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Information about forestry

Published on February 12, 2008

Author: Rina


Outlook for Forestry & Forest Products 2003+:  Outlook for Forestry & Forest Products 2003+ Terry Conners Univ. of Kentucky Dept. Of Forestry October, 2003 Snapshot: KY Forest Resources:  Snapshot: KY Forest Resources 49.9% of Kentucky land area is classified as Forestland (2002) 48.6% is Timberland 1.3% is “Reserved”/Unproductive KY Forest Area (1630-2002):  KY Forest Area (1630-2002) Snapshot: KY Forest Resources:  Snapshot: KY Forest Resources ~ 12.4 Million acres in Timberland New inventory was finished recently Acreage went down a bit Timber is worth $117+ Million to woodland owners (stumpage value) In 2001, KY harvested over 1.1 billion board feet of timber! KY Forest Resources Ownership:  KY Forest Resources Ownership 90% is privately owned 2% is owned by forest industry 98% owned by over 300,000 individual woodland owners (NIPF) N.B.: There are only ~ 88,000 farmers in Kentucky, owning ~ 13% of this! KY Forest Resources Ownership:  KY Forest Resources Ownership 10% is publicly held 50% of publicly-held forest land is in National Forest 20% is in Commonwealth holdings KY Forest Resources Ownership:  KY Forest Resources Ownership Percentages of “Who Owns What” (Private - Federal - State - Industry) have remained pretty constant since records started being kept in 1953. KY Forest Area Productivity:  KY Forest Area Productivity Growth in cubic feet per acre per year KY forests could be much more productive! KY Forest Area Productivity:  KY Forest Area Productivity KY Forest Area Productivity:  KY Forest Area Productivity KY Forest Area Productivity:  KY Forest Area Productivity KY Forest Area Productivity:  KY Forest Area Productivity KY Forest Area Productivity:  KY Forest Area Productivity KY Master Loggers  KY Master Loggers KML graduates since 1992: 5,331 Active Master Loggers: 3,655 New Master Loggers in 2003: 307 Master Logger CE programs conducted in 2003: 26 CE Attendance in 2003: 1,296 Forest Products Industry:  Forest Products Industry ~ 30,000 employees in primary and secondary forest products industries 1 out of 9 manufacturing jobs Annual payroll of $602 Million Based on 2001 Dept. of Revenue data that include the paper and converting industries, the KY Div. of Agriculture counts a total of 38,000 employed in the forest industries. Forest Products Industry:  Forest Products Industry Value of Forest Products made in KY: $4.5 - 5.5 Billion Forest Products Industry:  Forest Products Industry KY is in the top 5 nationally in the production of hardwood lumber. KY ranks 2nd in hardwood exports. KY ranks 6th in total wood exports, even when compared against major softwood-producing states like Oregon and California! Forest Products Industry:  Forest Products Industry ~ 530 Primary Industries (ex., Sawmills) ~ 540 Secondary Industries (ex., Pallet & large Cabinet makers) Including Logging co.’s, ~ 2550 firms Primary Manufacturing Companies in Kentucky:  Primary Manufacturing Companies in Kentucky ~ $1.6 Billion dollars value to Kentucky Secondary Manufacturing Companies in Kentucky:  Secondary Manufacturing Companies in Kentucky ~ $1.8 Billion dollars value to Kentucky Over 1,000 Wood Industries in Kentucky:  Over 1,000 Wood Industries in Kentucky Most of the companies are small and family-owned. About 900 of the companies have fewer than 25 employees. There are probably ~ 400-600 one- or two-man cabinet shops in Kentucky not included in this tally. Forest Products Outlook:  Forest Products Outlook Stumpage Prices Primary Industries Secondary Industries Non-Timber Forest Products Stumpage Prices:  Stumpage Prices Hardwood prices are up! Prices compared to last year: +7% for HW Sawtimber (~ $19.60/ton) +37% for HW Pulpwood (~ $6.50/ton) Stumpage Trends:  Stumpage Trends Trends in sawtimber: Cherry and Walnut, Red Oak up; Yellow-poplar up a little; White oak stable; Hard Maple & Ash down (continuing last year’s trend) Cabinet design market is heading back towards darker woods (3 - 4 year cycle) Components starting to be made for KY companies from imported wood, e.g., Chinese maple for kitchen drawers! Stumpage Trends:  Stumpage Trends Hickory is gradually moving up due to Red Oak cost (lots of hickory in KY). Hard to machine, but a potential substitute for oak flooring, also more interest for kitchen cabinets Yellow-poplar still strong for moulding & millwork markets. Good outlook. Stumpage Trends:  Stumpage Trends Soft maple has moved up significantly over the past several years Hard maple substitute, can also be stained to resemble cherry Price-sensitive, Chinese maple is replacing domestic maple in some large producers’ mills. Stumpage Trends:  Stumpage Trends Not a lot of information about Softwoods in Kentucky < 7% of the volume of standing timber in the state (not counting Eastern red cedar) Southern pine beetle hit our pines hard. Trends probably similar to more southerly states, SW pulpwood is going slightly higher. SW Stumpage Prices:  SW Stumpage Prices Softwood prices are about the same or slightly higher than this time last year. Prices compared to last year: -0.2% for SW Sawtimber (~ $36.40/ton) -2% for Pine Chip-n-Saw (~ $22.30/ton) +14% for SW Pulpwood (~ $6.60/ton) Stumpage Trends:  Stumpage Trends Kentucky harvests ~ 15-25 Million board feet (or more) of Eastern red cedar each year – use has increased by ~10% over last year. Production goes into shavings, boards and 3.5” x 3.5” posts that compete with treated southern pine for mailbox posts. (50% or more of production!) Most Common Species in Kentucky Sawmills:  Most Common Species in Kentucky Sawmills Red oak is most common (594 MM b.f.) White oak (424 MM b.f.) Tulipwood (Tulip poplar) (339 MM b.f.) Other hardwoods such as maple, black walnut, hickory and cherry (339 MM b.f.) Hardwood Sawmills:  Hardwood Sawmills 300 Sawmills in KY Div. of Forestry database Losing small & mid-size mills (10 to15,000 bf/day) because of difficulty in getting the high-grade logs that sustained lower volume, slower producers Factors: Consolidation of mills Optimization of mills through technology More resaws to convert cants more efficiently Hardwood Sawmills :  Hardwood Sawmills ~ 1200 Portable sawmills in Kentucky (est.) Ave. mill longevity is 5 to 6 years 30-40% of mills sold leave the state ~ 80% of owners get out, 20% buy a bigger mill Impossible to make a living sawing only 1,000 board feet/day! (ex., non-hydraulic mill) Hardwood Sawmills:  Hardwood Sawmills Portable sawmills are good for specific markets or high value-added opportunities such as: Railroad ties Yellow-poplar siding Restoration siding for old buildings Specialty, local-use woods, crafts markets Hardwood Sawmills:  Hardwood Sawmills Likely opportunity for sawyers in Quarter-sawn lumber market, but most feel it’s “too much trouble” Quartersawn (A) and Plainsawn (B) boards cut from a log A B Other Primary HW Products:  Other Primary HW Products Boards & Staves: Consistent, good outlook - Export market is growing by about 10%/annum Distillery business getting bigger - worldwide, alcohol consumption is increasing Other Primary HW Products:  Other Primary HW Products Boards & Staves: More countries becoming customers, ex., Cuba is purchasing some for aging rum. CA wineries are using some Kentucky barrels too. Other Primary HW Products:  Other Primary HW Products Poles Pine peeler poles (SE KY) continue to have a good market, but the volume is decreasing. Kentucky lost a lot of pine to beetles and may never fully recover this market. Other Primary HW Products:  Other Primary HW Products RR Crossties Hot Market! Big demand. Prices up last two years. Consolidators may be needed to attract small producers. Other Primary HW Products:  Other Primary HW Products Pallet Cants 4.4 Billion board feet of HW lumber was used in pallets in 1999 38% of total U.S. HW lumber production 48% of all KY HW lumber goes into pallets! Very competitive market! HW Species used in U.S. pallets, 1999. Bejune 2001. Other Primary HW Products:  Other Primary HW Products Pallet Cants Demand is up, but the market price has stayed about the same! KY pallet lumber is extremely cheap. ~90 pallet producers ~ 10% cheaper than neighboring states! Ex., $245/MBF in KY vs. $250/MBF in TN, $275/MBF in W. VA (2002 figures) Sterilizing Wood Pallets:  Sterilizing Wood Pallets Pallets now need to be heat-treated to eliminate pests whenever there is a possibility they might be sent to another country. Only have a few heat-treaters in Kentucky, will probably need more in coming years. Sterilizing Wood Pallets:  Sterilizing Wood Pallets A complete listing of companies capable of sterilizing solid wood packaging material is being compiled and will be included in the Division of Forestry’s database. Other Primary HW Products:  Other Primary HW Products Also see the web page at, under the pull down menu “Events & News, Sterilizing Wood for Pallets”. Dry Kilns:  Dry Kilns Good value-added opportunity ~ 65 Dry kiln companies in Kentucky Companies have continued to add dry kiln capacity, will likely continue to add more capacity. Secondary Hardwood Products:  Secondary Hardwood Products Millwork (Residential & Commercial) Flooring Cabinets Furniture Pallets Millwork:  Millwork Increasing production in last 5 years More/larger moulders have been added Cheaper machinery available Yellow poplar supply is exceptional, best wood choice Outlook: V. good, remodeling strong Flooring:  Flooring Growing market, will continue to grow Preferred over carpeting Species used (in order of demand): Red oak White oak Hickory Hard maple Cabinets:  Cabinets Remodeling market, won’t slow down Very competitive, lots of small firms and a few big ones (20+ employees) Most do well with custom cabinets Cheaper lines coming from overseas using U.S. (and recently, foreign) wood Cabinets:  Cabinets Entertainment Center market is predicted to increase. Custom Built-in market is also predicted to increase. Upgrades of older homes Maturing families mean different demands Transition to Flat-screen TVs Hardwood Furniture:  Hardwood Furniture Struggling! Chinese have taken a bite out of the business with cheaper labor. Higher-end companies have moved out of NC, TN, VA (with U.S. engineers!) to China. Producing good quality furniture overseas Hardwood Furniture:  Hardwood Furniture Still domestic opportunities for furniture that is expensive to ship – but losing ground to foreign competition. Ex., Entertainment Centers, BR & DR furniture Hardwood Furniture:  Hardwood Furniture Recently have seen more B-n-P workers (Breakers and Packers). Fill drawers and empty spaces with foreign computer chips, underwear, etc. for container shipping. Load is broken apart and repacked when it arrives in U.S. Pallets:  Pallets KY is a real force in the pallet industry Increasing number of pallet mills & repair facilities (could be either good or bad …?) SE KY pallets are a ~little cheaper (Range ≈ $6-10 (2001)). Industry shakeout expected – but hasn’t occurred! Pallets:  Pallets Trend towards more leased pallets in the past 5 years (30 MM CHEP pallets in 2000). (Customers include Wal-Mart, Home Depot.) Large demand for custom products, but industry doesn’t market itself that way. “Commodity” = Low Profits! Industry needs better marketing. Pallets:  Pallets Excess capacity in KY, room to grow Kentucky pallet plants are running at only 75-80% capacity, most other states running at 85-90% capacity. KY competitive advantage is due to low wood cost (esp. for customers in Chicago, etc.) Non-Timber Forest Products:  Non-Timber Forest Products Ginseng, Goldenseal, Black/Blue Cohosh Mushrooms Native fruits (persimmon, pawpaw) Nuts (black walnut, butternut, hazelnut) Christmas trees Fence posts Fuelwood Slide59:  Ginseng Ginseng:  Ginseng Ginseng: Wild simulation (i.e., forest-grown) is most valuable 5 to 10 year growth optimal Typical ~ $300 or better per pound of dry root. Price for Ginseng as of 9/25/03: $255.00 to $280.00 per pound Vandalism, theft are biggest problems. Ginseng:  Ginseng In 2002, 18% of the wild harvested Ginseng in the nation came from Kentucky. Nearly 22,000 pounds, valued at 7.5 Million Dollars. ~ 98.9% was exported. Over 4,500 Kentuckians make an income from the harvest and sale of Ginseng. Kentucky Department of Agriculture Certifies over 85 Ginseng Dealers Annually. Slide62:  Golden Seal Golden Seal:  Golden Seal With a low dollar value ($18.00 to $20.00 per dry pound) the pressure on this plant is not as great as Ginseng. Lower value, but grows in shorter time compared to Ginseng. Slide64:  Blue Cohosh (shown) and Black Cohosh are both harvested in Kentucky. Current price is $8.00 to $18.00 per pound. Mushrooms:  Mushrooms Shiitake (Japanese exotic) mushrooms are cultivated 3” to 8” diameter, 3’ to 4’ lengths HW stems ~$5-10/pound for fresh shiitake wholesale Shiitake Mushrooms Mushrooms:  Mushrooms Morels Mostly wild harvested, the production cycle is difficult to manage Value is at least $30/pound fresh Others are cultivated Oyster Mushrooms (~$7-12/pound) Morel Mushrooms Black Walnuts:  Black Walnuts Kentucky sells ~ $400,000 to $700,000 of Walnuts/year, hulled but otherwise unprocessed. Current price is $10.00 per 100 pounds of hulled nuts. (The picker is not charged for hulling.) A Mercer County huller sold 257,000 Lbs. in 2002, and 300,000 in 2001. Black Walnuts:  Black Walnuts 3,200,000 pounds of hulled walnuts were sold in 2002 Est. ~ 4-5,000,000 hulled pounds will be harvested in 2003 Walnut nut meat is worth $6.00/pound 224,000 pounds from Kentucky-produced nuts $1,344,000 in value from Kentucky nuts. Black Walnuts:  Black Walnuts $432,000 paid to the hullers in 2002; Huller receives $0.135/pound currently. $320,000 paid to the pickers in 2002; Picker receives $0.10/pound in 2003. Black Walnuts:  Black Walnuts Total value for Kentucky’s walnut crop in 2002 was $1,344,000.00 Meats $ 320,000.00 Shells $ 432,000.00 Pickers and Hullers $2,096,000.00 Total Value Coppice Woods for Crafts:  Coppice Woods for Crafts 35 varieties of willow are being grown on one KY farm. Other candidates: Hickory, Hazel, locust Christmas Trees:  Christmas Trees Marketable crop in 5 to 7 years Currently, mostly Scots pine or white pine is grown in Kentucky, but other species are becoming more popular. Close to 14% ROI can be expected. Christmas Trees:  Christmas Trees Kentucky has an estimated 100 to 150 Christmas Tree Farms offering live, cut, and flocked trees each holiday in addition to balled nursery trees during the spring from many of the farms. Value-added options during tree production: annual greens, wreaths and roping Christmas Trees:  Christmas Trees KY Christmas Tree industry is estimated at $500,000 to $750,000 annually, although 2003 will be the first year actual sales tracking has been done in 20 years. Recommend intercropping with annual crop (like alfalfa) because of slow production cycle. Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements Dr. Jeff Stringer, UK Dept. of Forestry Dr. Deborah Hill, UK Dept. of Forestry John Cotten, KY Dept. of Agriculture Dr. Billy Watson, Georgia-Pacific Larry Lowe, KY Division of Forestry Gene Parker, Hardwood Market Report Global Wood Trade Network Timber Mart South Jeff McBee, Pallet Profile Weekly Pallet Enterprise Forest Resources Association

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