Published on March 31, 2008
APPLIED LINGUISTICS FORTH REVIEW
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 1 Acquisition Learning Implicit. Subconscious. Informal situations. Uses grammatical “feel”. Depends on attitude. Explicit. Conscious. Formal situations. Uses grammatical rules. Depends on aptitude.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 1 Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition. Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition consists of five main hypotheses: 1 2 3 4 5 The Acquisition – learning hypothesis. The Monitor hypothesis. The natural order hypothesis. The input hypothesis. The Affective Filter hypothesis.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 1 Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition. 1 The Acquisition – learning hypothesis. This hypothesis says that There are two independent systems The learned system The acquired system is The product of formal instruction and a conscious process. is The product of a conscious process. Krashen says that “learning” is less important then acquisition.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition. 1 2 The Monitor hypothesis. Everyone has a monitor that tells them when something is good or bad. It requires these conditions: time, knowledge and focus on form. MONITOR Conditions (you need…) TIME KNOWLEDGE FOCUS ON FORM Have time to think. Know the rules (not have forgotten it). Feel a need to use the correct form.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition. 1 2 The Monitor hypothesis. TYPES OF LEARNERS THAT USE THE MONITOR. OPTIMAL MONITOR USER Uses the monitor appropriately. UNDER MONITOR USER Does not care about correcting. OVER MONITOR USER Uses the monitor all the time.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition. 1 2 3 The natural order hypothesis. This is a natural, predictable order in which people acquire language. It is the same for each person and independent of the instruction program.
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition. 1 2 3 4 The input hypothesis. People acquire a language by receiving camprehensible input.This input should be slighly ahead of a learner´s current state of knowledge( i + 1 ). + INPUT 1 i
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Krashen´s Theory of 2nd Language Acquisition. 1 2 3 5 The Affective Filter hypothesis. When the learner is experiencing high anxiaty, low-steem or low motivation, the filter turns on and causes the learner to block out input. INPUT INPUT MOTIVATION SELF - STEEM ANXIATY FILTER HIGH FILTER LOW MOTIVATION SELF - STEEM ANXIATY
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 1 Swain´s Output hypothesis. Output is a sign of learning and creates opportunity for each of the 3 functions. 1 2 Output promote noticing , the gap between what is said and what the learner wants to say. Output test hypotheses of the learners and permits experimentation with the gap. Learning happens through reflection on what happened with the experiment. 3
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