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Flurrescence of Medieval Europe

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Information about Flurrescence of Medieval Europe

Published on November 19, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Germanic roots and feudalism are described, as well as the Church and its doctrine.
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The Fluorescence of Medieval Europe The Framework of Feudal Society

The Fluorescence of Medieval Europe Christianity formed the ideological framework, the body of ideas that governed all life in this era Interpretation came from authorities The organization itself was hierarchical, headed by the pope or (Eastern Orthodox) patriarch Feudalism also emphasized hierarchy, faith, and, above all, loyalty to some master The left diagram shows the feudal ideal, from king to peasant

Christianity formed the ideological framework, the body of ideas that governed all life in this era

Interpretation came from authorities

The organization itself was hierarchical, headed by the pope or (Eastern Orthodox) patriarch

Feudalism also emphasized hierarchy, faith, and, above all, loyalty to some master

The left diagram shows the feudal ideal, from king to peasant

The Medieval Arts: Abstract Formalism Iconography: Identification and interpretation of symbols, usually in image form Before legalization of Christianity in Rome in 313, visuals identified new converts Fish served as a symbol because Greek word (ichthys) is an acrostic of the first letters of the Greek words: “ Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour”

Iconography: Identification and interpretation of symbols, usually in image form

Before legalization of Christianity in Rome in 313, visuals identified new converts

Fish served as a symbol because Greek word (ichthys) is an acrostic of the first letters of the Greek words:

“ Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour”

Numbers: Allegorical Symbols Numbers acquired allegorical significance, or a symbol other than its literal meaning Three is allegorical for the Trinity Four signifies the Evangelists (i.e. the four authors of the New Testament: the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) See p. 196 for their winged symbols: Matthew as man, Mark as lion, Luke as ox, and John as Eagle Twelve signifies the 12 apostles

Numbers acquired allegorical significance, or a symbol other than its literal meaning

Three is allegorical for the Trinity

Four signifies the Evangelists (i.e. the four authors of the New Testament: the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John)

See p. 196 for their winged symbols: Matthew as man, Mark as lion, Luke as ox, and John as Eagle

Twelve signifies the 12 apostles

The Medieval Visual Arts Generally, the arts abandon Roman realism Exceptions: Jonah and the Whale recast into the Christian theme of rebirth (fig. 9.6 and 9.7 on p. 199, Fiero text Good Shepherd (p. 199) retains few of the details expected of Roman sculpture Rationale: ban of graven images in Judaism influenced early Christian themes

Generally, the arts abandon Roman realism

Exceptions: Jonah and the Whale recast into the Christian theme of rebirth (fig. 9.6 and 9.7 on p. 199, Fiero text

Good Shepherd (p. 199) retains few of the details expected of Roman sculpture

Rationale: ban of graven images in Judaism influenced early Christian themes

Early Medieval Architecture Early Christian architecture was modeled after the Roman basilica Features: large colonnaded (i.e., with many columns) hall for public meetings: It contained a central nave (hall facing the altar) and a semicircular recess called an apse For Roman version, see fig. 6.16, p. 151 in Fiero text For Christian version, see figs. 9.8 for patterns and 9.9 and 9.10 for illustrations, pp. 200-201 Basic Roman model appears to the left

Early Christian architecture was modeled after the Roman basilica

Features: large colonnaded (i.e., with many columns) hall for public meetings:

It contained a central nave (hall facing the altar) and a semicircular recess called an apse

For Roman version, see fig. 6.16, p. 151 in Fiero text

For Christian version, see figs. 9.8 for patterns and 9.9 and 9.10 for illustrations, pp. 200-201

Basic Roman model appears to the left

Medieval Life: Germanic Roots I The so-called Dark Ages was a period of disorder and a struggle for stability Cause of the disorder: spread of migratory Germanic tribes across Europe in the face of the predatory Huns and ultimately of the Mongols They were largely agrarian, stateless, and militaristic, skilled in battle on foot and on horseback Lacking either cities or urban culture, they were called barbarians by the Romans (originally a Greek term) They represented the dialect of those peoples as “bar, bar, bar”

The so-called Dark Ages was a period of disorder and a struggle for stability

Cause of the disorder: spread of migratory Germanic tribes across Europe in the face of the predatory Huns and ultimately of the Mongols

They were largely agrarian, stateless, and militaristic, skilled in battle on foot and on horseback

Lacking either cities or urban culture, they were called barbarians by the Romans (originally a Greek term)

They represented the dialect of those peoples as “bar, bar, bar”

Medieval Life: Germanic Roots II The peoples all spoke a Germanic dialect, usually mutually unintelligible The tribes: Eastern Goths (Ostrogoths); Western Goths (Visigoths), Franks (original French), Angles (original English), Saxons, Vandals, Burgundians Ostrogoths lived in the now Slavic countries eastward; Visigoths lived near the Danube As they were pushed westward, the Goths occupied all of Europe

The peoples all spoke a Germanic dialect, usually mutually unintelligible

The tribes: Eastern Goths (Ostrogoths); Western Goths (Visigoths), Franks (original French), Angles (original English), Saxons, Vandals, Burgundians

Ostrogoths lived in the now Slavic countries eastward; Visigoths lived near the Danube

As they were pushed westward, the Goths occupied all of Europe

The Sack of Rome Battle of Adrianople: Visigoths defeated the “invincible” Roman army This unleashed a flood of Germanic tribes into the Mediterranean cities, including Rome The tribes included the Vandals, whose willful destruction of Rome in 455 added their name to the English vocabulary to mean the same thing Odoacer deposed the remaining Roman emperor in 476, marking the official end of the Roman empire .

Battle of Adrianople: Visigoths defeated the “invincible” Roman army

This unleashed a flood of Germanic tribes into the Mediterranean cities, including Rome

The tribes included the Vandals, whose willful destruction of Rome in 455 added their name to the English vocabulary to mean the same thing

Odoacer deposed the remaining Roman emperor in 476, marking the official end of the Roman empire .

Medieval Life: Roots of Germanic Law A chief had his own band of followers The primary law emphasized loyalty to the chief Loyalty to one’s chief went hand in hand with valor in battle “ If [a chief] dies in the field, he who survives him survives in infamy”—Tacitus This loyalty, known as fealty, formed the superstructure of the feudal state that would dominate medieval society for the next thousand years

A chief had his own band of followers

The primary law emphasized loyalty to the chief

Loyalty to one’s chief went hand in hand with valor in battle

“ If [a chief] dies in the field, he who survives him survives in infamy”—Tacitus

This loyalty, known as fealty, formed the superstructure of the feudal state that would dominate medieval society for the next thousand years

Germanic Law Served as the foundation of English common law and in other countries Law was developed by oral tradition passed down generations The chief was responsible for governing, but general assemblies of armed men made the decisions Assent indicated by brandishing their javelins Unlike Roman law, was not legislated Aim: to publicly shame the guilty, such as adultery (see pp. 244-246) Trial by jury is derived from common law—and Germanic law.

Served as the foundation of English common law and in other countries

Law was developed by oral tradition passed down generations

The chief was responsible for governing, but general assemblies of armed men made the decisions

Assent indicated by brandishing their javelins

Unlike Roman law, was not legislated

Aim: to publicly shame the guilty, such as adultery (see pp. 244-246)

Trial by jury is derived from common law—and Germanic law.

Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne (Charles the Great) rose to a throne hoping to restore the Roman empire under Christian leadership In a Christian version of holy war, conquered other Germanic peoples such as the Saxons, the Lombards, and the Slavs In 800, Pope Leo III crowned him “Emperor of the Romans” thereby establishing a bond between state and church Established administrative units under dukes and counts to carry out his edicts Fostered the arts, literature, and architecture (see p. 249 for details. Carolingian copyists invented a typeface, called a miniscule , that separated words with spaces and added punctuation, which Latin lacked.

Charlemagne (Charles the Great) rose to a throne hoping to restore the Roman empire under Christian leadership

In a Christian version of holy war, conquered other Germanic peoples such as the Saxons, the Lombards, and the Slavs

In 800, Pope Leo III crowned him “Emperor of the Romans” thereby establishing a bond between state and church

Established administrative units under dukes and counts to carry out his edicts

Fostered the arts, literature, and architecture (see p. 249 for details.

Carolingian copyists invented a typeface, called a miniscule , that separated words with spaces and added punctuation, which Latin lacked.

Medieval Life: Roots of Feudalism Feudalism arose after the death of Charlemagne in 814 Lacked a standing army, a legal system, or well organized state: fragmentation was inevitable Three sons divided the empire among themselves separating French from German-speaking Attacks by the Vikings from the north and the Muslims from the Mediterranean further created division Fragmentation of his empire led to people at all social levels to attach themselves to the dukes or counts he had created and to any warrior with a following The search for protection and security lay the groundwork for feudalism

Feudalism arose after the death of Charlemagne in 814

Lacked a standing army, a legal system, or well organized state: fragmentation was inevitable

Three sons divided the empire among themselves separating French from German-speaking

Attacks by the Vikings from the north and the Muslims from the Mediterranean further created division

Fragmentation of his empire led to people at all social levels to attach themselves to the dukes or counts he had created and to any warrior with a following

The search for protection and security lay the groundwork for feudalism

Structure of Feudalism The king was the chief protector of his subject in his realm, under various names The lords formed the subunit of the realm The knights formed the military level of this structure, with the serfs underneath them The serfs were the peasants, though they might differentiate themselves by social and economic class.

The king was the chief protector of his subject in his realm, under various names

The lords formed the subunit of the realm

The knights formed the military level of this structure, with the serfs underneath them

The serfs were the peasants, though they might differentiate themselves by social and economic class.

The Feudal Contract Feudalism involved the exchange of land for military service In return for the fief (grant of land), the vassal owed his lord a certain number of fighting days (usually 40) in return Other obligations by both lord and vassal were involved: courts of law, paying the ransom for kidnapped lords, and others Provided a form of local government

Feudalism involved the exchange of land for military service

In return for the fief (grant of land), the vassal owed his lord a certain number of fighting days (usually 40) in return

Other obligations by both lord and vassal were involved: courts of law, paying the ransom for kidnapped lords, and others

Provided a form of local government

When Knighthood was in Flower Knights formed part of the nobility who provided the protection Comprised a closed, hereditary class Men were mounted cavalry warriors known as chevalie r (French for horse) or Knecht (German for servant); The term knight was derived from the latter Typically wore chain mail (flexible armor made of interlocked metal rings) Observed a code of chivalry involving loyalty to the lord, courage in battle, and reverence toward women War games (such as jousts, or personal combat between men on horseback) were frequent

Knights formed part of the nobility who provided the protection

Comprised a closed, hereditary class

Men were mounted cavalry warriors known as chevalie r (French for horse) or Knecht (German for servant);

The term knight was derived from the latter

Typically wore chain mail (flexible armor made of interlocked metal rings)

Observed a code of chivalry involving loyalty to the lord, courage in battle, and reverence toward women

War games (such as jousts, or personal combat between men on horseback) were frequent

The Chain of Fealty Extended to the Pope The hierarchy of clergy from parish priest to bishop to the pope covered Europe Sanctions ensured the power of the church Excommunication of the individual deprived him or her from the benefits of sacrament Interdict extended this prohibition to entire communities or fiefdoms’ Finally, any deviation from Church doctrine was branded as heresy , thereby targeting the individual or community for these sanctions, plus more severe, physical punishment—such as burning at the stake

The hierarchy of clergy from parish priest to bishop to the pope covered Europe

Sanctions ensured the power of the church

Excommunication of the individual deprived him or her from the benefits of sacrament

Interdict extended this prohibition to entire communities or fiefdoms’

Finally, any deviation from Church doctrine was branded as heresy , thereby targeting the individual or community for these sanctions, plus more severe, physical punishment—such as burning at the stake

The Crusade: War Against the Infidels Initially intended to recapture Christian lands from Muslim. The crusades expanded to subjugate pagan Slavs, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Jews, and heretics, among others There were nine Crusades, according to one typology As in all wars, the Crusades involved mass killings in the name of Christianity

Initially intended to recapture Christian lands from Muslim.

The crusades expanded to subjugate pagan Slavs, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Jews, and heretics, among others

There were nine Crusades, according to one typology

As in all wars, the Crusades involved mass killings in the name of Christianity

Interpretation of the Crusades: A Defensive Move? According to some historians (e.g. Thomas Madden), the Crusades were a defensive response to Islamic expansion Expansion was ordered by Muhammad himself, who declared war against other religious faiths The Muslims were doing well, conquering two-thirds of the old Christian world in Turkey, North Africa, and much of southern Europe When Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade (left), he justified it as a defense against Islamic expansionism

According to some historians (e.g. Thomas Madden), the Crusades were a defensive response to Islamic expansion

Expansion was ordered by Muhammad himself, who declared war against other religious faiths

The Muslims were doing well, conquering two-thirds of the old Christian world in Turkey, North Africa, and much of southern Europe

When Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade (left), he justified it as a defense against Islamic expansionism

The Crusades: Holy Terror

Conclusion The medieval era also had Germanic roots The iconography of Christianity became codes for pre-legal Christians in Rome Some of the architecture was of Roman derivation, such as the basilica There were Germanic as well as Hebrew and classical roots of the medieval era Feudalism itself came from the Germanic tribal beliefs of loyalty to one’s chief The hierarchy also was of Roman derivation They culminated in the Crusades against Muslims and others Next: how did the arts of the medieval era reflect this social and political structure?

The medieval era also had Germanic roots

The iconography of Christianity became codes for pre-legal Christians in Rome

Some of the architecture was of Roman derivation, such as the basilica

There were Germanic as well as Hebrew and classical roots of the medieval era

Feudalism itself came from the Germanic tribal beliefs of loyalty to one’s chief

The hierarchy also was of Roman derivation

They culminated in the Crusades against Muslims and others

Next: how did the arts of the medieval era reflect this social and political structure?

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