Published on April 6, 2014
CBSS Humanities Flip Classroom Package Lesson 2 This lesson must be completed by Term 2 week 6
Changing food preferences • The choice of one food type over another. • Diet changes pushed mainly by income fluctuations. • Increase in income per capita leads to rises in demand for meat protein. • Key benchmark food groups are: –Cereals –Meat –Fruits and Vegetables
Cereals • Up to 50% of global calorie intake. • Common cereals in Asia are Rice and Wheat • With increased income, more rice is replaced by wheat (noodles and bread). • With further increases in income, cereal consumption falls – simultaneous higher demand for meat. • Obvious in Japan, China and South Korea.
Meat • Domesticated animals like cows, pigs, sheep or chickens. • Meat and dairy products provide protein. • Increase in income bring increase in meat consumption. • Type of meat consumed varies based on cultural preferences. • Egg consumption tends to be the 1st observable increase.
Meat (cont’) • In highly developed countries, the trend is a reduction in red meat consumption. • Health push for less red meat –Obesity and heart disease. • Overall global meat consumption is still rapidly rising.
Fruits and vegetables • Overall increase in consumption in both LDC and DC. • Different reasons for increase in each group. • LDCs consume more due to higher income. • DCs consume more due to the focus on health and perceived benefits of more fruit and vegetables in the diet.
Differing food consumption patterns between DCs and LDCs. • Economic Factors – Disposable income – Pricing • Socio-cultural Factors – Religious beliefs – Food preferences – Migration – Population Growth • Political Factors – Food supply stability – Food Safety
Economic Factor 1 • Disposable income –Amount of income left after taxes paid. –Increasing in both DCs and LDCs. –In DCs, an increase of US $1 in disposable income triggers a 20% of the increase is spent on food. –In LDCs, an increase of US $1 in disposable income triggers a 60% of the increase is spent on food.
• With increase in disposable income, food consumption variety and amount increases. • Among lower income groups, increase will trigger a switch from cereals to meat. • Among higher income groups, increase triggers a move to better quality food. – Move for healthier food types (organic food, olive oil)
Economic Factor 2 • Pricing – Poor (LDCs) are affected more by food prices than the rich (DCs). – Food Price Crisis in 2006-2008 saw populations in LDCs suffering. – Unable to afford staple food, fall into chronic hunger and poverty. – DCs have options to switch to less costly alternatives, LDCs do not and lead to riots instead.
2006-2008 Food Price Crisis Causes • Bad weather leading to crop failure • Increase use of farmland for non-food crops – biofuel crops. • Rising energy prices – increased transport costs • Trade restrictions & Governmental price control
2006-2008 Food Price Crisis Result • Panic Buying & speculative trading • LDCs –Larger part of disposable income spent on food –Less spent on non-staple food items –Food riots and protests as citizens are unable to afford food.
2006-2008 Food Price Crisis Result • DCs –Significant increase in food prices –People select less expensive options.
Sociocultural Factors 1. Religious beliefs 2. Food preferences 3. Migration 4. Population growth 5. Changing diets
Religious beliefs • Religious requirements for food consumption patterns.
Food Preferences • Fast Food – Meals that are prepared easily in advance. – Convenience for populations living in DCs. – Meals that are made for fast consumption and to be readily packed for take away. • McDonalds, KFC, Domino’s, etc…. – More people in DCs are moving away from fast food with more awareness of possible health risks.
Organic Food • Health concerns increasingly altering the food preferences of people in DCs. • Move towards organic foods (within income means) – Organic food – food grown without the use of artificial inputs, chemical fertilizers or growth hormones. Refer to Figure 220b Pg 104
Migration • Migrants bring new food to places. • Demand for new food products due to change in food preferences. • Indian migrants to UK bring curry and it has entrenched itself into the local culture.
Population growth • Population has increased exponentially in the past 1000 years. • Increased humans lead to more need for food. • Population growth rates are higher in LDCs than DCs. • There is a greater demand for food in the LDCs than the DCs.
Changing Diet • Diets of people DCs and LDCs will constantly change. • Globalisation and migration leads to increase exposure and fusion. • Traditional rice-eating societies will move to more ‘western’ cereal sources – wheat (bread, cakes and pastries).
Political Factors 1.Stability of food supply 2.Food Safety
Stability of food supply • Safe and nutritious food is available to all people at all times. • Food supply can be unsafe due to external threats. • Governments take proactive steps to reduce food supply instability. – Increase domestic production – Diversity food source origin
Civil War outbreak • Libya during 2011’s civil war, food reserves were rapidly depleted. • Cities and areas in the fight suffered food shortages. • Safety concerns restricted people from venturing out to find/buy food.
Natural Disasters • Zimbabwe suffered severe drought in 2008. • Widespread crop failure and food shortage. • Rural areas were most affected due to poverty and dependence on local food source.
Case-study Pg107 • Please read the casestudy on Pg 107 of your textbook on Zimbabwe’s drought in 2008.
Food Safety • Food Safety refers to guidelines that ensure food consumed is safe for the general public. • General aim is to reduce the contamination by bacteria. • 4 main ways to keep food safe – Clean surfaces (hands and food surfaces) – Separate (no cross-contamination of food) – Chill (Refrigerate to avoid rotting) – Cook (Cook at proper temperature)
Food safety threats • Sudden disasters – Fukushima nuclear accident led to ban of food imports from Japan for several months. – ‘Mad Cow Disease’ outbreak in USA and Canada in 2005. Prompt action by local government to stop the spread of the disease.
Pitstop 5 • Read the news article on pg 109. • Prepare Question 1 to 4 for discussion in class.
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