FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS

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Information about FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS
Education

Published on November 28, 2008

Author: livycat

Source: authorstream.com

PART FIVE – GROUP BEHAVIOR : PART FIVE – GROUP BEHAVIOR ENGR. LIZETTE IVY G. CATADMAN DMGT 715 CHAPTER 12 – INFORMAL AND FORMAL GROUPS Slide 2: A few deceptively simple changes in the way top management teams set agendas and structure meetings can make an enormous difference In their efficiency and effectiveness. Michael c. mankins When core group functions well, the entire organization moves naturally and smoothly toward high levels of performance, responsibility, and creativity. ART KLEINER Slide 3: GROUP DYNAMICS THE SOCIAL PROCESS BY WHICH PEOPLE INTERACT FACE-TO-FACE IN SMALL GROUPS Slide 6: WHEN INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONS EMERGES FROM WITHIN THE FORMAL STRUCTURE, THE RESULT IS DIFFIRENT FROM WHAT MANAGERS MAY EXPECT IN THREE WAYS: MANAGERS MUST BE AWARE OF THE INFORMAL ACTIVITIES, INTERACTIONS, AND SENTIMENTS OF EMPLOYEES IN ADDITION TO THE REQUIRED ONES Slide 7: FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS Slide 8: THE INFORMAL LEADER Slide 9: THE INFORMAL LEADER Slide 10: AN INFORMAL LEADER DOES NOT ALWAYS MAKE THE BEST MANAGER OTHER INFORMAL LEADERS FAIL BECAUSE THEIR AREA OF OFFICIAL MANAGERIAL AUTHORITY IS BROAD AND MORE COMPLEX THAN THE TINY AREA IN WHICH THEY HAD INFORMAL POWER. Slide 11: POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH INFORMAL ORGANIZATION Slide 12: NETWORK CHART Slide 13: Influencing informal organizations Slide 14: FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE OFTEN-PERVASIVE NEGATITIVE ATTITUDES ABOUT TIME SPENT IN COMMITTEE MEETINGS Slide 15: COMMITTEES A SPECIFIC TYPE OF GROUP MEETING IN WHICH THE MEMBERS IN THEIR GROUP ROLE HAVE BEEN DELEGATED THE AUTHORITY TO HANDLE THE PROBLEM AT HAND. THE WORKER MAY EVEN HAVE GREATER INFLUENCE ON THE COMMITTEE’S OUTCOME AS A RESULT OF DIFFERENCES IN EXPERTISE, INTEREST, OR EXPERIENCE. Slide 16: SIZE COMPOSITION AGENDA LEADERSHIP ROLES GROUP STRUCTURES LEADERSHIP ROLES GROUP STRUCTURES INPUTS PROCESSES OUTCOMES FEEDBACK SYSTEMS VIEW OF EFFECTIVE COMMITTEES Slide 20: AGENDA Slide 22: EFFECTIVE MEETINGS COMMONSENSE PRACTICES Slide 23: BRAINSTORMING POPULAR METHOD FOR ENCOURAGING CREATIVE THINKING. Slide 24: UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF BRAINSTORMING Slide 25: NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE EXIST IN NAME ONLY, WITH MEMBERS HAVING MINIMAL INTERACTION PRIOR TO PRODUCING A DECISION. Slide 26: DELPHI DECISION GROUPS A PANEL OF RELEVANT PEOPLE IS CHOSEN TO ADDRESS AN ISSUE. THE MEMBERS ARE EXPERTS OR HAVE RELEVANT INFORMATION TO SHARE AND THE TIME AVAILABLE TO DO SO. Slide 28: DIALECTIC DECISION METHODS Slide 32: CONSENSUS UNANIMOUS AGREEMENT. WITHOUT TOTAL AGREEMENT, GROUP MEMBERS MAY BE EXPECTED TO CARRY OUT DECISIONS THEY DID NOT SUPPORT. REQUIREMENT OR IMPLICIT EXPECTATION OF UNANIMITY HAS DISADVANTAGES. IT MAY BECOME THE PARAMOUNT GOAL, CAUSING PEOPLE TO SUPPRESS THEIR OPPOSITION OR THEY AGREE WHEN HONESTLY THEY DO NOT. CONSENSUS IS OFTEN INTERPRETED TO MEAN THAT THE GROUP ENGAGED IN WIDESPREAD INPUT GATHERING, SHARED LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING. MEMBERS FEEL THAT THEY HAVE AN HONEST OPPORTUNITY TO STATE THEIR VIEWS AND BE HEARD. Slide 33: SPECIFIC IDEAS TO REACH CONSENSUS Slide 34: FACILITATION SKILLS Slide 35: SEPARATE IDEA GETTING TO IDEA EVALUATION GENERATE MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS TO EVALUATE AVOID PERSONAL ATTACKS ATTAIN BALANCED CONTRIBUTIONS PIGGYBACK ON OTHERS’ IDEAS IDENTIFY CRITERIA FOR JUDGING POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS EFFECTIVE FACILITATORS ASK PENETRATING QUESTIONS FOCUS THE GROUPS EFFORTS MONITOR THE USE OF TIME RECORD KEY CONCLUSIONS LISTEN WITH THEIR EYES AND EARS CLOSE THE SESSION IN A POSITIVE NOTE PROCESS ITS OWN SUCCESS WHAT WENT WELL WHAT AREAS OF THE GROUP’S BEHAVIOR COULD BE IMPROVED Slide 36: WEAKNESS OF COMMITTEES PROPERLY CONDUCTED MEETINGS CAN CONTRIBUTE TO ORGANIZATIONAL PROGRESS BY PROVIDING PARTICIPATION, INTEGRATING INTERESTS, IMPROVING DECISION MAKING, COMMITTING AND MOTIVATING MEMBERS TO CARRY OUT A COURSE OF ACTION, ENCOURAGING CREATIVE THINKING, BROADENING PERSPECTIVES, AND CHANGING ATTITUDES. Slide 37: SLOWNESS AND EXPENSIVE COMMITTEES KEEP MINUTES AND WASTE HOURS! MEETING OF ALL TYPES ARE SOMETIMES A SLOW AND COSTLY WAY TO GET THINGS DONE. GROUP THINK WHEN A GROUP VALUES SOLIDARITY, IT FAILS TO CRITICALLY EVALUATE ITS OWN DECISIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS CRITICISM OF MEETINGS: OFTEN LEAD INDIVIDUAL THINKING IN LINE WITH THE GROUP’S THINKING Slide 38: GROUP THINK CLASSIC SYMPTOMS SELF-CENSORSHIP OF CRITICAL THOUGHT RATIONALIZATION THAT WHAT THEY ARE DOING IS ACCEPTABLE TO OTHERS ILLUSION OF INVULNERABILITY RELIANCE ON SELF-APPOINTED MIND-GUARDS ILLUSION OF UNANIMITY WITHIN THE GROUP WITHOUT TESTING FOR IT STEREOTYPING OTHERS OUTSIDE THE GROUP ILLUSION OF MORALITY PRESSURE ON DISSIDENTS TO GIVE IN AND CONFORM TO THE GROUP Slide 40: POLARIZATION INDIVIDUALS BRING TO THE GROUP THEIR STRONG PREDISPOSITIONS, EITHER POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE, TOWARD THE TOPIC. AS IDEAS ARE EXPLORED AND LOGIC IS CHALLENGED, SOME MEMBERS BECOME DEFENSIVE. ATTITUDES BECOME RIGID AND EVEN MORE EXTREME IF THEY ARE AGGRESSIVELY CONFRONTED. SOME GROUPS TEND TO MAKE A RISKY SHIFT IN THEIR THINKING. Slide 41: POLARIZATION THEY ARE MORE WILLING TO TAKE CHANCES WITH ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES AS A GROUP THAN THEY WOULD IF THEY WERE ACTING INDIVIDUALLY. HIGHLY SELF-CONFIDENT MEMBERS CAN EXPRESS THEMSELVES SO PERSUASIVELY THAT THE REST ACCEPT THEIR ARGUMENTS WITHOUT MUCH DEBATE. OTHERS, THEY ARE NOT INDIVIDUALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DECISION, THEY CAN AFFORD TO TAKE GREATER RISKS. Slide 42: ESCALATING COMMITMENT GROUP MEMBERS MAY PERSEVERE IN ADVOCATING A COURSE OF ACTION DESPITE RATIONAL EVIDENCE THAT IT WILL RESULT IN FAILURE Slide 43: DIVIDED RESPONSIBILITY Slide 44: THANK YOU FOR LISTENING THIS ENDS THE FIRST PART OF MY REPORT

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