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FLORAL BIOLOGY AND BREEDING METHODSOF GREEN GRAM

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Information about FLORAL BIOLOGY AND BREEDING METHODSOF GREEN GRAM
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Published on October 15, 2014

Author: pragadaveraja

Source: authorstream.com

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WELCOME: WELCOME TOPIC: FLORAL STRUCTURE, BREEDING AND POLLINATION MECHANISMS OF GREEN GRAM PREPARED BY: PRAGADA VERAJA 13MSSDCI032 SAMHIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCES, ALLAHABAD,UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA.: TOPIC: FLORAL STRUCTURE, BREEDING AND POLLINATION MECHANISMS OF GREEN GRAM PREPARED BY: PRAGADA VERAJA 13MSSDCI032 SAMHIGGINBOTTOM INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCES, ALLAHABAD,UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA. GREEN GRAM 1. Botanical name: Vigna radiata 2. Family : leguminasae 3. Common Indian names: mung ,mung bean, golden gram 4. Chromosomal number : 2n= 22 5. Progenitor : Vigna radiata var. sublobata.: GREEN GRAM 1. Botanical name: Vigna radiata 2. Family : leguminasae 3. Common Indian names: mung , mung bean, golden gram 4. Chromosomal number : 2n= 22 5. Progenitor : Vigna radiata var. sublobata. ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION 1. Origin : India. 2. Distribution : India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Philippines ,Taiwan , Thailand, Nepal. In India, UP, MP, AP, TN, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka.: ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION 1. Origin : India. 2. Distribution : India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Philippines ,Taiwan , Thailand, Nepal. In India, UP, MP, AP, TN, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka. AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY : AREA, PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY COUNTRY AREA PRODUCTION PRODUCTIVITY INDIA 3 M ha 1.2 M tonnes 436 kg/ha ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE 1. Pods are used as vegetables. 2. It is highly digestible pulse crop than any other pulse crop. 3.The husk and haulms are used as good fodder for cattle. 4.The left over seed coat i.e. testa is also used for milch cattle. 5.Due to it’s shorter duration, it can be fit well in several multiple cropping systems.: ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE 1. Pods are used as vegetables. 2. It is highly digestible pulse crop than any other pulse crop. 3.The husk and haulms are used as good fodder for cattle. 4.The left over seed coat i.e. testa is also used for milch cattle. 5.Due to it’s shorter duration, it can be fit well in several multiple cropping systems. 6. It is also grown as a green manure crop. 7. Inclusion of green gram in cropping systems improves soil health and fertility. 8. Being a close growing crop, it helps in reducing soil erosion and also checks weed growth. 9. Being a legume crop, it fixes biological nitrogen.: 6. It is also grown as a green manure crop. 7. Inclusion of green gram in cropping systems improves soil health and fertility. 8. Being a close growing crop, it helps in reducing soil erosion and also checks weed growth. 9. Being a legume crop, it fixes biological nitrogen. FLORAL STRUCTURE: 1.Inflorescence: raceme 2.Flower: bracteate, bracteolate, pedicellate, complete, zygomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous and perigynous.: FLORAL STRUCTURE: 1.Inflorescence: raceme 2.Flower: bracteate, bracteolate, pedicellate, complete, zygomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous and perigynous. 3. Calyx: 5 sepals, gamosepalous, valvate aestivation. 4. Corolla: papilionaceous, 5 petals, descendingly imbricate aestivation. (a)one posterior petal-largest, vexillum or standard petal. (b)two lateral petals- wings or alae. (c)two anterior petals- boat shaped, keel or carina. : 3. Calyx: 5 sepals, gamosepalous, valvate aestivation. 4. Corolla: papilionaceous, 5 petals, descendingly imbricate aestivation. (a) one posterior petal-largest, vexillum or standard petal. (b)two lateral petals- wings or alae. (c)two anterior petals- boat shaped, keel or carina. FLORAL DIAGRAM:: FLORAL DIAGRAM: 5.Androecium: 10(9+1) stamens, diadelphous, anthers are dithecous, introse, dehisce longitudinally.: 5.Androecium: 10(9+1) stamens, diadelphous, anthers are dithecous, introse, dehisce longitudinally. 6.Gynoecium: monocarpellary, unilocular, half inferior ovary, style is long and curved at the apex. Stigma is usually simple. Nectar glands are present at the base of ovary. LIST OF BREEDING METHODS IN GREEN GRAM: 1.Introduction 2.Pure line selection 3.Pedigree method 4.Hybridization 5.Mutation breeding 6.Embryo culture: LIST OF BREEDING METHODS IN GREEN GRAM: 1.Introduction 2.Pure line selection 3.Pedigree method 4.Hybridization 5.Mutation breeding 6.Embryo culture BREEDING METHODS: 1. Introduction: bringing the required crop varieties from other country or state or place for breeding is called as introduction. Eg: pusa vaisaki, B-M-4, J-781. 2. Pure line selection: a pure line is a progeny of a single homozygous plant of a self pollinated species. Eg: Co1. : BREEDING METHODS: 1. Introduction: bringing the required crop varieties from other country or state or place for breeding is called as introduction. Eg: pusa vaisaki, B-M-4, J-781. 2. Pure line selection: a pure line is a progeny of a single homozygous plant of a self pollinated species. Eg: Co1. 3. Pedigree method: in this method, individual plants are selected from F2 and subsequent generations and their progenies are tested. Eg: S-8, Phule M-2.: 3. Pedigree method: in this method, individual plants are selected from F2 and subsequent generations and their progenies are tested. Eg: S-8, Phule M-2. 4. Hybridization : the crossing of two plants or lines of dissimilar genotypes is known as hybridization. It can be as following. (A)Inter varietal: cross between two different varieties of the same species. (B)Inter specific: cross between the two different species of the same genus. Eg: V. radiata × V. umbellata V. radiata × V. sublobata. : 4. Hybridization : the crossing of two plants or lines of dissimilar genotypes is known as hybridization. It can be as following. (A)Inter varietal: cross between two different varieties of the same species. (B)Inter specific: cross between the two different species of the same genus. Eg: V. radiata × V. umbellata V. radiata × V. sublobata. 5. Mutation breeding: breeding by incorporating the desired mutant from a variety into the required variety is mutation breeding. Eg: Co4 mutant of Co1 6. Embryo culture: means excision of embryos regardless of age, size and developmental stages from natural environment and growing them under artificial environmental conditions. Eg: green gram × black gram.: 5. Mutation breeding: breeding by incorporating the desired mutant from a variety into the required variety is mutation breeding. Eg: Co4 mutant of Co1 6. Embryo culture: means excision of embryos regardless of age, size and developmental stages from natural environment and growing them under artificial environmental conditions. Eg: green gram × black gram. BREEDING OBJECTIVES: 1. High yielding, medium duration, dry land varieties. 2. High yielding, short duration, irrigated varieties. 3. Breeding for rice fallows. 4. Breeding for disease resistance like YMV, leaf crinkle virus. 5. Breeding for quality. 6. Resistance to shattering. : BREEDING OBJECTIVES: 1. High yielding, medium duration, dry land varieties. 2. High yielding, short duration, irrigated varieties. 3. Breeding for rice fallows. 4. Breeding for disease resistance like YMV, leaf crinkle virus. 5. Breeding for quality. 6. Resistance to shattering. POLLINATION: As flowers of green gram shows protandry, usually self pollination occurs. : POLLINATION: As flowers of green gram shows protandry, usually self pollination occurs. PISTON MECHANISM: The type of insect pollination. The insect attracted by standard petal. Insect alights on the wing petals and press them down, as keel petals are also pressed down and open exposing the stigma and stamens. The stigma rubs to the abdomen of the insect and collects pollens. Since the movement of essential organs is like that of a piston, it is called as “piston mechanism”. : PISTON MECHANISM: The type of insect pollination. The insect attracted by standard petal. Insect alights on the wing petals and press them down, as keel petals are also pressed down and open exposing the stigma and stamens. The stigma rubs to the abdomen of the insect and collects pollens. Since the movement of essential organs is like that of a piston, it is called as “ piston mechanism ”. A. Structure of the flower. B. Flower showing the exposed anthers and hidden s stigma. C. The insect attracted by standard petal, insect alights on the wing petals and press them down, as keel petals are also pressed down and open exposing the stigma and stamens. D. The stigma rubs to the abdomen of the insect and collects pollens. : A. Structure of the flower. B. Flower showing the exposed anthers and hidden s stigma. C. The insect attracted by standard petal, insect alights on the wing petals and press them down, as keel petals are also pressed down and open exposing the stigma and stamens. D. The stigma rubs to the abdomen of the insect and collects pollens. REFERENCE: 1.Intermediate first year, Botany, telugu akademi, Hyderabad. 2.www.angrau.net 3. Principles of plant breeding, Pundhan Singh. : REFERENCE: 1.Intermediate first year, Botany, telugu akademi, Hyderabad. 2.www.angrau.net 3. Principles of plant breeding, Pundhan Singh. PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU

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