Forest resources

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Information about Forest resources
Environment

Published on April 6, 2014

Author: Ajayavg165

Source: slideshare.net

Forest Resources College : Sankersinh vaghela bapu institute of technology Prepared by Patel Ajay(130750116026) Patel Ankit(130750116027) Patel Heena(130750116030) Patel

Forest Resource A term associated with forests and range including, without limitation, timber, water, wildlife, fisheries, recreation, botanical forest products, forage, and biological diversity.

Forest A land with tree crown cover of more than 10%, and area of more than 0.5 hectare (1 hector=10000 m*m) is treated as forest. (FAO-UN: Food and Agriculture organization)

Components of Forest : Biotic (living) Abiotic(non-living) Trees , herbs Land , Water Grass Sunlight Animals Air Birds Nutrients

Types of Forest (Location Based) 1. Tropical Forests: • Area bounded by 23.5 degree N and 23.5 degree S • Hot and Humid climate • Temperature: 20-25 C • Rainfall : Exceeding 200 cm (i) Low land tropical forests: > Rain falls almost daily (ii) Tropical clowd forests : > Higher Altitudes

Types of Forest (Location Based) 2. Temperate deciduous Forests: • Occuring between 30 to 60 latitudes • Temperature varying between -30 to +30 C • Soil is fertile • Rain : 75-150 cm throughout year (i) Deciduous forests: > Northern hemisphere (ii) Evergreen forests : >Southern hemisphere

Types of Forest (Location Based) 3. Coniferous Forests: • Called “taiga” • Northern hemisphere (50 to 60 N) • Low bio diversity • Snow form (40 to 100 cm) • Soil is thin , acidic (i) Grasslands: > Short period rain, more droughts (ii) Tundra : >Frozen, extreme cold

Type of Forest in India : Type of Forest States 1. Rain evergreen forest Western Ghats 2. Tropical wet evergreen forest Kerala , Assam 3. Tropical deciduous forest Gujarat, Rajasthan 4. Broad leaves deciduous forest Himalaya 5. Coniferous deciduous forest U.P, H.P , J & K 6. Mangrove forest coastal area

INDIAN SCENARIO: Forests Non forest (79.45%) Dence Forest(12.68%) Open Forest(7.87%)

INDIAN SCENARIO: Forests Unclassified Forest (17%) Protected Forest(28%) Reserved Forests(55%)

Pictorial 1.Dence Forests: 2. Open Forests:

Pictorial 3.Mangrove forests:

IMPORTANCE OF FOREST : Function 1.Protective functions:  Protect against : flood, soil erosion, drought ,etc. 2. Productive functions: Produces: katha , pulp ,paper , bamboos,etc.

IMPORTANCE OF FOREST : Function 3. Regulative function: Regulates : Temperature,O2,CO2. 4. Accessory function: Helps in : aesthetics and habitats of flora & fauna.

IMPORTANCE OF FOREST : * Ecological Importance *  Regulation of Global climate and temperatures:  Reduction in Global warming  Production of Oxygen  Conservation of soil  Important in a fertility of soil  Control of water flow  Habitats to Wildlife  Absorption of noise  Absorption of Air Pollution

IMPORTANCE OF FOREST : * Economical Importance *  Timber  Fuel food  Raw material for wood based industries  Bamboo  Food  Miscellaneous products

Deforestations : Before After

Deforestations :  Deforestation refers to the long term or permanent loss of forest cover.  10% loss of canopy is considered as Deforestation.

Causes of Deforestations:  Population explosion  Shifting Cultivation  Growing food demands  Fire foods  Raw material for wood based industries  Infrastructure Development  Forest Fires : (i) Ground fire (ii) Surface fire (iii) Crown fire (iv) human activities  Over grazing :  Mining activities  Attack of insects  Natural forces

Effects of Deforestations:  Destruction of species habitats Extinction of species  Loss of Bio-diversity  Reduction of vegetation Soil erosion  Loss of soil fertility Loss of mineral nutrients  Landslides  Destructs Oxygen cycle  Pollution + Global warming  Less forest products Quality of our life

Forest Degradation in India :  Before 20th century : 30% of land was covered by forest After 20th century : Only 19.4% is covered,  Nothing like Tropical, All reduced to coastal  NFC(1988) recommends 33% plain land forest , but we cover only 20%  “Chipko” movements only because of massive destruction in U.P  The Deforestation rate per unit population in india is lowest among the major tropical country.

Afforestation: Before : After:

Afforestations : The conservation measure against the deforestation is Afforestation. The development of forest by planting trees on waste land is called afforestation.

Afforestations : *Objectives* • To control deforestation • To prevent soil erosion • To regulate rainfall & temperature • To protect ecosystem

Afforestations : *Dam buildings* • Sardar Sarovar Project, Gujarat • Narmad Sagar Projects,M.P • Bhodgath Project on indravati river, M.P • Tehri dam on Bhagirathi river, Uttrakhand.

GTU Questions 1. Enlist all the Factors leading to deforestation? What are the effects and remedies for that? 2. Write a short note on : Afforestation 3. Distinguish between afforestation and deforestation. 4. Explain Tropical forests ?

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