Foreign Policy in the 1960s

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Published on March 19, 2014

Author: kbeacom

Source: slideshare.net

Foreign Policy in the Early 1960s Chapter 22.3 Pp. 751-759

22.3: Foreign Policy in the 60s • Notes • *Complete Chart on p. 751 • Answer • 1. What were the goals of the Alliance for Progress & the Peace Corps? • 2. What can you infer about the Soviet Union’s foreign policy goals from its actions in the Cold War crises of the 60s?

• “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” JFK—Inaugural Address,1961

The Bay of Pigs Invasion • 1959—Castro overthrew U.S.-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista • Promised to improve life for the poor • Seized large, privately owned plantations & property owned by foreign corporartions

The Bay of Pigs Invasion • U.S. refused to recognize Castro- led Cuba • Broke diplomatic relations • Castro soon developed a relationship w/ the Soviet Union

Bay of Pigs Invasion • Plan est. by Eisenhower in ‘60 • CIA was training Cubans to overthrow Castro • Training in nearby Guatemala • Cuban people were expected to help revolution • Resistance to plan was prevalent • **See map on p. 752 • “To give this activity…support is of a piece with the hypocrisy & cynicism for which the United States is constantly denouncing the Soviet Union in the United Nations & elsewhere. This point will not be lost on the rest of the world—nor on our own consciences…The Castro regime is a thorn in the flesh; but it is not a dagger in the heart.” • Senator William J. Fulbright, in a memo to President Kennedy, 1961

Bay of Pigs Invasion • Kennedy carried on w/ plan • Invasion on April 17, 1961 • Total disaster • Air strike failed to ruin Cuba’s air force • Cuban troops outmatched 1,500 American soldiers • Kennedy accepted the defeat, rather than increasing efforts • Bay of Pigs video

Bay of Pigs Invasion • Plan was incompetent & clumsy • Embarrassment for U.S. • Foreign leaders questioned Kennedy’s abilities to lead U.S. • Seen as hypocritical

The Berlin Crisis

The Berlin Crisis • Western regions combined to form West Germany • Soviet-controlled East Germany • Split Berlin w/in East Germany • 1948—Berlin Airlift was a success • Soviet Union hoped to make the split of Berlin permanent • First meeting between JFK & Khruschev (1961) went poorly • JFK felt bullied

The Berlin Crisis • JFK decided to beef up defense • Asked Congress for increase of $3 billion • Doubled number of men drafted • Sought $200 million for fallout shelters • West Berlin was “the great testing place of Western courage & will, a focal point where our solemn commitments…& Soviet ambitions now meet in basic confrontation.”—JFK

The Berlin Crisis • Soviet response=building of the Berlin Wall • Symbol of the Cold War • Construction started in 1961 • Stopped flow of East Germans to the West • The U.S. “will its cities to defend yours b/c we need your freedom to protect ours.”—JFK—1963 • “Ich bin ein Berliner” or “I am a Berliner”—JFK— 1963 • **See diagram of Berlin Wall on p. 753

The Cuban Missile Crisis • S.U. pledged to support Castro • S.U. was unhappy w/ Bay of Pigs Invasion • Oct. 16, 1962—photo taken by spy plane revealed Soviets were building missile bases in Cuba • Only 90 miles from U.S. soil • Tough decision for Kennedy

The Cuban Missile Crisis • Possible responses • 1. Engage in more negotiations w/ Khruschev • Might make JFK look weak/hesitant • 2. Invade Cuba • Risked all-out nuclear war w/ S.U.; but chance to oust Castro • 3. Blockade Cuba • How would Khruschev respond? • 4. Bomb the missile sites • Would Soviet launch a counterstrike?

The Cuban Missile Crisis • Kennedy ordered U.S. on full alert • U.S. bombers were armed w/ nuclear missiles • Army, Marines, Navy were all ready to invade Cuba • On Monday, Oct. 22 Kennedy went on TV to confirm that missiles were present in Cuba • He then ordered a “quarantine” of Cuba, careful not to use the word “blockade” • Blockade was considered an act of war

Cuban Missile Crisis • U.S. would not shrink from aggression, but did not desire confrontation • “The cost of freedom is always high—and Americans have always paid it. And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender or submission.” –Kennedy, TV/radio address, 10/22/62 • Some people huddled in their bomb shelters waiting for the worst • **See bomb shelter diagram on p. 756

Cuban Missile Crisis • Quarantine went into effect on 10/24 • Soviet ship stopped by navy on 10/25; it was carrying oil & allowed to proceed • Later a dozen ships neared the quarantine line before turning around • In Cuba, construction on missile sites continued • On 10/26 Khrushchev sent Kennedy a long letter • He promised to remove missiles if quarantine was ended • 2nd letter on 10/27 demanded U.S. remove missiles from Turkey in exchange for withdrawal of missiles from Cuba • Kennedy publicly accepted terms of 1st note • Secretly he negotiated terms of the 2nd note

Cuban Missile Crisis • Standoff was over • Sec. of State Dean Rusk “We have won a considerable victory. You and are still alive.” • World was closer than ever to nuclear war • Kennedy emerged as a hero • Khrushchev & Kennedy est. a “hot line” • Limited Test Ban Treaty signed in 1963 • Banned nuclear testing above the ground • Arms race continued however

Alliance for Progress • Soviet Union & US were competing for allies in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, & Africa • Kennedy tried to promote “peaceful revolution” • Building stable, democratic governments & meeting the needs of the people • In 1961 JFK called on the West Hemisphere to join in a new Alliance for Progress

Alliance for Progress • Administration pledged $20 billion over 10 years to promote economic development and social reform and to prevent revolution • “Land for the landless, and education for those who are denied education” • “A right to social justice” • Never lived up to JFK’s expectations due to widespread doubts

The Peace Corps • Est. in 1961 • Volunteers sent abroad as educators, health workers & technicians • Better standard of living in developing countries • **See p. 758 to learn about the Peace Corps today

Johnson’s Foreign Policy • Focused on containing communism • Sent 22K marines to Dominican Republic to put down rebellion • Rebellion stopped • Gov’t backed by U.S. implemented • 16K military advisors in Vietnam by 1963 • Opposed further involvement in ‘64 campaign • But faced increasing prospects of a Communist takeover of S. Vietnam

22.3: Foreign Policy in the 60s • Notes • *Complete Chart on p. 751 • Answer • 1. What were the goals of the Alliance for Progress & the Peace Corps? • 2. What can you infer about the Soviet Union’s foreign policy goals from its actions in the Cold War crises of the 60s?

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