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Published on April 6, 2008

Author: Poulain

Source: slideshare.net

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From gastronomic heritage to food studies
By Jean-Pierre Poulain
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From gastronomic heritage to food studies Jean-Pierre Poulain Socio-anthropologist, Université de Toulouse Le Mirail

Jean-Pierre Poulain

Socio-anthropologist,

Université de Toulouse Le Mirail

Plan Tourism and the valorization of heritage Gastronomy versus food cultures Forward “food studies” Heritage and creativity

Tourism and the valorization of heritage

Gastronomy versus food cultures

Forward “food studies”

Heritage and creativity

Tourism: the meeting of two food cultures Eating is at the same time a daily obligation and a way of entry in the culture of the visited country, as well as It puts in contact its sense of hedonism The meal changes the tourist from spectator into an actor, it is a “formidable machine to travel” (E. Morin) The tourist meal is the meeting of two food models. By doing this, it learns as much from one as from the other.

Eating is at the same time a daily obligation and a way of entry in the culture of the visited country, as well as It puts in contact its sense of hedonism

The meal changes the tourist from spectator into an actor, it is a “formidable machine to travel” (E. Morin)

The tourist meal is the meeting of two food models. By doing this, it learns as much from one as from the other.

General problematic In the tourist activity, the contacts with the food culture(s) of the visited area take place through: The material elements , such as the dishes, the drinks, the ingredients, the utensils, the objects of the table, are most easily identifiable at the restaurant or on the markets, but also Immaterial dimensions of the food models, like the table manners, the forms of conviviality, the beliefs, although not as easy to access, can interest the visitors . Distinction made by Unesco between Material and immaterial heritage

In the tourist activity, the contacts with the food culture(s) of the visited area take place through:

The material elements , such as the dishes, the drinks, the ingredients, the utensils, the objects of the table, are most easily identifiable at the restaurant or on the markets, but also

Immaterial dimensions of the food models, like the table manners, the forms of conviviality, the beliefs, although not as easy to access, can interest the visitors .

Distinction made by Unesco between Material and immaterial heritage

Socio-economic impacts The tourism activities could develop all forms of local food chain: Tourists eat several times a day, that constitutes a theoretical increase of local food demand, Tourists buy souvenirs among which the foodstuffs and the drinks can have an important place, The production, or the transformation of certain foodstuffs can give place to a setting in tourism in various forms: Visits of production areas and factories, Museography valorization Tourism increase the fame of regional products and stimulate the sales within tourist living area

The tourism activities could develop all forms of local food chain:

Tourists eat several times a day, that constitutes a theoretical increase of local food demand,

Tourists buy souvenirs among which the foodstuffs and the drinks can have an important place,

The production, or the transformation of certain foodstuffs can give place to a setting in tourism in various forms:

Visits of production areas and factories,

Museography valorization

Tourism increase the fame of regional products and stimulate the sales within tourist living area

 

How to move from a comparative advantage to an absolute advantage? The traditional point of view (First step): To relocate a part of the food purchase of hotel industry you must have: Flow consistency Quality consistency And… better price From an informal organization to an organized market Master word quality (ISO, HACCP, certification…) Set up a competitive scenario with international food market operators in which the comparative economic advantage is only the difference of labor cost for all product categories It is a way of development, but the developing countries are dependant of the know-how of developed countries

The traditional point of view (First step):

To relocate a part of the food purchase of hotel industry you must have:

Flow consistency

Quality consistency

And… better price

From an informal organization to an organized market

Master word quality (ISO, HACCP, certification…)

Set up a competitive scenario with international food market operators in which the comparative economic advantage is only the difference of labor cost for all product categories

It is a way of development, but the developing countries are dependant of the know-how of developed countries

 

From an organized market to high cultural value products To develop cultural value of the products to get absolute advantages A “high identity” product like Champagne can be imitated, but not equalized! The more it is copied the more the value of the original is higher High cultural value products is a way to delocalize the benefits of tourism to diffuse it among farmers, caterer, food artisan and on the area concerned 

To develop cultural value of the products to get absolute advantages

A “high identity” product like Champagne can be imitated, but not equalized! The more it is copied the more the value of the original is higher

High cultural value products is a way to delocalize the benefits of tourism to diffuse it among farmers, caterer, food artisan and on the area concerned 

Cultural aspects Agronomic aspects Technical aspects FOOD Engineering Quality processing High cooking Protected food appellation scheme

Plan Tourism and the valorization of heritage Gastronomy versus food cultures Forward “food studies” Heritage and creativity

Tourism and the valorization of heritage

Gastronomy versus food cultures

Forward “food studies”

Heritage and creativity

Historical perspective of culinary creativity The difference between the notion of « food culture » and gastronomy, is that the first one is stable and the second follow trends and tends to be more complex “ Culture” versus “civilization”

The difference between the notion of « food culture » and gastronomy, is that the first one is stable and the second follow trends and tends to be more complex

“ Culture” versus “civilization”

1 Spice Trade 2 Discovery of America 3 Recentering on Europe

The social organisation of the Ancient Regime Spiritual The Clergy Craftsmanship and agriculture The population Economic and commercial The « Bourgeois » Political, military and at the court The Aristocrats Functions Social Categories

Spiritual

The Clergy

Craftsmanship and agriculture

The population

Economic and commercial

The « Bourgeois »

Political, military and at the court

The Aristocrats

The social differentiation During the Middle Age Spices symbolize a high social position Because they are : Rare Expensive Come from the Orient After the Renaissance Spices become less rare and less expensive, therefore more accessible to the “bourgeois” The ‘true’ taste of a product becomes the aim of French Gastronomy

During the Middle Age

Spices symbolize a high social position

Because they are :

Rare

Expensive

Come from the Orient

After the Renaissance

Spices become less rare and less expensive, therefore more accessible to the “bourgeois”

The ‘true’ taste of a product becomes the aim of French Gastronomy

"Cabbage soup must taste of cabbage, leek soup of leek, turnip soup of turnip, and so on … And what I say about soup, I intend that to become a common precept, applicable to all food." Nicolas de Bonnefonds, Les délices de la campagne, 1654. The alchemist model, the essence and the flavour of food, the sauces ‘liquid gold’. Upon consumption of these sublime sauces, this ‘drinkable gold’, Mankind itself will be transformed. Taste as an axis of development of the French gastronomy

"Cabbage soup must taste of cabbage, leek soup of leek, turnip soup of turnip, and so on … And what I say about soup, I intend that to become a common precept, applicable to all food."

Nicolas de Bonnefonds, Les délices de la campagne, 1654.

The alchemist model, the essence and the flavour of food, the sauces ‘liquid gold’. Upon consumption of these sublime sauces, this ‘drinkable gold’, Mankind itself will be transformed.

Birth of fashion : the distinction process ( Elias, 1939 ) The “bourgeois” begins to emulate aristocratic way of life Aristocrats ask their tailors, perfumers and chefs new practices to maintain the difference But the “bourgeois” imitates again, and so on… The fashion system emerges from this imitating/distinction process

The “bourgeois” begins to emulate aristocratic way of life

Aristocrats ask their tailors, perfumers and chefs new practices to maintain the difference

But the “bourgeois” imitates again, and so on…

The fashion system emerges from this imitating/distinction process

Centralisation of the state During the Middle Age France was a mosaic with more or less large geographic regions Henri IV (1589-1624) began state centralisation Louis XIV (1643-1715) followed and settled the court in Versailles

During the Middle Age France was a mosaic with more or less large geographic regions

Henri IV (1589-1624) began state centralisation

Louis XIV (1643-1715) followed and settled the court in Versailles

The impact of the French Revolution The French Revolution starts from a mass revolt but it is the « bourgeoisie » that takes over the power. The « bourgeois » dreamt about that since almost a century. They perceive through tables manners, a means to legitimate their new social position

The French Revolution starts from a mass revolt but it is the « bourgeoisie » that takes over the power.

The « bourgeois » dreamt about that since almost a century. They perceive through tables manners, a means to legitimate their new social position

The Critic: a link between 2 social backgrounds Grimod de la Reynière and Brillat-Savarin are 2 persons who contributed in bringing together the aristocrats and the “ bourgeois” The “ Bourgeois” attains power and attempts to find in good food habits a form of legitimacy Creation of guides and “labels”

Grimod de la Reynière and Brillat-Savarin are 2 persons who contributed in bringing together the aristocrats and the “ bourgeois”

The “ Bourgeois” attains power and attempts to find in good food habits a form of legitimacy

Creation of guides and “labels”

Is enjoying life's pleasures a sin?

The catholic morale and the spirit of gastronomy Greediness is one of the seven sins But the catholic religion have several means to get rid of this guilt repentance theory purgatory theory to go to confess indulgences

Greediness is one of the seven sins

But the catholic religion have several means to get rid of this guilt

repentance theory

purgatory theory

to go to confess

indulgences

Emergence of a breach between sacred and non-sacred foods Debates on transubstantiation theory Cannibalistic metaphors and de-substantiation of Eucharist From leavened bread to host From red wine to white wine Denial of the alcoholic nature of wine and drunkenness Transformation of an interdiction

Debates on transubstantiation theory

Cannibalistic metaphors and de-substantiation of Eucharist

From leavened bread to host

From red wine to white wine

Denial of the alcoholic nature of wine and drunkenness

Transformation of an interdiction

 

"Why is gastronomy French?" The emergence of gastronomy in the 17th century can be seen as the outcome of a social context resulting from the fact that gastronomic theories and literature became an independent branch of knowledge, from the social impact of the need to be different, from the quest for the ‘true’ taste as a vector of development of the culinary arts and, lastly, from the Catholic ethic. All of these social factors were individually necessary preconditions but not enough alone. For gastronomy to emerge they also had to be linked together, thus forming a specific social context. France was the place where these various factors were combined.

The emergence of gastronomy in the 17th century can be seen as the outcome of a social context resulting from the fact that gastronomic theories and literature became an independent branch of knowledge, from the social impact of the need to be different, from the quest for the ‘true’ taste as a vector of development of the culinary arts and, lastly, from the Catholic ethic.

All of these social factors were individually necessary preconditions but not enough alone. For gastronomy to emerge they also had to be linked together, thus forming a specific social context. France was the place where these various factors were combined.

1974 The "nouvelle cuisine“ and the compelling of creativity Before nouvelle cuisine The ambition of a chef was to be a good interpreter of the master’s works of the 19th century ; the golden age of gastronomy The idea behind the "nouvelle cuisine“ was that there was a dual gastronomic heritage: the haute cuisine and table manners of the elite and the local, regional food cultures founded on popular tradition. After « nouvelle cuisine Cooks must be creative But how to go about it ?

Before nouvelle cuisine

The ambition of a chef was to be a good interpreter of the master’s works of the 19th century ; the golden age of gastronomy

The idea behind the "nouvelle cuisine“ was that there was a dual gastronomic heritage:

the haute cuisine and table manners of the elite and

the local, regional food cultures founded on popular tradition.

After « nouvelle cuisine

Cooks must be creative

But how to go about it ?

How to be creative ? Going beyond gastronomy and dietetics To rehabilitate gourmet status La grande cuisine minceur La grande cuisine gourmande Go back in time, before golden age “ Culinary archeology”

Going beyond gastronomy and dietetics

To rehabilitate gourmet status

La grande cuisine minceur

La grande cuisine gourmande

Go back in time, before golden age

“ Culinary archeology”

From nouvelle cuisine to local gastronomies The homeland terroir Faraway terroirs : exotism (territory) We then shift from French inspired international cuisine to truly local gastronomies

The homeland terroir

Faraway terroirs : exotism

(territory)

We then shift from French inspired international cuisine to truly local gastronomies

Consequences of the encounters with other food cultures The development of local forms of "new cuisines" in Quebec, Japan, Australia, California, Germany, Spain, Norway… in which many young chefs are now revealing their talents. In return, these cuisines influence French cooking itself. Dish presentation, broader range of spices, diversity of cooking techniques... The outcome is a new fusion cuisine, enriched by the use of exotic products and techniques. In a context of growing international travel, tourism industry now treats gastronomic traditions as a cultural heritage. This heritage may be used as a promotion tool for local development

The development of local forms of "new cuisines" in Quebec, Japan, Australia, California, Germany, Spain, Norway… in which many young chefs are now revealing their talents.

In return, these cuisines influence French cooking itself. Dish presentation, broader range of spices, diversity of cooking techniques...

The outcome is a new fusion cuisine, enriched by the use of exotic products and techniques.

In a context of growing international travel, tourism industry now treats gastronomic traditions as a cultural heritage. This heritage may be used as a promotion tool for local development

In the 1980s it was with this concept of gastronomy that the great French Chefs travelled across the world to promote French cuisine The leading European, North-American and Asian catering colleagues were visited by the flagship French chefs and its rediscovery of French cooking's regional roots. What distinguishes contemporary French chefs from their predecessors is that they have ceased to regard other culinary traditions as "sub-cultures" that needs civilising and now find new sources of inspiration in them. A reciprocal influence

In the 1980s it was with this concept of gastronomy that the great French Chefs travelled across

the world to promote French cuisine

The leading European, North-American and Asian catering colleagues were visited by the flagship French chefs and its rediscovery of French cooking's regional roots.

What distinguishes contemporary French chefs from their predecessors is that they have ceased to regard other culinary traditions as "sub-cultures" that needs civilising and now find new sources of inspiration in them.

Welcome to the world cuisines The emergence of leading chefs all over the world is a positive consequence of "nouvelle cuisine". The focus of “ nouvelle cuisine ” on local food cultures has engendered conducive conditions for gastronomic decolonisation. Welcome Misters Ferran Adria, Juan Mari Arzak, Thomas Keller, Heston Blumenthal !

The emergence of leading chefs all over the world is a positive consequence of "nouvelle cuisine".

The focus of “ nouvelle cuisine ” on local food cultures has engendered conducive conditions for gastronomic decolonisation.

Welcome Misters Ferran Adria, Juan Mari Arzak, Thomas Keller, Heston Blumenthal !

Plan Tourism and the valorization of heritage Gastronomy versus food cultures Forward “food studies” Heritage and creativity

Tourism and the valorization of heritage

Gastronomy versus food cultures

Forward “food studies”

Heritage and creativity

What is a food model? A particular configuration of food social space A body of knowledge accumulated from generation to generation, allowing to select resources in natural space, to prepare them to make food of them, then dishes and to consume them. A system of symbols which put in place the values of a human group and take part in the construction of the identities of human-being and permit internal and external processes of differentiation. Models change according to time

A particular configuration of food social space

A body of knowledge accumulated from generation to generation, allowing to select resources in natural space, to prepare them to make food of them, then dishes and to consume them.

A system of symbols which put in place the values of a human group and take part in the construction of the identities of human-being and permit internal and external processes of differentiation.

Models change according to time

Food Social Space (Condominas, 1980, Poulain, 1997 et 2002) Cultures Freedom space Social dimensions of food Physiological and biological constraints Ecological constraints The edible products The food production The culinary aspect The food habits The temporality Social differentiation

Socialisation Process by which an individual becomes a member of a society It assumes that the individual integrates rules, norms and values One can distinguish : A primary level within the family circle A secondary level at school A tertiary level at work An ongoing process : Social codes existed before Mankind. But, the socialisation process occurs with different social interactions

Process by which an individual becomes a member of a society

It assumes that the individual integrates rules, norms and values

One can distinguish :

A primary level within the family circle

A secondary level at school

A tertiary level at work

An ongoing process :

Social codes existed before Mankind. But,

the socialisation process occurs with different social interactions

The social dimensions of food Food is a social phenomenon : What constitutes food and, therefore, what can be eaten; how it is to be prepared, presented, and consumed; with whom you eat and so forth express complex relationships to class, ethnicity and gender. Food studies uncover the complexity behind an everyday life material that affects and effects multiple social networks, wherein food is both the material and symbol by which class, race/ethnicity, sex/gender are socially constructed.

Food is a social phenomenon :

What constitutes food and, therefore, what can be eaten; how it is to be prepared, presented, and consumed; with whom you eat and so forth express complex relationships to class, ethnicity and gender.

Food studies uncover the complexity behind an everyday life material that affects and effects multiple social networks, wherein food is both the material and symbol by which class, race/ethnicity, sex/gender are socially constructed.

1. The edible products Within a wide range of natural products, containing required nutritive values, societies have selected a limited range of products that are considered as edible food. If this choice always presents qualities of adaptation , it is largely determined by cultural reasons

Within a wide range of natural products, containing required nutritive values, societies have selected a limited

range of products that are considered as edible food.

If this choice always presents qualities of adaptation , it is largely determined by cultural reasons

2. The food production Different forms of social organisations determine the conditions for production, transformation and distribution of foodstuffs

Different forms of social organisations determine the conditions for production, transformation and distribution of foodstuffs

3 The culinary aspect Cooking implies at the same time, technical and symbolic procedures applied to food It participates in the social construction of food stuffs

Cooking implies at the same time, technical and symbolic procedures applied to food

It participates in the social construction of food stuffs

4. The food habits

Table manners Eating with fingers : Indian method African method Creole method Eating with covers : Knife, spoons and forks Spoons and forks Spoons Eating with chopsticks : Individual chopsticks Re-utilized chopsticks

Eating with fingers :

Indian method

African method

Creole method

Eating with covers :

Knife, spoons and forks

Spoons and forks

Spoons

Eating with chopsticks :

Individual chopsticks

Re-utilized chopsticks

Forms of meals

Put on display the Values The cuisine and table manners represent concretely the values of a society

The cuisine and table manners represent concretely the values of a society

A Chinese table

A table of the « French Grand Service » Main Course Middle Courses Appetisers

Organisation of the « French Grand Service » First service Second service Desserts

First service Second service Desserts

Plan Tourism and the valorization of heritage Gastronomy versus food cultures Forward “food studies” Heritage and creativity

Tourism and the valorization of heritage

Gastronomy versus food cultures

Forward “food studies”

Heritage and creativity

Forms of the food heritage Living heritage : What we do in different parts of society or the different types of restaurants The recording of traditional dishes and practices identified like such (books of receipts…) Products, dishes, technical practices, food ways inventoried by the ethnographic investigation Sleeping heritage : What we have done in the past, but we do not anymore Written or oral history Forgotten products or practices Ex Pouls in the Limousin

Living heritage :

What we do in different parts of society or the different types of restaurants

The recording of traditional dishes and practices identified like such (books of receipts…)

Products, dishes, technical practices, food ways inventoried by the ethnographic investigation

Sleeping heritage :

What we have done in the past, but we do not anymore

Written or oral history

Forgotten products or practices

Ex Pouls in the Limousin

Forms of the food heritage Constructed heritage : What is in the spirit of… a cuisine or a way of life The magret of duck in France The samoussa with cheese   The duck with vanilla Give me only one tradition which will not begin one day…

Constructed heritage :

What is in the spirit of… a cuisine or a way of life

The magret of duck in France

The samoussa with cheese  

The duck with vanilla

Give me only one tradition which will not begin one day…

The slow development of “terroir” "Although one can dine in Paris, the real eating happens only in France's provinces. The delicious variety of dishes and wines .. the tasty recipes religiously passed on from one generation to the next constitute a treasure for each region of France, each one of an entirely unexpected, incredible diversity. ..." (Brun, 1928).

"Although one can dine in Paris, the real eating happens only in France's provinces. The delicious variety of dishes and wines .. the tasty recipes religiously passed on from one generation to the next constitute a treasure for each region of France, each one of an entirely unexpected, incredible diversity. ..." (Brun, 1928).

The birth of terroir 1790, impact de la départementalisation émergence de la littérature culinaire régionale (Le cuisinier Durand, Burlinger, l’Ailoli Mistral et le félibrige…) La cuisine comme résistance des identités régionales à la construction nationale 1920 L’inventaire du trésor gastronomique français Austin de Croze 1950 Le salons des arts ménagers 1980 La nouvelle cuisine de terroir 1984 Début des inventaires régionaux et du CNAC 2006 Les cuisines européennes

1790, impact de la départementalisation émergence de la littérature culinaire régionale (Le cuisinier Durand, Burlinger, l’Ailoli Mistral et le félibrige…) La cuisine comme résistance des identités régionales à la construction nationale

1920 L’inventaire du trésor gastronomique français Austin de Croze

1950 Le salons des arts ménagers

1980 La nouvelle cuisine de terroir

1984 Début des inventaires régionaux et

du CNAC

2006 Les cuisines européennes

The entry by the products New uses New associations Products or practices coming from one component of the culture and moved to another Food of exception ( snake, dog… ) Forgotten products Game between the popular level and the gastronomical

New uses

New associations

Products or practices coming from one component of the culture and moved to another

Food of exception ( snake, dog… )

Forgotten products

Game between the popular level and the gastronomical

The entry by the techniques Techniques of cooking Zambrokal Cari Samoussa Shopsue Techniques of sauce Le boucanage

Techniques of cooking

Zambrokal

Cari

Samoussa

Shopsue

Techniques of sauce

Le boucanage

The entry by the practices at the table Dressing and service Plates and/or dishes Nature of the containers To the interbreeding and their evocation of table manners Forms of conviviality

Dressing and service

Plates and/or dishes

Nature of the containers

To the interbreeding and their evocation of table manners

Forms of conviviality

The entry by the culture A cultural speech on the products and the practices constitute in itself an innovation which installs the gastronomical experience in a new context of significances Case of the training of the speech on the wine   The reflexivity Go Play with the code Malaysian cuisines are like a window open to the Asian world Malaysian cuisine like an entry in the history of the great discoveries Malaysian cuisine like an entry in the history of colonization …

A cultural speech on the products and the practices constitute in itself an innovation which installs the gastronomical experience in a new context of significances

Case of the training of the speech on the wine  

The reflexivity

Go Play with the code

Malaysian cuisines are like a window open to the Asian world

Malaysian cuisine like an entry in the history of the great discoveries

Malaysian cuisine like an entry in the history of colonization



 

 

Objectives of research on food studies for tourism To look further into the knowledge of the local food cultures (work of historians, ethnologists, sociologists and cooks…) and to support their development To take into account the food cultures of the tourists origins remaining in the zone (Erita for french Ministry of tourism) To continue the development of products Dishes, context of consumption, historical card-indexes, (restaurant, table of host…) Foodstuff souvenirs Products for export

To look further into the knowledge of the local food cultures (work of historians, ethnologists, sociologists and cooks…) and to support their development

To take into account the food cultures of the tourists origins remaining in the zone (Erita for french Ministry of tourism)

To continue the development of products

Dishes, context of consumption, historical card-indexes, (restaurant, table of host…)

Foodstuff souvenirs

Products for export

Reasons to study food cultures A good knowledge of food cultures Improves welcome Facilitates access to French Gastronomy Allows the exportation of French food stuffs In France Abroad By training By information Through trade

Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin Store and super market «ethnic products  » Internet sales (ex colis pays…) Cooking at home dishes discovered in the visited country After Restaurants, hosts tables Markets and store of food Guides Invitations at home Food souvenirs During Tourist guides Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin Television programs Experiments through parents or friends Experiments with the Diaspora Before spaces of valorization The number of trip

Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin

Store and super market «ethnic products  »

Internet sales (ex colis pays…)

Cooking at home dishes discovered in the visited country

Restaurants, hosts tables

Markets and store of food

Guides

Invitations at home

Food souvenirs

Tourist guides

Ethnic restaurants in the country of origin

Television programs

Experiments through parents or friends

Experiments with the Diaspora

Conclusion The food studies can be useful: To help the tourists to understand a culture To develop high identity products To develop creativity in gastronomy To relocalize and diffuse the benefits of tourism activity To develop collective labels To develop protected food appellation products

The food studies can be useful:

To help the tourists to understand a culture

To develop high identity products

To develop creativity in gastronomy

To relocalize and diffuse the benefits of tourism activity

To develop collective labels

To develop protected food appellation products

Food particularities will change social status… To become a means to get into contact with the culture of others and , therefore, to become one of the sharpest interests of the desire to travel » Léo Moulin, L’Europe à Table, 1975

Food particularities will change social status… To become a means to get into contact with the culture of others and , therefore, to become one of the sharpest interests of the desire to travel » Léo Moulin, L’Europe à Table, 1975

More Guy Fontaine et Jean-Pierre Poulain, Dir., Le tourisme dans les départements d’Outre Mer , 2002, Lanore. Jean-Pierre Poulain, Sociologies de l’alimentation , PUF, 2002. Jean-Pierre Poulain et Edmond Neirinck, Histoire de la cuisine et des cuisiniers, Lanore, 2000. Jean-Pierre Poulain, « French gastronomie, french gastronomies », in Goldstein D. et Merkele K., 2005, Culinary cultures of Europe Identity, Diversity and dialogue , Éditions du Conseil de l’Europe, p. 157-170. Laurence Tibère et Jean-Pierre Poulain, « Découverte des saveurs créoles : l’expérience Villages créoles à La Réunion » , Pour , sept. 2006. Laurence Tibère, 2005-2, « Nourritures créoles. Cuisines symboliques et identités à La Réunion », in Cuisines en partage , Diaspora n°6. Philip McLaughlin, Jean-Pierre Poulain, Laurence Tibère, 2003, « Tourisme et altérité alimentaire », Espaces . N°202 http://www.lemangeur-ocha.com http://expositions.bnf.fr/gastro/enimages/anglais/index.htm .

Guy Fontaine et Jean-Pierre Poulain, Dir., Le tourisme dans les départements d’Outre Mer , 2002, Lanore.

Jean-Pierre Poulain, Sociologies de l’alimentation , PUF, 2002.

Jean-Pierre Poulain et Edmond Neirinck, Histoire de la cuisine et des cuisiniers, Lanore, 2000.

Jean-Pierre Poulain, « French gastronomie, french gastronomies », in Goldstein D. et Merkele K., 2005, Culinary cultures of Europe Identity, Diversity and dialogue , Éditions du Conseil de l’Europe, p. 157-170.

Laurence Tibère et Jean-Pierre Poulain, « Découverte des saveurs créoles : l’expérience Villages créoles à La Réunion » , Pour , sept. 2006.

Laurence Tibère, 2005-2, « Nourritures créoles. Cuisines symboliques et identités à La Réunion », in Cuisines en partage , Diaspora n°6.

Philip McLaughlin, Jean-Pierre Poulain, Laurence Tibère, 2003, « Tourisme et altérité alimentaire », Espaces . N°202

http://www.lemangeur-ocha.com

http://expositions.bnf.fr/gastro/enimages/anglais/index.htm

.

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