Firearms Identification Reviewer

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Information about Firearms Identification Reviewer

Published on February 19, 2008

Author: ralugersyadiloh


Firearms Identification Reviewer:  Firearms Identification Reviewer By WILFREDO R. BERALDE MEN BEHIND FIREARMS:  MEN BEHIND FIREARMS HORACE SMITH – Founded the great firm SMITH and WESSON and pioneered the making of breech loading rifles. DANIEL B. WESSON – Associate of Smith in the manufacture of new cartridges and revolvers. SAMUEL COLT – Produced the first practical revolvers. Slide3:  JOHN M. BROWNING – Wizard of modern firearms and pioneered the first breech loading single shot rifles. ALEXANDER JOHN FORSYTH – Father of percussion ignition. ELISHA KING ROOT – Designed machinery for making colt firearms. ELIPHALET REMINGTON – One of the first rifle makers. Slide4:  JOHN MAHLON MARTIN – Founded the firearm company which bears his name. JAMES WOLFE RIPLY – Stimulated the development of the 1855 rifled Musket, the first firearm of its kind ever produced. HENRY DERRINGER – He gave his name to whole class of firearms. OLIVER F. WINCHESTER – One of the earliest rifle and pistol makers. Slide5:  JOHN T. THOMPSON – Pioneered the making of Thompson Submachine gun. DAVID CARBINE WILLIAM – Maker of the first known carbine. JOHN C. GARAND – Designed and invented the U.S. Rifle, Caliber .30 M1. IMPORTANT DATES IN FIREARMS HISTORY:  IMPORTANT DATES IN FIREARMS HISTORY 1313 – The ages of gunpowder began with its use as a propellant for projectile. 1350 – The first portable hand firearms were introduced. These guns were ignited by a hand held hot wire or lighted. 1498 – The first reference to rifled barrels appeared. 1676 – Paper cartridges combining both powder ball were developed. Slide7:  1807 – The discovery of Forsyth that certain compounds detonated by a blow could be used to ignite the charges in a firearm formed the basis for all later percussion and cartridge development. 1836 – Samuel Colt, patented the first practical revolver in which the cylinder was rotated by cocking the hammer. Slide8:  1836 – The pin fire cartridge developed by Le Faucheus, was probably, the first self exploding cartridge which resulted into general use. 1845 – Flobert, a native of France, developed a bullet breech cap which was in reality the first rim fire cartridge. 1858 – The Morse Cartridge marked the beginning of the rapid development of the center fire cartridge. Slide9:  1884 – Hiram Maxim built the first fully automatic gun utilizing the recoil of the piece to load and fire the next charge. 1886 – Vielle of France developed the first satisfactory smokeless powder, a new propellant which not only lacked the smoke characteristics of black powder, but more powerful as well. DEFINITION OF TERMS IN FORENSIC BALLISTICS:  DEFINITION OF TERMS IN FORENSIC BALLISTICS ACTION – breech mechanism of a gun, by which it is loaded and unloaded. AIRSPACE – Space on a loaded cartridge case not occupied by powder and bullet. ANVIL – Is a primer or cartridge case, a fixed point against which the priming mixture is compressed and thereby detonated by action of the firing pin. Slide11:  ARMOR PIERCING – A full patched bullet with steel core used against light mechanized armored vehicles. BALL – Earlier term for “bullet” and still used in some military terminology BALLISTICS – Science of projectile in motion. BARREL – The part of a gun through which passes the bullet from breech to muzzle. Slide12:  BASE WAD – Compressed paper or other materials inside a shot shell varying in size and form. BATTERY CUP – Type of shot shell ignition form, in which the cap or primer is held. BELTED CASE – Cartridge case with a band or belt at base just ahead of extractor groove, in which case position in chamber of rifle. Slide13:  BLACK POWDER – A mixture of saltpeter, charcoal and sulfur. BLANK CARTRIDGE – A cartridge without a bullet. BORE – The cylindrical passage of the barrel through which the bullet or projectile travels. BORE DIAMETER – In rifled arms, the diametrical measurement between tops of lands. Slide14:  BOTTLE NECK CARTRIDGE – A type cartridge designed to accommodate more powder usually for high-powered guns. BREECH – The rear end of the bore where the bullet enters. BREECH BOLT – the part of the breech that resists the rearward force of the combustion that occurs when a cartridge is discharged. Slide15:  BOAT TAIL – Referring to the base taper given in a certain bullet to give greater efficiency at long range. BULLET – The projectile only, (not to be applied to the cartridge) which is sometimes called ball. That portion of a cartridge, which is propelled from the firearm. CALIBER – Bore diameter expressed I decimal of an inch, measured between two opposite land. Slide16:  CALIPER – The measuring device used in the calibration of bullets and gun bores. CANNELURES – Circumferential grooves around the bullet or cartridge case. CAPLOCK – Used by muzzle loading guns whose ignition system employs percussion, a small thumb-like cap containing a detonating mixture. Slide17:  CARTRIDGE – A complete round of ammunition, made up simply of cartridge case, primer, powder and bullet. CARTRIDGE CASE – Commonly the brass copper envelope that contains primer, powder and bullet (when ready for use). CENTER FIRE – Those ignited by means of a separate and replaceable primer. Slide18:  CHAMBER – That part of the bore, at the breech to accept the cartridge. CHOKE – The constriction of a shotgun bore at the muzzle at various ranges or degree, designed to control pellet charge at the target. CHRONOGRAPH – Instrument which measures the velocity of the projectiles. COMPARISON CAMERA – An optical instrument designed to make simultaneous comparison of two specimens. Slide19:  CORDITE – A nitroglycerine smokeless powder used mainly in England. CORROSION – The chemical wears and tears of the inside portion of the barrel of the gun due to rust or chemical action as a result of combustion after firing. CYLINDER – In a revolver type firearm, cartridge container that rotates around an axis parallel to and below the barrel. Slide20:  DIE – In hand loading ammunition, any number of tools used to sized bullets and shells. DRILLING – A three-barrel gun, popular in Europe, which usually combined smooth bores and rifled bores. DOUBLE ACTION – A weapon in which a pressure upon the trigger both cocks and releases the hammer. Slide21:  EJECTOR – Correctly, the device at the barrel breech within which the action that knocks the fired cartridge case. ENERGY – In bullets, the amount of work done, at a given range expressed in foot-pounds. EROSION – More or less gradual wearing away of rifling by combustion gas, hot and bullet friction. Slide22:  EXTRACTOR – The mechanism of a firearm by which the cartridge is withdrawn from the chamber. EXPERT WITNESS – One who had acquired a special skill in a particular branch of science. EVERLASTING CASE – Brass cartridge case from heavy stock intended for extended reloading life. Slide23:  EYEPIECE – A part of the bullet comparison microscope where the examiner view the specimens. FIREARM – An instrument used for the propulsion of a projectile by the expansive force of gases from the burning gunpowder. FIRING PIN – A part of action, activated by the trigger than hits the primer and fires the cartridge. Slide24:  FOOT-POUND – The amount of work required to raise one pound one foot high against the force of gravity. FOOT-SECOND – Velocity expressed in feet per second. FOLLOWER – A metal platform in a clip of magazine that pushes the cartridge upward to the proper angle for feeding in the chamber. Slide25:  GAS CHECK – A cup usually copper used on the base of a lead bullet to protect if from hot gasses. FOULING – The accumulation of a deposit within the bore of a firearm caused by solid products remaining after a cartridge is fired. GAUGE – Unit of bore measurement in shotguns, determined by the number of solid lead balls, of the bore diameter obtainable from a pound of lead. Slide26:  GILDING METAL – A copper zinc alloy used as a bullet to spin as it travels down the barrel. GROOVES – spiral cuts in a bore which cause the bullet to spin as it travels from the barrel. GROOVE DIAMETER – In rifled arms, the diameter measurement between bottom of grooves. GROUP – Number of shots fired into a target usually in one sighting set. Slide27:  HAMMER – A part of action (in some guns) actuated by the trigger, the hammer drives the firing pin against the primer, thus igniting the primer and further burns the propellant powder. HANG FIRE – Cartridge which fire for as long as several seconds after the firing pin strikes the primer. Slide28:  HOLLOW POINT – A design features of some bullets. HEADSPACE – For reamed cartridge, the distance from the face of the breechblock to the barrel seat of the forward surface of the case rim. For rimless bottle neck cartridge, the distance from the face of the breechblock to the predetermined point on the shoulder of the chamber. Belted cases had space on the forward edge of the belt. Slide29:  LANDS – that portion of the bore remaining after the rifling of grooves have been cut. LEADING – Lead deposited on the bore of the gun from the bullet passing through it. LENS – Optical instrument magnified used for laboratory examination of microscopical specimens. MAGAZINE – A reservoir to hold extra cartridge. Slide30:  MAGNUM – Firearms designed for extra power. MATCH LOCK – An early form of firearm, in which priming charge was ignited by a cord or match of a slow burning materials. METAL CASE – A form of bullet completely covered forward with copper alloy (jacket). Slide31:  MIDRANGE – Usually used in connection with the trajectory, referring to a point midway between muzzle and target game. MISFIRE – Cartridge, which do not fire when firing strikes the firing pin. MUSHROOM – The capacity of certain bullet to expand on after impact, also the term given to some soft point or hollow point bullet. Slide32:  MUZZLE – End of barrel opposite breech point from which bullet or shots leaves barrel. MUZZLE LOADER – Gun loaded through the front end (muzzle) of the bore using loose powder and ball or shell or paper cartridges. MUZZLE ENERGY (M.E.) – The bullets capacity for hitting measured in foot pounds from the muzzle. MUZZLE VELOCITY (M.V.) – Speed of the bullet from muzzle point. Slide33:  NIPPLE – In muzzle loading gun, the small metal cone at the rear of the barrel through which the frame from the percussion cup passes to ignite the powder charge. OGIVE – The radius of the curve of the nose of the bullet usually expressed in caliber. OVER BOARD CAPACITY – Condition in which the volume of a cartridge case exceeds the amount of powder, which can be most efficiently burnt. Slide34:  PARADOX – Smooth bore gun in which the final few inches of the barrel are rifled to increase the efficiency of the round ball or slug. PARCHING CLOTH – Use to form a gas seal around the projectile of the muzzle of the loading gun. PATTERN – A pellet from a shotgun usually expressed as so many pellets within 30 circles at 40 yards. Slide35:  PERCUSSION CUP – A small metallic cap containing fulminating material that explodes when struck by a gun’s hammer. PISTOL – Any small concealable short barrel gun, generally not revolver. PLATED BULLET – A bullet covered with a thin coating of a copper alloy to prevent leading. Slide36:  POWDER CHARGE – An amount of gunpowder in one load. PRESSURE – The gas pressure generated in a cartridge on its being fired, usually expressed in pound per square inch. PRIMER POCKET – A portion of the base center of a cartridge case designed to accommodate the primer (center fire). Slide37:  PRIMER – In center fire cartridge cases, the small cap containing a detonating mixture, which is similar mixture, found in cartridge cases. PROJECTILE – One that is projected through the barrel and out of the gun by the powder gases. PROPRIETORY CARTRIDGE – One developed and exclusively by one establishment or factory. Slide38:  RANGE – The distance from gun muzzle to target. RAMROD – Rod or wood used to force the bullet out of the bore of the gun barrel. REBATED RIM – Type of a cartridge case rim smaller than the diameter of the cases at point just forward of the extractor groove. RECOIL – The backward thrust of a gun caused by the reaction of the powder gases pushing the bullet forward. Slide39:  REPEATER – Any arm holing more than one round at a time. REVOLVER – A multi-shot handgun, using a revolving cylinder as a cartridge container. RICOCHET – The deflections of the bullet from the normal path after striking a resistant surface. RIFLE – Types of weapons fired from the shoulder. Slide40:  RIM FIRE – A cartridge containing priming mixture in the rim, which struck by firing pin. RIMMED CARTRIDGE – A cartridge having a flanged rim a little wider in size the body of the case. RIMLESS CARTRIDGE – A cartridge having the size of the case in the same with the size of the body proper. Slide41:  RIFLING – Spiral cuts into the bore of a rifled gun barrel to impart a spin on the bullet assuring point in flight for better accuracy. The purpose of rifling is to gyroscopic stability of the bullet during its flight from the gun muzzle. RIM – The projecting edge of a cartridge case. SEMI-AUTOMATIC – Single shot for every press on the trigger. Slide42:  SHOT – Lead or lead alloy spheres used as a projectile in smooth bore guns or shotguns. SHOTGUNS – A smooth bore gun using cartridge loaded with shots. SINGLE ACTION – A weapon in which pressure upon the trigger releases the hammer which must be manually pulled. SMOKELESS POWDER – Gunpowder which gives off almost no smoke when burned. Slide43:  SMOOTHBORE – A barrel without riflings SOFT POINT (S.P.) – term used for bullet with partial jacketing having some portions of the bullet to expose at the front. TRACER BULLET – A military type of bullet that contains a chemical elements that burns while the bullet is in flight. Slide44:  TRAJECTORY – The carved path of the bullet in flight or in a parabola. TRIGGER – The level operated by a shoulder which releases the firing pin and allows it to discharge the cartridge. TRIGGER GUARD – Bent strip of metal that protects the trigger from accidental discharge. TWIST – Angle of rifling relative to the axis of the bore. Usually uniform, expressed in turns or part turns in so many inches, less common the progressive or gain twist. Slide45:  UNDERSIZE BULLET – Bullet slightly smaller than the actual bore diameter of the gun barrel. VELOCITY – A projectile speed, usually measure feet per second. VENT – Orifice through which the flame enters to burn the powder charge. WAD – A disc of paper, felt plastic or other materials used in shells.

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