Ford Carter 1975 1980

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Information about Ford Carter 1975 1980

Published on November 7, 2007

Author: Columbia



Sea Power and Maritime Affairs:  Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 19: Retrenchment Again - U.S. Sea Power, 1974-1980 Presidential Naval Legacy Continues:  Presidential Naval Legacy Continues LTJG Gerald Ford MIDN James Carter Slide3:  The Navy Under President Gerald Ford (1974-1976) MAYAGUEZ Incident, May 1975:  MAYAGUEZ Incident, May 1975 Cambodian communist forces seize 40 man American commercial vessel. Diplomacy fails to gain release Pres. Ford sends in USAF, USN, USMC (largest deployment since Vietnam) Recapture: 15 Marines killed; 50 wounded! The Navy,1974-1976:  The Navy,1974-1976 Vietnam aftermath: retrenchment Congress rejects $1B for SCVN USA vs. USSR “Peaceful Coexistence” = rivalry for dominance through client states Third World, notably Africa (Angola, Kenya, Zaire) Nuclear arms race intensifies MIRVs, SS-20 IRBM, Backfire, Trident SSBNs Soviet naval expansion US vs USSR Naval Balance:  US vs USSR Naval Balance USSR develops “blue water” capability following Cuban Missile Crisis Buildup engineered by ADM Gorshkov, Commander in Chief of the Soviet Navy 1956-1985 Hampered somewhat by entrenched Soviet attitudes: ships were for defensive purposes Soviet Navy of 1970s Ships with short legs and poor endurance Slow Optempo – ships maintained in port and crewed only to dash out and defend if threatened Capability to deploy forward develops slowly (gains momentum during 1970s) US vs USSR Naval Balance:  1963-1989: steady increase in Soviet Maritime capability New ships, aircraft and weapons constantly introduced OKEAN 75 – simulated strikes vs. USA Foreign basing Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam US vs USSR Naval Balance Soviet Submarine Development:  Soviet Submarine Development Akula Class SSN, intro in 1985, still in production (15 built work stopped on 3 others), spd up to 35kts submerged Victor Class SSN, 3 Versions (Victor I intro in 1967(7 built), Victor II in 1972(26 built), Victor III in 1978 (26 built), spd 30-32 kts Sierra Class SSN, introduced in 1982 (6 built) Alpha Class SSN, introduced in 1977, 14 built, capable of 41 kts submerged, Titanium Hull and liquid sodium reactors, believed to be the fastest, deepest diving tactical submarine ever produced Soviet Submarine Development:  Soviet Submarine Development Typhoon Class SSBN, 3 built intro 87 (33,000tons submerged) 20 Ballistic missiles Delta IV Class SSBN, intro 1976, Four classes built (Delta I (18 built), (Delta II, 4 built), Delta III, 14 built) (Delta IV 7 built) Soviet Hotel Class SSBN, a nuclear version of the Golf class SSB, had 3 ballistic missiles in the sail. Soviet Yankee Class SSBN, this one on fire and sinking 600nm from Bermuda after one of the liquid fueled Ballistic missiles exploded Soviet Submarine Development:  Soviet Submarine Development Oscar Class SSGN, Intro 1982, 18,000tons submerged, spd 28-30 kts, two versions Oscar I (2 built) Oscar II (11 built) capable of firing 24 SSN-19 surface to surface missiles. Charlie II Class SSGN, intro 1974 (6 built), 11 Charlie I built, Capable of firing 8 SSN-9 Surface to Surface Missiles Soviet Naval Aircraft:  Soviet Naval Aircraft The Bear Recon Aircraft The Badger bomber An AS-4 Kitchen Anti-ship missile underneath the supersonic Backfire Bomber Russian Conventional Carrier Kuznetsov, tested variations of SU-27 Fighter/Bombers, uncompleted second ship sold to China to serve as “floating hotel” Soviet Naval Aircraft:  Soviet Naval Aircraft An AS-4 Kitchen Anti-ship missile underneath the supersonic Backfire Bomber (Backfire introduced in 1973 tested 67) The TU-160 “Blackjack” (1984-7) has an operational range of 14,000km and a service ceiling of 16,000m. The maximum flight speed is 2,000kph at high altitude and 1,030kph at low altitude. Soviet Ships:  Soviet Ships Sovremennyy Destroyer, 10 built, 8 SSN-22 Sunburn SSM, new units being built for China Slava Cruiser (3 built) 10,000 tons – 16 SSN-12 Sandbox SSM Kirov Battle Cruiser “Death Star”(4 built), 20 SSN-19 Shipwreck SSM, 12x8(96) SAN-6 Long Range SAM, 16x8(128) SAN-9 short range SAM 6 CAD-1 systems with twin 30mm gatling guns and 8 short range SAMs per system(48), 130mm twin mount dual purpose gun, 60rnd/min per barrel, helo, 20 Torps It is not possible in the time constaints to give a review of Soviet ships, they range from all gun cruisers through Udaloys, Kresta I/II, Kynda, Kara, Kashin, Krivaks, Nanuchka, Osa, Peyta etc. These shown here are only the latest and representative US Navy / Soviet Navy Ship Force Level, 1969 and 1979:  US Navy / Soviet Navy Ship Force Level, 1969 and 1979 US Navy / Soviet Navy Ship Force Level, 1969 and 1979:  US Navy / Soviet Navy Ship Force Level, 1969 and 1979 Naval Technology Costs:  Naval Technology Costs Slide18:  President Jimmy Carter 1977-1981 Decline of USN (1977-1981):  Decline of USN (1977-1981) Popular and congressional attitudes Aging fleet WW2/1950s-era ships) Containment through diplomacy USSR as regional (Europe) threat SALT process Garrison force: Army/Air Force “One Ocean” Navy? The Carter Naval Policy:  The Carter Naval Policy Modernization? … Not! Austere shipbuilding programs “Peacetime Presence” mission deemphasized Navy sized to support European forces SLOC protection. Iran crisis (1978-1981) Army / Air Force options? Naval options? Warships deployed to Middle East Slide21:  Iran Hostage Crisis Slide22:  Disaster in the Desert, Nov 1979: Eight service members killed & left behind. Confusion precluded destroying the disabled aircraft. Classified documents left behind betrayed sympathetic Iranians and destroyed any potential follow on rescue attempts. The Carter Naval Policy:  The Carter Naval Policy 1979: Ayatollah Khomeini seizes power in Iran US ally lost Nov 1979, Embassy hostages Apr 1980: failed rescue attempt Sep 1980: Iraq invades Iran 1980: Soviets invade Afghanistan US supports anti-Soviet fighters 10 year conflict Soviets withdraw, leaving Afghanistan in hands of warlords, (ultimately, anti-U.S. Taliban) Carter Doctrine: Turnabout:  Carter Doctrine: Turnabout “Let our position be absolutely clear: An attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an attack on the vital interests of the U.S.” State of the Union, 1979 Consequences: Ford/Carter:  Consequences: Ford/Carter Carter “Europe Only” policy USN global capability diminshed Navy hard pressed to handle crisis in Middle East Policy options limited Reagan elected in 1980 Iran hostage crisis Public perceptions re USSR

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