First Day 317B

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Published on January 14, 2008

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317B Course Info:  317B Course Info Readings: Goldstein, Chs 4 and 5; 11 and 12; 7, 8 and 9. Also: be familiar with Cs. 2-3 and 10. Course Website: stay tuned for more course website information soon. Michael Picard Office Hours; Tues Wed 10:30-10:00, COR A261 Email: mjpicard@uvic.ca Office Phone: 472-5279 Teaching Assistant: Gerry Giesbrecht, MA, C.Psych (AB) Office Hours: R 3:00-4:00 p.m. COR A259 Email: gerryg@uvic.ca Office Phone: 721-6108 Picturing the Perceptual Process:  Page 52 (4) Three steps in the sensation and perception of a stimulus Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Picturing the Perceptual Process Classical Statements:  Classical Statements “By convention there are sweet and bitter, hot and cold, by convention there is color; but in truth there are atoms and the void” Democritus, Fragment 9. (Quoted by Sextus Empiricus, Adv. Math. vii 135) “I think that tastes, odors, colors, and so on are no more than mere names so far as the object in which we locate them are concerned, and that they reside in consciousness. Hence if the living creature were removed, all these qualities would be wiped away and annihilated” Galileo Galilei, The Assayer (published 1623). As reprinted in (Drake, 1957, p. 274 ) “For the rays, to speak properly, are not colored. In them there is nothing else than a certain power and disposition to stir up a sensation of this or that color.” Isaac Newton, Optics (3rd ed. 1721, original in 1704). Reprinted in (Newton, 1953, p.100) The Perceptual Process Figure 1.2, page 4:  The Perceptual Process Figure 1.2, page 4 the world around you what you are paying attention to e.g., the image on the retina change of form of energy stimulus energy becomes neural information neural processing experience the seeing, the hearing, etc. categorization the adaptive output the elicited response Is perception the whole circle or only one node of it?:  Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Perception Is perception the whole circle or only one node of it? ? Comparing Scales:  macroscopic microscopic not in space? in the brain Comparing Scales A dynamic systems sketch of the perceptual process. Figure 1.2, page 4:  A dynamic systems sketch of the perceptual process. Figure 1.2, page 4 Perception is a circular process, without beginning or end. What is the starting point for the explanation of perception? What is the end point? the ambiguities of ‘stimulus’:  Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning the physical context the distal stimulus the proximal stimulus the ambiguities of ‘stimulus’ physiological factors:  physiological factors ecological or world factors:  Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning the physical world ecological or world factors psychological factors:  Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning psychological factors Knowledge and Perception:  Knowledge and Perception What you know effects what you perceive? It effects what your see, hear, taste, smell, touch (tactilely detect) Also called cognitive influences perception Also called top-down processing distinguished from sensation-driven, peripherally-led perception, which is called bottom-up processing Try this out for size. Get paper and pencil ready. Everyone close your eyes. Group B keeps eyes closed. Group A studies an image, then closes eyes. (all eyes closed) Then, when instructed, briefly glimpses new image. Eyes close. With eyes closed, writes down name of second image. Group B studies an image, then closes eyes. (all eyes closed) Then, when instructed, briefly glimpses new images. Eyes close. With eyes closed, writes down name of second image. Compare results of group A and group B. Rat-Man (rat):  Figure 1.6, page 8 Rat-man Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Adapted from “The Role of Frequency in Developing Perceptual Sets,” by B. R. Bugelski and D. A. Alampay, 1961, Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15, 205-211. Copyright ©1961 by the Canadian Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission. Rat-Man (rat) Rat-Man (middle):  Figure 1.8, page 10 Rat-man Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Adapted from “The Role of Frequency in Developing Perceptual Sets,” by B. R. Bugelski and D. A. Alampay, 1961, Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15, 205-211. Copyright ©1961 by the Canadian Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission. Rat-Man (middle) Rat-Man (man):  Figure 1.10, page 12 Rat-man Copyright © 2002 Wadsworth Group. Wadsworth is an imprint of the Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Adapted from “The Role of Frequency in Developing Perceptual Sets,” by B. R. Bugelski and D. A. Alampay, 1961, Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15, 205-211. Copyright ©1961 by the Canadian Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission. Rat-Man (man) Gestalt Principles Illustrated:  Gestalt Principles Illustrated Source: http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/Teaching/2000/AGraphHCI/HCI/hcinotes.html Gestalt Principles (Pp. 140-141):  Gestalt Principles (Pp. 140-141) Five “laws” that govern visual organization: Proximity: Elements that are close to each other are seen as being part of the same object Similarity: Items sharing physical properties are put into the same set Closure: Figures with gaps or small missing parts of the border are seen as complete Good continuation: Lines that are interrupted are seen as continuously flowing Common fate: Things moving in the same direction are seen as a group Recognition by Components (P. 141-142):  Recognition by Components (P. 141-142) Figure 4.16 For each of the five images, write down the name of the object you see (if any). Object Recognition (Pp. 141-142):  Object Recognition (Pp. 141-142) Recognition by components theory (Biederman): Objects broken down into simple geometrical forms (geons) before identifying whole object Geons are “geometrical icons” (e.g. blocks, cylinders, wedges, cones, etc.) Easy to identify incomplete or degraded objects this way Evidence: Fast, easy recognition of degraded objects as long as geons are easily visible Perceiving Depth (Pp. 142-143):  Perceiving Depth (Pp. 142-143) Monocular depth clues: Require input from only one (stationary) eye Includes linear perspective, shading, relative size, overlap and haze Eye in moving body may be able to detect 3 D Binocular depth clues: Depend on comparisons between two eyes Vary with distance of objects from the eye Retinal disparity: Difference between location of images on each retina Convergence: How far the eyes turn inward to focus an object Perceiving Motion:  Perceiving Motion Note: Images always moving around on the retina, whether the objects are still or not! Sometimes we perceive motion when there isn’t any Phi phenomenon A variety of cues contribute to movement perception, including changes in retinal images, relative positions of objects Perceiving Constancies (Pp.145-146):  Perceiving Constancies (Pp.145-146) Sensory messages are unstable, always changing, yet we perceive a stable world Size constancy: Images change with distance, but size seems to stay the same Shape constancy: Images change with motion, perspective, but shape seems to stay the same How do we do it? Make assumptions that allow us to guess, for example, about relative distances of objects Shape Constancy (P.145):  Shape Constancy (P.145) Constancy Clues (P. 146):  Constancy Clues (P. 146) The Price of Constancy: Perceptual Illusions (P. 146):  The Price of Constancy: Perceptual Illusions (P. 146) Inappropriate interpretations of physical reality Often result from use of same cues, principles that are otherwise adaptive! Example assumptions, and related illusions: Rooms are rectangular > Ames room illusion Linear perspective cues > Ponzo illusion Converging lines are corners > Muller-Lyer illusion Depth Illusions Reversible Figures and an impossible object:  Depth Illusions Reversible Figures and an impossible object Is that triangle for real?:  Is that triangle for real? Illusion of Depth (P. 147) :  Illusion of Depth (P. 147) Ponzo Illusions Depth Illusion:  Depth Illusion The Ames Room (P.147):  The Ames Room (P.147) These girls are the same height. Why does one look so much bigger? Variations on Necker Cube:  Variations on Necker Cube Necker cube inversion remains possible Circles also appear to change plane with inversion Young Woman or Old Woman?:  Young Woman or Old Woman? What do you see here?:  What do you see here? Simultaneous Contrast: How many colors do you see in this image?:  Simultaneous Contrast: How many colors do you see in this image? Hermann Grid:  Hermann Grid Scintillation Effect:  Scintillation Effect Ouchi Illusion:  Ouchi Illusion Focus on the red spot and Movement Stops::  Focus on the red spot and Movement Stops: Subjective surfaces can move:  Subjective surfaces can move Focus on the center and move away then toward the screen :  Focus on the center and move away then toward the screen Duck or Rabbit?:  Duck or Rabbit? Stare at dot on right; see smudge disappear; not on left:  Stare at dot on right; see smudge disappear; not on left Is that an X or circles?:  Is that an X or circles? Illusion Works Website Contains many illusions:  Illusion Works Website Contains many illusions http://psylux.psych.tu-dresden.de/i1/kaw/diverses%20Material/www.illusionworks.com/html/jump_page.html# http://dogfeathers.com/java/necker.html Animated Necker Cube Related Readings:  Related Readings Biology of Cognition Ackerman, D. (1990). A Natural History of the Senses. New York: Random House Gibson, J. J. (1966). The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Gregory, R.L. (1966). Eye and Brain: the Psychology of Seeing. New York: McGraw-Hill (World University Library).

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