Published on June 10, 2008
FITNESS AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGAPORE YOUTH BOWLERS Taisuke Kinugasa , PhD Sports Science Academy – Enhancing performance Empowering Athletes
Contents F itness testing for bowlers Fi tness norms of Singapore youth bowlers Study 1: D evelopment of fitness profile over 4 years Study 2: Fitness and physical characteristics of Singapore elite youth bowlers Study 3: Key fitness components of youth bowlers
Limited Research on B owlers ’ Fitness Characteristics Tan et al (2001) Grip strength is not related to bowling average scores for 21 male and female bowlers (r = 0.27, P > 0.05) Tan et al (2000) A strong correlation between aerobic power index (75% HR max cycling) and bowling average scores was found for 15 female bowlers (r = 0.63, P = 0.01) However, bowling average scores were not related to age , physique , grip strength , leg press , and sit-and-reach
F itness Testing for B owlers There seems to be no sensitive, reliable, and valid measures of fitness testing for bowlers Youth athletes generally does not require sophisticated testing Youth Singaporean are familiar with the National Physical Fitness Awards (NAPFA) test since 1981 SSS Sports Performance Lab considers the NAPFA test as generic fitness testing for all SSS athletes
NAPFA Testing Sit up Broad jump Sit & reach 2.4 km run Shuttle run Inclined pull up
NAPFA Test Norms for Bowlers
Progress Guide for Boys Data are expressed as mean and standard deviation collected from 2004 to 2007 (N = 23).
Progress Guide for Girls Data are expressed as mean and standard deviation collected from 2004 to 2007 (N = 19 ).
Study 1: Development of F itness Aim To determine a magnitude of fitness and physical development over a 4-year period in Singapore youth bowlers Methods 18 youth bowlers (11 boys and 7 girls) graduated in 2007 and graduating in 2008 NAPFA test from 2004 to 2007 (eliminated pull up for boys) Height and body mass Statistical analyses Mean ± SD Cohen effect size ± 95% CL with Hopkins’s spreadsheet (2003) Criteria of interpretation < 0.6 small 0.6-1.2 moderate 1.2-2.0 large > 2.0 very large
Boys ’ Development of F itness
Girls ’ Development of F itness
Study 1: Practical Application Boys Trainability of leg power and flexibility are very high Agility can improve largely over 4 years Stature and size will increase substantially (large to very large) Girls Trainability of agility and endurance are moderate Stature and size will increase substantially (very large to large)
Study 2: S’pore E lite Y outh B owlers Aim To identify fitness and physical characteristics of Singapore elite youth bowlers Methods 44 youth bowlers (23 boys and 21 girls) aged from 12 to 17 NAPFA test (eliminated pull up for boys) and height and body mass in 2007 Elite group vs sub-elite group: SSS carding A, B, and C vs D Statistical analyses Mean ± SD Unpaired t test with Hopkins’s spreadsheet (2003) Cohen effect size ± 95% CL Criteria of interpretation < 0.6 small 0.6-1.2 moderate 1.2-2.0 large > 2.0 very large Likelihood (chance) of real difference between the groups
Elite Boys ’ Characteristics 37.3 45.7 225.5 189.5 44.5 39.5 9.88 10.68 12:47 11:10 Sub-elite group (N = 12) Elite group (N = 11) P=0.00 ES=1.17, moderate 100% P=0.00 ES=1.42, large 100% P=0.01 ES=1.06, moderate 99% P=0.00 ES=-1.29, large 100% P=0.02 ES=-0.92, moderate 97%
35.3 36.8 179.6 180.5 47.1 47.1 11.04 10.78 13:10 13:47 23.4 20.5 P=0.61 ES=0.25, small 54% P=0.87 ES=-0.08, small 40% P=0.97 ES=-0.02, small 34% P=0.40 ES=0.42, small 67% P=0.10 ES=0.72, moderate 88% P=0.27 ES=0.50, small 75% Elite group (N = 9) Sub-elite group (N = 12) Elite Girls ’ Characteristics
Study 2: Practical Application Boys Overall, the elite group have substantially higher fitness standards than the sub-elite group Especially, the elite group’s leg power and agility are superior compared to the sub-elite group Girls The elite group’s fitness levels are similar to the sub-elite group’s level
Study 3: Key Fitness for Bowling Aim To identify a relationship between fitness components and physical characteristics of Singapore youth bowlers Methods 44 youth bowlers (23 boys and 21 girls) aged from 12 to 17 NAPFA test in 2007 (eliminated pull up for boys) Height and body mass in 2007 Statistical analyses Structural equation modeling: path analysis + confirmatory factor analysis using Amos 7.0 Maximum likelihood estimation with 200 bootstrap samples Model fit indexes: GFI, AGFI, NFI, and RMSEA
Boys ’ Key F itness C omponents P < 0.05 Χ 2 = 7.61, df = 13, P = 0.87 GFI = 0.92, AGFI = 0.82, NFI = 0.94, and RMSEA = 0.00 (90% CL 0.00-0.11)
Girls ’ Key F itness C omponents P < 0.05 Χ 2 = 5.81, df = 8, P = 0.67 GFI = 0.91, AGFI = 0.77, NFI = 0.85, and RMSEA = 0.00 (90% CL 0.00-0.21)
Take Home Messages It provided a useful guide for the physical preparation of highly trained youth bowlers More focus on fitness and conditioning may help boys to become elite youth bowlers Fitness may not be the strong determine factor for girls ’ bowling performance NAPFA norms for SSS Bowling Academy can be use to assess youth bowlers The norms and progressive guides can be used for talent search and development in future
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