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Published on October 2, 2007

Author: Carlton

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Identity and Conflict in the Balkans:  Identity and Conflict in the Balkans Russian 275 Basic information:  Basic information Instructor: George Gutsche gutscheg@u.arizona.edu http://russian.arizona.edu/courses/balkans Office hours: TTh 11:15-12:30 or by appointment Course listserv balkans@listserv.arizona.edu Introduction to an area of the world that is::  Introduction to an area of the world that is: Complicated Dangerous Rich in tradition and history Linguistically and culturally diverse Multi-national Balkan Familiar Faces:  Balkan Familiar Faces People:  People Rade Šerbedžija Goran Višnjić Slobodan Milošević Special characters (for Slavic):  Special characters (for Slavic) Ž zhe Č che Ć ch(ee) Š sha Milošević What are the Balkans?:  What are the Balkans? Mountains (Stara planina) Peninsula Slide8:  Defining the Balkans Balkan < balak (Trk) ‘mountain’ Balkan Mountains = Stara Planina (Old Mountains) in Bulgaria = Haemus Mountains (Latin name) Balkan geographic zone begins south of the Sava R. and Danube R. to Mediterranean, Adriatic and Aegean Seas (but can also include Slovenia and Romania) Mountain Ranges:  Mountain Ranges The Bigger Picture:  The Bigger Picture Balkan Countries:  Balkan Countries Albania Bulgaria Greece Hungary* and Turkey* Romania (Rumania) “Yugoslavia” (Croatia, Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia) “Yugoslavia” Now:  “Yugoslavia” Now Croatia Bosnia-Herzegovina Serbia (plus Kosovo, Vojvodina)-Montenegro Kosovo = protectorate (formerly part of Serbia) FYROM (Republic of Macedonia) Slovenia Kosova (Kosovo) (Currently a protectorate):  Kosova (Kosovo) (Currently a protectorate) General Summary:  General Summary Balkans subject to numerous influences Extreme linguistic diversity Extreme variety in belief systems Rich intermix of cultures and genetics Key Terms:  Key Terms Balkanization Ethnicity Identity Nationality Balkanization:  Balkanization Result of division into small often hostile units Historical basis in Balkan wars 1911-13 Primarily used to refer to regions or territories Pejorative Identity:  Identity Set of characteristics by which something is recognizable or known Set of behavioral or physical characteristics by which a person is recognizable as a member of a particular group Quality (or condition) of being the same as something else Set of enduring personality traits Constructing identity:  Constructing identity Abstract notion with philosophical implications “Construction” and “constructing”: overused and misleading terms Ordinary terms (like “choosing” and “changing” and “developing”) are more precise and more useful Identities are often assigned, with or without your permission or awareness Essential Point:  Essential Point Construction talk motivated by desire to de-emphasize identity as a “given” from birth Construction is often preceded by “social” Descriptions are not the same as constructions: we (and others) identify ourselves differently in different contexts Ethnicity:  Ethnicity Condition: belonging to a particular ethnic group Ethnic: pertaining to a subgroup within a social-cultural system that claims or is accorded special status on the basis of a set of traits. Traits are complex and variable, and can include religious, linguistic, ancestral (genetic), and physical characteristics Nationality:  Nationality Status: belonging to a particular nation by origin, birth, or naturalization Status: having common origins or traditions Status: considered to constitute a nation National character Status: existing as a politically autonomous entity Nationalism:  Nationalism Promoted in times of stress Divisive: encourages Us/Them thinking Blurs distinctions: what people share and what divides them Languages of the Balkans:  Languages of the Balkans Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian: Slavic Bulgarian; Slovenian; Macedonian: Slavic Albanian Unique Dacian or Illyrian (speculative) Rumanian (Romanian): Romance Greek: Helenic Turkish: Turkic Romany: Sanskrit (Indo-Iranian) Alphabets:  Alphabets Latin Cyrillic Greek Latin “Plus” Important facts:  Important facts Languages don’t respect national borders Borders often change Empires leave their mark Kaplan:  Kaplan Vivid examples of Balkan violence Uses significant quotes by natives Message: something special about the Balkans? Is it more susceptible to violence? Is it more extreme in its nationalism? Kaplan’s Interests:  Kaplan’s Interests Tendencies toward conflict: strong feelings Historical-cultural monuments Journalistic-travel accounts of the 20th century (West, Reed) Jewish experiences in the Balkans History Channel Film:  History Channel Film Tito years Transition: death of Tito to early 90s Rise of Milosevic Slovenia and Croatia Bosnia; Sarajevo; Srebenica: atrocities European, American indecision Empires in Contact and Conflict:  Empires in Contact and Conflict Pre-classical and classical antiquity Roman Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire

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