Formative Assessment in the Secondary Classroom Sh

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Published on February 14, 2008

Author: Dionigi

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Formative Assessment in the Secondary Classroom: S H I R L E Y C L A R K E Associate, Institute of Education University of London Formative Assessment in the Secondary Classroom AAIA National Conference 2004 Slide 2: Sharing Learning Goals Effective Questioning Effective Feedback Pupil Self-evaluation FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT Slide 3: Sharing Learning Goals Effective Questioning Effective Feedback Pupil Self-evaluation FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT The active involvement of pupils in their own learning Slide 4: Misconceptions about Formative Assessment Questions are asked to establish what has been learnt Questions are asked to further learning Marking suggests future targets to be, hopefully, remembered Marking specifies improvement needs and provides advice for immediate action Misconception Should be ... Slide 5: Misconceptions about Formative Assessment Misconception Should be ... The quality of the activity is disregarded and the bare bones of the LO become the main focus of a lesson Lessons are devised which explore and promote learning for those engaged in it Self-evaluation of how well criteria for the lesson have been met and where they could be improved (formative) Setting targets which are the criteria needed to reach a desired level...remember to Self-evaluation of level or grade criteria met or not met in a piece of work (summative) Setting targets which are within the child’s ZPD, are really understood and are accompanied by appropriate guidance Slide 6: Learning Objectives and Success Criteria Slide 7: Learning Objective Unclear Learning Objective Context To present an argument for and against abortion To present a reasoned argument including ‘for’ and ‘against’ positions Abortion Debate To produce a questionnaire about shopping patterns To be able to investigate the distribution of an economic activity Family interviews: where they shop & how their shopping patterns change To analyse 5 diets and decide what constitutes a balanced diet To understand the ingredients of and need for a balanced diet Analysing different diets Slide 8: Year 7 LEARNING OBJECTIVE CONTEXT SUCCESS CRITERIA Write persuasively using different techniques Letter to local MP regarding fox hunting a statement of your viewpoint a number of reasons for this with evidence a number of reasons from an alternative standpoint Slide 9: Year 7 LEARNING OBJECTIVE CONTEXT SUCCESS CRITERIA Write persuasively using different techniques Letter to local MP regarding fox hunting attempts at striking up empathy with the recipient recommended alternative action a summary reasoning connectives Slide 10: Year 9 LEARNING OBJECTIVE CONTEXT SUCCESS CRITERIA To be able to accept, respond and reply creatively to Teacher in Role Pollution use appropriately adapted language and movement use these to signify status and place don’t show embarrassment sustain belief in your role develop the situation through your contributions move the drama on Slide 11: Any Age LEARNING OBJECTIVE CONTEXT SUCCESS CRITERIA To write a complete story Story Title an effective opening an effective ending effective characterisation series of events use of powerful verbs, adjectives, similies, and/or metaphors check grammar, spelling, etc. Slide 12: reminder of steps or ingredients ensure focus, not quality create a framework for formative dialogue... Process success criteria Slide 13: Create a framework for formative dialogue clarify understanding identify success/best aspects determine difficulties with reasons discuss strategies for improvement reflection Slide 14: Effective Questioning Slide 15: “More effort has to be spent in framing questions that are worth asking: that is, questions that are critical to the development of student understanding.” Black et al 2003 Slide 16: Talking partners: training set pairs/change regularly check pairs for each lesson/day model good talking, listening create class ground rules Slide 17: Creating challenging questions ORIGINAL Which forms of exercise improve the efficiency of the heart ? REFRAMED All forms of exercise im- prove the efficiency of the heart. Agree or dis- agree and give reasons. STRATEGY USED Giving a statement or hypothesis to prove or disprove. FURTHER EXAMPLES All fairy tales have happy endings. Henry VIII improved people’s lives. Slide 18: ORIGINAL What do plants need to grow ? REFRAMED Why is this plant healthy and this one sick ? STRATEGY USED Finding opposites and asking for explanation. FURTHER EXAMPLES Why is this sentence right and this one wrong ? Why is this sum right and this one wrong? Creating challenging questions Slide 19: ORIGINAL Which word is used to describe energy types such as elastic, chemical and gravitational? REFRAMED Why is the word ‘potential’ used to describe energy types such as elastic, chemical, and gravitational ? STRATEGY USED Providing the answer and asking for justification. FURTHER EXAMPLES The answer is 1: using fractions, what might the question be? The ugly sisters were jealous of Cinderella. Why ? Creating challenging questions Slide 20: ORIGINAL Why do you think there are so many people interested in reducing pollution in large cities ? REFRAMED What argument would car drivers in London have against anti-pollution campaigns ? STRATEGY USED Answering a question from an opposing standpoint. FURTHER EXAMPLES How would someone whose children were hungry determine right and wrong ? Creating challenging questions Slide 21: Giving a range of answers What is 52 ? 3, 7, 10, 25, 125 Which activities improve the efficiency of the heart ? weight lifting, golf, cycling, walking, darts, swimming, skydiving What does a plant need to grow ? air, water, light, lemonade, milk, heat, sand, soil Slide 22: Children’s questions Encourage children to develop and discuss the worth of their own questions - eg: creating topic or test questions for others to answer hot seating annotate a simplified text with questions to the author Slide 23: Feedback Slide 24:  What we now know about feedback focus on the learning objective aim to close the gap indicate successes give specific improvement suggestions allow time for improvements to be made systematically relinquish control, modelling the processes Slide 25: “Teachers should be aware of the impact that comments, marks and grades can have on learners’ confidence and enthusiasm and should be as constructive as possible in the feedback that they give.” Assessment Reform Group 2002 Slide 26: “At no time during during the first 15 months of comment-only marking did any of the students ask me why they no longer received grades. It was as if they were not bothered by this omission. I found this amazing, particularly considering just how much emphasis students place on grades and how little heed is taken of the comments generally....When asked by our visitor how she knew how well she was doing in science, one student clearly stated that the comments in her exercise book and those given verbally provide her with the information she needs. She was not prompted to say this!!” from Black et al, 2003 Slide 27: Phase 1 At the very beginning of new work/assignment/enquiry explain to the class that you will be changing the way you will mark their written work in order to help them make more progress in the future. Slide 28: Phase 2 Read all of the student’s written work through very carefully before making any annotation. Next highlight three places in the writing where the student best met the learning intention(s) of the activity. Then indicate with a star where an improvement can be made to the original work. Slide 29: Phase 3 Draw an arrow to a suitable space near the star and write a ‘close the gap’ prompt to support the student in making an improvement to their work. This can be provided in a variety of forms: Reminder Prompt most suitable for higher attaining students e.g. Say more about . . . e.g. Explain why you think this . . . continued Slide 30: suitable for most students as it provides more structure to improve the work. e.g. A Question - Can you explain why Harold’s army was tired ? e.g. A Directive - Describe some of the preparations made by William which show that e.g. An Unfinished Sentence - William showed he was a skillful commander when he . . . continued Scaffold prompt Slide 31: particularly supportive of lower attaining students. e.g. Choose one of these statements and/or create your own: Harold was unlucky because he had fought another battle against Norwegians. OR Harold had a lot of bad luck particularly having to fight William soon after the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Example prompt Slide 32: Phase 4 Ensure that you provide time in class to enable students to read and respond to the ‘close the gap’ comment. This could also provide a suitable time to follow up individual needs with specific students ‘face to face’. Finally, remember to comment upon their improvement at the first available opportunity. Slide 33: Why did the Normans win the Battle of Hastings ? When Edward the Confessor died in 1066 he left no heir to the throne. Three people all wanted to become King. In the end William won the battle. In this essay I will tell you why. The paragraphs shall be: + Bad Luck + Leadership skills + William’s personality + Conclusion Slide 34: Harold’s bad luck was one of the reasons why William won the Battle of Hastings. Here are some examples. William was already annoyed with Harold for escaping his imprisonment, so he was even more determined to win. Harold and his troops also had to fight two battles in 17 days. One at Stamford Bridge and the other at Hastings. His troops were already tired before they met William at Hastings. Lastly, Harold got shot in the eye and died -- very unlucky! Slide 35: William was a skilled and experienced military leader with excellent tactical knowledge. Some historians believe that William deliberately made his army retreat, so that Harold’s army would break their strong shield. While Harold’s army were chasing them they regrouped and killed them all. This was all William’s idea. His infantry soldiers were highly trained and the cavalry rode specially bred horses. The soldiers were also equipped with chain mail armour to give them protection in battle. Slide 36: William was a wise man (and great man but took money from people for no reason, apart from the fact that he had a greed for wealth. He supported the Pope and was kind to the people who were Christians. However he could be ruthless towards people who did not believe in God. William was very stern and put anyone in prison that acted against the law. He stopped houses being built over woodland for William loved nature his favourite animal was the tall stags.) Slide 37: There are many reasons why William won The Battle of Hastings. However, I believe that if Harold’s army had been fresh at the Battle of Hastings he would have had a much better chance of winning and becoming king. I also think Harold should have won because he was related to Edward the Confessor, he was an important Englishman. Whereas William only supported the Pope and was a good soldier. Slide 38: FEEDBACK Anne - A well structured answer with a topic sentence to start most paragraphs - you explained clearly why Harold’s army were at a disadvantage at Hastings. You also presented your own opinion in the conclusion - well done. Target - This paragraph needs to be linked more closely to the questions - the words underlined in black are probably not needed. Anne, could you try to finish this sentence, please. Then add some evidence from the previous paragraph. e.g. William was a wise and determined man who carefully planned his attempt to . . . Slide 39: Student response . . . claim the throne of england. He took great care over his invasion preparations. He made sure his army was well equipped with chain mail, good horses and plenty of food. Slide 40: Why did William win the Battle of Hastings ? William won the Battle of Hastings because he was better prepared and he waited for the writ time. First Harold Godwinsons Army was attacked by Hardrada. Then Godwinson came back for more and killed Hardrada. Then he went to Hastings with no rest to fight the Normans. The Norman army were ready for war. And Harold came to the top of the hill. William ran up the hill with all is might but he was pushed down. He used the retreat trick. He ran away the English chased him surrounded him he turned and shot Godwinson in the eye and he died. (Student writing) Slide 41: FEEDBACK Jason - A big point to start off your answer clearly focusing on the questions - Yes this was indeed very important in helping William win the battle - the retreat trick was a very clever tactic in the battle - well identified. Target: Jason, it would be really useful to add a conclusion to this answer. Which of these two examples do you prefer or you can write your own: 1. The main reason William won was because poor Harold had to fight two battles in a short space of time. 2. I think William won for lots of different reasons. However, I think the most significant factor was his skillful leadership during the battle. 3. Your idea . . . Slide 42: STUDENT RESPONSE In fact I think that Harold’s bad luck plus the tricks William used in the battle both were the same importance. Slide 43: Self / Peer Evaluation Slide 44: “One of the reasons peer assessment is so valuable is because students often give and receive criticisms of their work more freely than in the traditional teacher/student inter- change. Another advantage is that the language used by students to each other is the language they would naturally use, rather than ‘school’ language.” Black et al 2003 Slide 45: Use real examples present pupils with 1 or 2 varied examples pairs/class evaluate examples against success criteria pupils later self/peer evaluate own work Slide 49: Students ‘score’ the talk: Scores revealed; red and green are explained to the student not as well as I could have explained it as well as I could have done myself better than I could have done myself Slide 53: Ways Forward Slide 54: get SMT support take your time start with keen teachers base decisions on research principles build on existing practice Slide 55: keep a journal share findings don’t go it alone involve students keep it going Slide 56: “The project has impressed upon me the need to encourage independence in students; too often they expect to be passively ‘spoon fed’ a syllabus, while we succeed not in extending their creativity but in quashing it. By the careful use of questioning, by encouraging students to critically reflect on their own and on others’ work and by making them partners in the teaching and learning processes, I believe we can make a real difference for the better.” Katrina Harrell, head of an English Department (in Black et al, 2003) Slide 57: “I transferred here from middle school. Nobody had told me there what to do to improve my work. Now I know exactly how to improve my grades. I know the criteria for particular marks in an assignment, and it’s my fault if I don’t do the work.” Phillip, Year 9 (in OFSTED, 2003) Slide 58: Shirley Clarke Education Ltd. 22 Hillcrest Four Elms Edenbridge Kent TN8 6NH t 01342 826939 f 01732 700856 shirleyclarke@wi.rr.com www.shirleyclarke-education.org

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