia • Rapid expansion of the transportation system focused on vehicular movement resulted in: – Congestion, pollution, out migration and the marginalization of portions of the population • Lessons Learned: – Incorporate and plan for non-motorized transportation into transportation management systems – To support the vitality of communities and business facilities that support walking and cycling need to be created
Greenways • Are “linear public corridors for pedestrians and cyclists that connect parks, nature reserves, cultural features, historic sites, neighbourhoods and retail areas” [City of Vancouver]. Hong Kong Ann Arbor, Michigan
Case Study: Vancouver • Vancouver’s Greenway Network – City Greenways designed to: • make walking more interesting • make cycling safer and more convenient • reduce the impact of the car • provide space for public art
Case Study: Vancouver
Case Study: Vancouver • Vancouver’s Neighbourhood Greenways are: – Initiated by local residents – Connect local community amenities – Reflect local character and identity by providing opportunities to express the unique character of the area by adding details and activities to the public landscape – Are maintained by community residents once completed – A way to explicitly involve the public in the planning process
Case Study: Vancouver • Example: Arbutus Walk Neighbourhood – Connects important public spaces in community – Greenway uses existing 11th Avenue corridor
Urban Design • Paints a picture of what Naga can aspire and plan to become after successfully implementing: – Promising planning strategies (Smart Growth, TDM) appropriate for Naga – Lessons learned from case studies – Visions from Comprehensive Land Use Plan • Is a synthesis of planning practices as it physically plans these strategies, lessons and visions • The application of the aforementioned principles and lessons is perhaps best illustrated in the case of CBD I
Assets in CBD I
The Status of CBD I • Many cultural, civic, historic and commercial assets • Full of people throughout day and night • Healthy and vibrant, but not most comfortable for pedestrians and cyclists • Sidewalks and roads very congested • CBD II threatens its vitality
Planning Interventions in CBD I • Greenways – Network should originate in heart of CBD I, around plazas – More comfortable way for pedestrians and cyclists to move to, from and within CBD I • Sidewalk Vendor Organization – Helps reduce sidewalk and street congestion – Two new locations to organize vendors
Greenway Planning Process • Visioning – Seek public input by establishing committees to identify desires of which community and city assets and facilities should be linked and where to link them – Potential user groups need to be consulted • Pedestrians, cyclists, padyak operators, displaced motorized vehicle operators • Overlay Method – Inventory social, historic, cultural and natural features and determine available land for most suitable connections
Planning Naga City’s Greenway Network • Origin: Plazas in CBD I – Proposed hierarchy of open/green space around plazas: • Greenway: Ojeda IV Street leading to river • Marketplace: surrounding Plaza Rizal; home of vendors • Green Walk: P. Burgos Street, Gen. Luna to Public Market
Continuing from CBD I… • Green Connections to/from CBD I – Encourage pedestrians and cyclists to access the district in a more pleasant and safer manner – Supports benefits of a greener centre • Reduced congestion not only within, but to and from CBD I • Reduced levels of pollution
…to a Citywide Network • Visioning process will yield public input on what, where and how to connect important city and community assets and facilities
Proposed Ojeda IV Greenway • Benefits of dedicating Ojeda IV as first city greenway – Already a corridor: city right-of-way – Natural connection between plazas and river • Considerations – Anchors • Greenways should always connect anchors that give pedestrians and cyclists a reason to travel between them on the greenway – Variety • There should be unique features along the greenway so that the interest of pedestrians and cyclists is kept as they travel along the corridor • Phasing: from plazas to river to PNR to CBD II – Connect anchors at every phase and add interesting pedestrian and cycling features to stir excitement and encourage more users
Visions of the Ojeda IV Greenway
Proposed Sidewalk Vendor Aggregation • Aggregation will help reduce congestion on the sidewalks and keep pedestrians off the streets • Proposed sites for organization – Naga City Marketplace • Surrounds Plaza Rizal and connects P. Burgos and Gen. Luna Green Walks to Ojeda IV Greenway – Ojeda IV Greenway • Connects plazas to river and eventually to CBD II
A Vision of Naga City Marketplace
Recommendations: Overarching Principles • Engage in holistic, equitable, sustainable long term planning to create a city that promotes economic vitality, limits congestion, enlivens the downtown core, and supports the health of its residents • Create complete, compact, and highly livable communities
Recommendations: Land Use and Transportation • Create an agency or inter-departmental task force that engages in transportation and land use planning • Promote coordinated and dedicated transportation and land use planning in collaboration with the Centre of Environment and Natural Resources and the Office of Agriculture
Recommendations: Land Use and Transportation • Manage transportation demand, not just supply
Recommendations: Land Use and Transportation • Undertake participatory transportation and land use visioning and planning • Reserve land for future public transportation corridors • Plan for the whole community, recognizing that marginalized groups have different needs (women, poor)
Recommendations: Transportation and Land Use • Create a long term plan for land use that incorporates the needs of Naguenos and is not solely driven by market growth
Recommendations for CBD I • Recognize that the vitality of CBD I depends not only on the structure and occupants of CBD I, but of [Metro] Naga City as a whole. • Design a greenway network originating in the heart of CBD I that connects the centre to surrounding areas of Naga City. • Aggregate the sidewalk vendors in CBD I into two primary locations: Naga City Marketplace and the Ojeda IV Greenway.
Questions? Dios Mabalos Po!
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