Floor finishes

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Information about Floor finishes
Education

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: hamzaaaaaah

Source: slideshare.net

FLOOR FINISHES GROUP MEMBERS AFAQ, AIMAN, ASHHAR, BUSHRA, SHAHAB, SUNDUS, ZOHRA

FLOOR FINISHES O A floor finish is a general term for a permanent covering of a floor. It is expected to protect and extend the life of the floor while providing an attractive appearance and slip resistant surface. INGREDIENTS O There are five basic categories of floor finish ingredients, (1) Polymer emulsions, (2) Film formers, (3) Modifiers, (4) Preservatives (5) Water TYPES O Terrazzo Flooring O Stone Flooring O Timber Flooring O Brick Flooring O PCC Flooring O PVC Flooring

WHAT’S IN A FLOOR FINISH O As many as twenty-five ingredients. Some evaporate while others remain after drying. O Those that evaporate are "volatile" and those that stay on the floor are "nonvolatile" components. O Ingredients are used to enhance floor finish characteristics like hardness, gloss, clarity, scuff resistance, slip resistance, water and detergent resistance, buff ability, removability, recoat ability, and toughness.

TERRAZO FLOORING`  Terrazzo is a flooring material traditionally made by exposing marble chips on the surface of concrete and then polishing until smooth.  However terrazzo is now available in tile form.  It’s often used in public buildings because it’s longlasting and can be refinished repeatedly.

COMPONENTS/INGREDIENTS Best Use : Flooring, walls, countertops, backsplashes The typical thickness for terrazzo is between 2 1/2" and 3" Installation Cost : minimum 30 to 50 INR per square feet to a max 200 INR. CONCRETE + STONE, GLASS, PLASTIC AGGREGATES = TERRAZO

INSTALLATION PROCESS

DEFECTS 1. Cracks 2. Discoloration 3. Scratches 4. Sealant failure 5. Wear

WHY USE TERRAZO FLOORING? • Extremely hard wearing • Easy to clean and maintain • Attractive in appearance • Flexible – can be designed to be in keeping with other architectural features and colour schemes • Hygienic – suitable for some areas of food preparation and in hospitals • Cost effective – will outlive most other types of hard flooring

DECORATIVE TERRAZO FLOORING

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.Terrazzo is quite slippery 2.Expensive 3.Need skills for installation 4.Polishing needed for maintaining the look. Unique beauty Elegance Longevity Comfortable under feet Controls noise

STONE FLOORING

STONE FLOORING Stone flooring is a type of flooring in which the floor is covered with stone slabs or stone tiles Used in public buildings because of it durability and hardness There are three basic types of rock from which we carve out stone floors: Sedimentary rock Igneous Metamorphic

TYPES OF STONE FLOORING MARBLE FLOORING Various colors depending on origin. fine and prosperous looking floors. Mainly used in homes for interior flooring reason expensive flooring. Available in different sizes Price : 120-600 Rs per sq.ft.

SLATE FLOORING can be used in homes for outdoor flooring reasons. very hard in nature. variety of colors. extremely durable. slip-resistant . Available in different sizes and shapes Price : 15-80 Rs per sq.ft

GRANITE FLOORING granite is composed of quartz and feldspar mixed with particles of mica. coarse-grained, light-colored long life and easy to install granite floors are being used in areas which are used every day. Available in different sizes Price : 30-100 Rs per sq.ft

INSTALLATION PROCESS 1. 3. 2. 4.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages Disadvantages Very hard in nature Formation of cracks Extremely durable Regular washing and cleaning Variety of colours Weight of material

TIMBER FLOORING

INTRODUCTION  Timber flooring is any product manufactured from timber that is designed for use as flooring, either structural or aesthetic.  common choice as a flooring material due   1. 2. to its environmental profile, durability, and restorability. Used in interiors as well as exteriors. Divided into two categories: SOLID ENGINEERED

SOLID/HARDWOOD  One of easiest ways to add value to a      home. Cost effective, durable and classy, solid wood floors are one of the few long-lasting home fixtures Made of planks milled from a single piece of timber. Many genuine timber floors are immediately distinctive by the width of the planking, weathered patina and distinctive grain. Can be self installed without calling the professional. Sizes:125x600x15mm,150x700x16mm

ENGINEERED  most common type of wood flooring used globally.  composed of two or more layers of wood in the form of a plank where TOP LAYER :Aluminum oxide and is specially treated to achieve high wear resistance. SECOND LAYER :Real hardwood veneer. CORE LAYER : stacked layers of plywood, HDF (high density fiberboard) or MDF (medium density fiberboard) lay at 90 degree angles to each other.  This gives the flooring better structural stability and bonded together under heat and pressure.  More suitable in high moisture areas or in areas of frequent temperature changes.  It does not warp or cup during climatic changes.  Sizes:24{T}X180{W}X1830{L},24{T}X190{W}X1 200-2400{L}

LAYING Over the finished floor,wooden planks with tongue and groove are placed. The tongue and groove are jotted into each othersimilarly the whole flooring is laid.

APPLICATIONS  Usually layed in interiors(bedroom, living area, dining area, kitchen)and bathroom excluding the wet areas.  Used in skirting.  Nowadays, Timber planks are widely used in exteriors. COST  Ranges from Rs 60-Rs 600 per square feet.

FINISHES  Wood Floor Finishes are very popular as they are   1. 2.  1. 2. 3. durable, water-resistant, and require minimal maintenance. These are blends of synthetic resins. Most popular modern finishes for wood flooring are oil-modified Urethane and water-based polyurethane. WATER BASED:Appear clear and will resist turning yellow over time. They have a mild odor when applied, and will dry in two to three hours. Water-based finishes are very durable. OIL BASED: appear amber in color. They have a moderate odor when applied, and will dry in about eight hours. Produces sheen appearance of the floor.

MANUFACTURERS O Major distributers of wooden flooring includes China,germany,malaysia. O The cheapest of them all is from china naming SPAN dealing in oak and Merbau.

ADVANTAGES EASY MAINTAINENCE:  If taken care of,it lasts for many years,despite of much traffic and use.  Easier to clean & get harder as they age, which makes them even easier to clean.  Does’nt dust mites DURABILITY  Solid hardwood is among the longest lasting of all flooring types. With today’s flooring finishes, these floors are also water resistant. VARIETY:  These are also easy to match to nearly any home style and design. There are a lot of styles, colours and species of timber flooring available than ever before.  Hardwood timber floors will always look good both in contemporary and traditional interior design.

DISADVANTAGES MAY SCRATCH  A hardwood floor's finish is susceptible to scratching from traffic or pet nails. FULL BATH INSTALLATION NOT RECOMMENDED  it is sensitive to humidity and the potential for pooling water.  Water from tubs and showers can cause hardwood floors to buckle or warp. LIMITED BELOW GRADE INSTALLATION  not recommended for below grade installation due to sensitive to humidity. These floors perform better in humidity controlled environments.

CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION •The mixture of cement, sand and aggregate is called plain cement concrete (PCC) •Plain cement concrete composition 1:2:4 (cement : sand : stone ) by volume Types of cement concrete floors: Non-Monolithic or bonded floor finish floor Monolithic floor finish floor

COMPONENTS/INGREDIENTS CEMENT SAND AGGREGATE

WHY USE PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORING? They are economical as they require negligible maintenance cost They can be finished with a pleasing appearance. Provide a smooth & non absorbent surface

INSTALLATION PROCESS Preparation of sub base:•filling of earth is done •10-15 cm thick coarse sand Laying of base concrete:•Usually of cement concrete or lime concrete Laying the topping:•Thickness is 7.5-10 cm •Area is divided into rectangular or square sections •Finally a layer of cement concrete is applied on the top

STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION

Freeze-Thaw Effect •Concrete is very strong in compression but relatively weak in tension. • It can and often does crack. DEFECTS Chemical Attack Chemical attack can occur because concrete is alkaline and chemically reactive. Crazing This is a network of very small surface cracks usually spreading out over large areas or the entire surface. Scaling thin flakes of concrete come loose and flake or peel off the surface

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES They are hard & Durable Defect once developed cannot be easily rectified Provide a smooth & non absorbent surface Does not provide heat and sound insulation They are more fire resistant It cannot be satisfactorily repaired by patch work They provide more sanitary surface as they can be cleaned & washed easily. They are economical as they require negligible maintenance cost

BRICK FLOORING Floor that has brick /brick tile as its covering. The flooring is done with laying bricks down in a bed of mortar and arranged in a pattern. Commonly used in alluvial places, where stone is scarce and well burnt bricks of good quality are readily available • Warehouses • Stores • Godowns • Places where heavy articles are stored

PATTERNS IN BRICK FLOORING O The brick flooring may be done with bricks laid flat, or on edge arranged in hearing-bone pattern, or set at right angles to the walls. O Brick-on edge is preferred to bricks laid flat, because the former being less liable to crack under pressure than the latter and also having the higher depth gives a greater thickness in the former case to resist the moisture penetration.

CHARACTERISTICS The low maintenance requirements of brick flooring make it very popular in kitchens. Durability: Brick is one of the hardest and most durable flooring materials available. It requires little to no maintenance, and an installation can last for years The tile is set in such a way that when it is installed it is very difficult to detect a repeating pattern in the surface. This picture makes it clear that brick flooring is not confined to squares and rectangles.

Promenade Brick Flooring Pattern on a Porch Other properties Color Texture Heat Slip Resistant  Hardness  Replacem ent  Weight     Brick Kitchen Flooring With Inlaid Pine Beams SIZES Thin brick veneer as flooring • Bricks are available in a range of thicknesses,40mm to 100mm. • For domestic use ,the 50mm -60mm units are suitable. • Road construction -80 mm thick units. • Airports, ports and freight yard-100mm thick units.

METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION  The earth fillling is properly consolidated.  10cm thick layer of dry clean sand is evenly laid.  10cm thick layer of LIME CONCRETE (1:4:8) or LEAN CEMENT CONCRETE (1:8:16) is laid, compacted and cured to form a base concrete.  Well soaked bricks are laid in CEMENT MORTAR (1:4) in any desired bond pattern e.g. Herring Bond, Diagonal Bond or any other suitable bond.  In case the pointing is not to be done , the thickness of joints should not exceed 2mm and the mortar in joints is struck off flush with a trowel.  In case the pointing is to be done, the minimum thickness of joints is kept 6mm and the pointing may be done as specified.

METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION

APPLICATIONS O Primarily used for architectural purposes. But, now used in commercial complexes, parking area and community centres. These pavers are offered in various designs and sizes. DEFECTS Cracks can occur as defect in brickwork, that can occur in due to: Ground movement Accident Thermal movement Brick Rot

MERITS AND DEMERITS MERITS O Cheaper than Cement concrete, wooden, mosaic flooring. O Provides a non slippery and fire resistant surface. O Easily repairable. O Tough ,durable and sufficiently hard. O Easy in maintenance. O Easy to construct. DEMERITS • Slightly Uneven when laid. • The resulting surface is not smooth and is rough. • Water absorbent. • Installation requires use of toxic materials.

VINYL FLOORING

SOME BASIC VINYL FLOORING 1. THEROTILE • THIS IS A TYPE OF VINYL TILE. THIS CAN BE FIXED ON ANY AREA OF YOUR HOME. THIS COSTS AROUND RS. 60/SQ. FT. 2. BASIC VINYL SHEET • THIS IS A PLAIN VINYL SHEET, MOSTLY USED IN HOSPITALS AND INDUSTRIES. •ONE CAN SELECT THE BASIC COLOUR OF SHEET AND CHOOSE SOME PRINTING IMAGES OF ONE’S OWN CHOICE. THIS COSTS AROUND RS. 30/SQ. FT.

EMBOSSED EMBOSSED VINYL FLOORING CAN BE USED IN THE LIVING ROOM. • UNLIKE OTHER EMBOSSED DESIGNS, THIS IS EASY TO CLEAN AND MAINTAIN. THIS COSTS AROUND RS. 52 – RS. 120 / SQ. FT. PRINTED PRINTED VINYL FLOORING WILL BE AWESOME TO LOOK. THE DESIGNS YOU GET IN VINYL WILL NOT EVEN BE AVAILABLE IN TILES, MARBLES AND GRANITES. THIS WILL COST YOU AROUND RS. 20 – RS. 40/SQ. FT. .

3. PVC VINYL FLOORING • CHOOSE PVC VINYL FLOORING FOR A CLASSIC LOOK. THIS WILL COST YOU AROUND RS. 80 – RS. 100/SQ. FT. 4. ANTI – SKIP THIS FLOORING IS USED IN BATHROOMS THOUGH IT IS CHEAP AND GOOD TO LOOK IT IS VINYL IT TENDS TO PEEL WHEN IT IS PRONE TO WET. 5. TRANSPORT FLOORING ONE CAN USE TRANSPORT VINYL FLOORING IN YOUR PARKING AREA AS IT IS MANUFACTURED SPECIALLY FOR BARING THE WEIGHT OF THE VEHICLE.

AVAILABILITY: VINYL SHEETS ARE AVAILABLE IN ROLLS ,HAVING WIDTH 6’ TO 12’ WIDTH. TYPICAL VINYL TILES ARE AVAILABLE IN SIZES OF 1 SQ FT. VINYL PLANKS ARE AVAILABLE IN SIZES RANGING FROM 0.25’ BY 3’ OR LONGER THEY GENERALLY HAVE THICKNESS OF 1MM, 1.3MM, 2MM AND 3MM. PRICE RANGE VARIES FROM RS20 TO RS120 /SQ FT. USES: GENERALLY USED IN HOSPITALS WHERE MUCH OF CLEANLINESS IS REQUIRED. IT IS INSTALLED IN CHILDREN ROOMS TO AVOID ACCIDENTS. IT IS INSTALLED IN BLOOD BANKS. IT IS ALSO INSTALLED IN HOTELS OF HOMES ,WHERE EVER DESIRED.

ADVANTAGES •FREEDOM OF AESTHETIC EFFECTS – AVAILABLE IN A WIDE RANGE OF COLOURS AND PATTERNS •EASE OF INSTALLATION, EASY TO CLEAN •EASILY RECYCLABLE •VARIABLE THICKNESS •LIGHT WEIGHT. •DURABLE •PROVIDES US WITH RANGE OF CHOICE. DISADVANTAGES •VINYLL FLOORING WITH NON WAX COATING HAS AN EASY TENDENCY OF WEARING OUT . •VINYL FLOORING CANNOT WITHSTAND MUCH OF WATER OF CHEMICAL CLEANSERS •VINYL FLOORING TEND TO DIS COLOUR OR FADE AWAY WHEN EXPOSED TO TOO MUCH OF SUNLIGHT. •TYPICAL VINYL FLOORING CANNOT WITHSTAND MUCH PULLING OR PUSHING OF OBJECTS OR SHARP OBJECTS.

THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION FOR VINYL FLOORS. ROTOGRAVURE VINYL: THE COLOR AND PATTERN ARE PRINTED ON THE SURFACE LEVEL OF THE VINYL ONLY. THIS IS A LOWER COST AND MORE POPULAR METHOD OF PRODUCTION THAT LEAVES THE COLOR AND PATTERN SUSCEPTIBLE TO WEARING AWAY OVER TIME. INLAID VINYL: THE COLOR AND PATTERN GO ALL THE WAY THROUGH THE VINYL. THIS MAKES THE COLOR AND PATTERN VERY WEAR–RESISTANT. INLAID VINYL ROTOGRAVURE

VINYL FLOORING CONSTRUCTION VINYL FLOORING IS CREATED IN ONE OF THE FOLLOWING WAYS: HOMOGENOUS OR SOLID: HOMOGENOUS (SOLID) VINYL IS UNIFORM IN STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION THROUGHOUT, WITH NO ADDED BACKING. INLAID: • INLAID VINYL IS MADE BY ADDING GRANULES OF VINYL TO A VINYL BACKING. HEATING THEM WITH THE WEAR (SURFACE) LAYER. • THIS CREATES COLORS PATTERNS THAT WILL LAST EVEN IF THE SURFACE LAYER BEGINS TO WEAR DOWN

LAYERED COMPOSITE • LAYERED COMPOSITE VINYL IS THE MOST COMMON TYPE OF VINYL FLOORING. • IT CONSISTS OF FOUR DISTINCT LAYERS. •THE BACKING (BOTTOM) LAYER IS VINYL, FIBERGLASS OR FELT. •THIS LAYER IS COVERED WITH A CORE LAYER OF LIQUID POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) AND FILLER, • WHICH IS TOPPED WITH A DECORATIVE LAYER •A WEAR LAYER OF PROTECTIVE, CLEAR VINYL

VINYL FLOORING WEAR LAYERS VINYL NO–WAX: THE LEAST DURABLE OF THE THREE, YOUR FLOOR WILL NONETHELESS RESIST SCRAPES, SCUFFS, AND SOME STAINS. REQUIRED MAINTENANCE INCLUDES REGULAR WASHING A GOOD POLISHING FROM TIME TO TIME TO RESTORE SHINE. URETHANE (PVC): URETHANE SURFACES WILL KEEP THEIR "LIKE NEW" APPEARANCE LONGER THAN MOST VINYL NO–WAX SURFACES, AS WELL AS RESIST STAINS, SCRAPES, SCUFFS, AND HEEL MARKS. IT HAS A MORE TEXTURED SURFACE, WHICH SOMETIMES SIMULATES TILE OR STONE PATTERNS. ENHANCED URETHANE: THIS MOST DURABLE OF WEAR LAYERS RESISTS STAINING FROM MANY COMMON HOUSEHOLD ELEMENTS. SINCE GRIME AND DIRT WILL NOT STICK TO THIS TYPE OF SURFACE. THE ONLY MAINTENANCE NEEDED IS AN OCCASIONAL SWEEP OR MOPPING.

INSTALLATION OF VINLY FLOORING

APPLICATION ON THE FLOOR

MAINTAINANCE •THE VINYL FLOORS SHOULD FIRST BE DUSTED AND THEN DAMP-MOPPED. • MICROFIBER CLOTHS AND MOPS ARE ABLE TO SOAK 7 TO 10 TIMES THEIR WEIGHT IN LIQUID AND ARE EXCELLENT AT TRAPPING DEBRIS AND DUST •ONE SHOULD NOT "DRENCH" THE VINYL. WATER CAN WORK ITS WAY INTO CRACKS AND SEAMS WHEN A MOP IS TOO WET, DESTROYING THE GLUE. • THIS CAUSES THE VINYL TO COME LOOSE AND/OR CORNERS TO CURL UP. •OVER-USE OF CLEANING CHEMICALS ON NO-WAX VINYL WILL CAUSE A FILM OVER THE SURFACE. "IT GETS STICKY AND ACTUALLY ATTRACTS THE DIRT,"

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