Published on November 22, 2012
Dietary macronutrients and food consumption as determinants of long-term weight change in adult populations: systematic review Fogelholm M, Anderssen S, Gunnarsdottir I, Lahti-Koski M. Food Nutr Res. 2012;56Page 1
This review is about weightmaintenance –not about weight loss Interventions Cohorts/Case-Controls
Methods• Prospective cohorts, case-control studies and weight maintenance interventions were sought from 2000 onwards were included• Intervention were accepted only if: – ”(1) intentional mean weight loss at least 5%; (2) at least 6 months follow- up. The follow up (after weight reduction) could be non-randomised (observational cohort study) or a randomised intervention. In the latter case, the randomisation was done after weight loss, in the beginning of the weight maintenance intervention. A further premise was that weight reduction was similar in different weight maintenance groups. Weight loss interventions were also accepted if the total duration was longer than 3 y.”• Evidence ranking: Convincing (high), Probable (medium), suggestive (low)• Full details in the paper (open access) 3
Fiber is the only nutrient protective against weight gain ”FATTENING” NO DIFFERENCE PROTECTIVE N against weight gainCarbohydrates - 2 studies - N=39 275 (of % energy) Fat 4 studies 4 studies - N=302 808 (of % energy) Protein - 1 study 1 study N=94 094 (of % energy) Fiber 2 studies 7 studies N=376 326Number of prospective cohorts and case-control studies in different categories (kg/waist circumference).Only fiber was linked to weight change , and was protective
Different diet regimens do not protect from weight gain ”FATTENING” NO DIFFERENCE PROTECTIVE N against weight gainLow Carb-High - 3 studies 1 studies N=1093 ProteinLow Carb-High - - 2 studies N=176 Fat Low Fat -High 1 study 1 study - N=175 Carb Low GI 1 study N=773Control groups include diets based on recommendations, low fat, low protein high carb and high GI. None ofthe diet regimens were deemed as either protective or fattening. No conclusions could be made due to smallnumber of studies or conflicting evidence.
Fattening Protective• Probable • Probable – Meat (general) – Nuts• Suggestive • Suggestive – White grains – Whole grains – Confectionary and – Fruit deserts – High fat dairy Sivu 6
Meat and white grains likely to befattening but fiber and dairy protective Group name ”FATTENING” NO DIFFERENCE PROTECTIVE against weight gain Fiber-rich foods - 8 studies 21 studies (vegetables, fruit, nuts and whole grains) White grains 5 studies - - Potatos 2 studies 2 studies - Dairy - 4 studies 6 studies (Exc. butter) Meat 8 studies 4 studies 1 study (inc. red, white and processed) Number of prospective cohorts and case-control studies in different categories (kg/waist circumference). Post hoc -analysis
Conclusions• None of the evidence was graded as “convincing” (high)• There is no evidence on protective nor fattening effects of Low Carb and Low Fat diets• Fiber rich food items are protective against weight gain. Nuts are protective despite high fat content (Probable evidence)• Meat products, white grains, dairy and sweets are fattening (Probable or Suggestive evidence)• This systematic review is an integral part of Nordic Dietary recommendations 20128
Please, read the whole paper Just click the yellow link on the first page9
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