Fire Safety Version 2

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Information about Fire Safety Version 2
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Published on December 17, 2007

Author: Simo

Source: authorstream.com

Basic Fire Safety for the Mining Industry:  Basic Fire Safety for the Mining Industry Presented By Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Deep Mine Safety Revised 8/00 Costs in Lives and property damage:  Costs in Lives and property damage Fire kills more Americans than all natural disasters combined Every year more than 5000 people die in fires and over 25,000 are injured Estimated property loss of over 9 billion dollars. Example, at a surface stone crushing facility, a fire in the motor and bearing area causing 4 production shifts to be lost would cost $93,000 in lost time and production. What would your losses be? Slide3:  Underground coal fires reported to MSHA-164 Material burned (represents a combination of fire reported) Wood Rubber hose/tires Coal/dust Electrical Belts/rollers Oil/grease Other 19 25 75 50 27 30 17 Equipment Involved Welding/cutting 23 Battery vehicle/charger 8 Air compressor 12 Electrical 14 Trolley 15 Continuous miner 6 Shuttle car/scoop 6 None 29 Roof bolter 6 Not reported 1 Cutting machine 4 Other 3 Conveyors 33 Unknown 2 Diesel equipment 2 Source: NIOSH IC-9426- Analysis of underground coal nine fire incidents in the United States from 1978 thru 1992 Slide4:  History of Mining Fires in Pennsylvania Between 1980 and 1990, there have been 5 major underground mine fires lasting more than 48 hours and required mine rescue teams. Pennsylvania has gone ten years without a major mine fire incident. However, from 1998 to present, there have been 15 “reportable” fires at underground operations, which include the surface facilities. It is estimated that fire lasting 24 hours requiring mine rescue teams would cost in excess of 1 million dollars. The time is now to be more vigilant in preventing a fire in which could lead to death, injury or loss of income. Fire prevention:  Fire prevention Through proper safety training Good maintenance of electrical and mobile equipment Good housekeeping Proper storage and clean up of combustible and flammable liquids Good communications between management, labor, state and federal agencies Basically “all fires” in the mining industry can be avoided Slide6:  Diesel fuel precautions Flammable or combustible liquid spillage or leakage shall be removed in a timely manner or controlled to prevent a fire hazard. All diesel-powered machines are required to have at least one 10A:60B:C portable fire extinguisher Two portable fire extinguishers must be installed when a 5 gallon diesel fuel safety can is carried on the vehicle Good housekeeping You can prevent a fire incident by using “common sense”. HOUSEKEEPING No person shall smoke or use an open flame where flammable or combustible liquids, including greases, or flammable gases are-- (a) Used or transported in a manner that could create a fire hazard; or (b) Stored or handled. Slide7:  Waste or rags containing flammable or combustible liquids that could create a fire hazard shall be placed in the following containers until disposed of properly A program for regular cleanup and removal of accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles shall be established and maintained. Coal dust, including float coal dust deposited on rock-dusted surfaces, loose coal, and other combustible materials, shall be cleaned up and not be permitted to accumulate in active workings, or on diesel- powered and electric equipment therein. Solid Combustible precautions Gasoline precautions Underground-Industrial Minerals Gasoline should not be stored underground. Storage for this purpose means quantity in excess of the amount that will used in a 24 hour period. A fire extinguisher should be installed on any internal Slide8:  Maintenance and Inspection of Electrical Equipment Underground- Coal All electric equipment shall be frequently examined, tested, and properly maintained by a qualified person to assure safe operating conditions The examinations and tests required by shall be made at least weekly. Circuit breakers providing short circuit protection for trailing cables shall be set so as not to exceed the maximum allowable instantaneous settings Circuit breakers and their auxiliary devices protecting underground high-voltage circuits shall be tested and examined at least once each month by a person qualified as provided in Circuit breakers protecting low- and medium-voltage alternating current circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment and their auxiliary devices shall be tested and examined at least once each month by a person qualified Slide9:  Surface -Coal Electric equipment shall be frequently examined, tested, and properly maintained by a qualified person to assure safe operating conditions. Surface & Underground –Industrial Minerals Circuits shall be protected against excessive overload by fuses or circuit breakers of the correct type and capacity. Maintenance and Inspection of Electrical Equipment Fire Drills:  Fire Drills Familiarize yourself on the fire alarm system. Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable condition. Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. Escapeway drills- what is required?:  Escapeway drills- what is required? Industrial Minerals-Surface Mine operators shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. These procedures shall be coordinated in advance with available firefighting organizations. Industrial Minerals-Underground At least once every six months, mine evacuation drills shall be held to assess the ability of all persons underground to reach the surface or other designated points of safety within the time limits of the self-rescue devices that would be used during an actual emergency Slide12:  Escapeway drills- what is required? Coal–Underground At least once every 90 days, each miner, including miners with working stations located between working sections and main escapeways, shall participate in a practice escapeway drill. At least once every 6 weeks and for each shift, at least two miners on each coal producing working section who work on that section, accompanied by the section supervisor, shall participate in a practice escape drill and shall travel the primary or alternate escapeway to the surface Coal-Surface Plans for escape and evacuation shall include the designation and proper maintenance of adequate means for exit from all areas where persons are required to work or travel including buildings and equipment and in areas where persons normally congregate during the work shift. Slide13:  Not all materials burn the same way. That is why all materials are grouped into the Classification of Fire. This determines how you can extinguish the fire. Where are the fire extinguishers located and how many Where are the fire hoses, fire valves, nozzles Is there enough pressure to extinguish the fire It is required that the Pennsylvania Bureau of Deep Mine Safety be notified of any unplanned fire requiring more than 5 minutes to extinguish Remember To be forewarned is to be forearmed What happens if a fire occurs? The Fire Triangle:  The Fire Triangle Now represents the “smoldering” mode of combustion. Three things are needed for conditions to be right for a fire to get started. The Fire Tetrahedron:  The Fire Tetrahedron Represents the “flaming” mode of combustion The chemical chain reaction has been added to properly represent a “burning” fire. If one of these four items are taken away, the fire will extinguish What about the By-products of the Fire? :  What about the By-products of the Fire? Carbon Monoxide-Incomplete combustion-poisonous Carbon Dioxide-Complete combustion-displaces oxygen Diesel Particulate Matter-unburned diesel fuel-carcinogen(cancer causing) Carcinogen products-products from the chemicals to treat belts and cables to be flame resistant, however will be releases at high temperatures of a fire. Smoke-unburned materials-can contain all of the above Slide17:  Use ventilation to control by-products and heat Make sure that all persons inby fire area are notified Keep the ventilation at your back, don’t expose yourself to the heat and the by-products of the fire If applicable, short circuit the air inby the fire into the return , this prevents the inby areas from receiving the by-products If you are inby and suspect or have been notified of a fire outby, use your self rescuer device until you are in known fresh air. Class A Materials are::  Class A Materials are: Solids Wood Paper Plastic Rubber Coal “A” stands for “ash” Slide19:  Takes place as wood, coal, conveyor belts or any carbon based products decomposes from the action of the heat Remember, it is the vapors that burn, not the solid. How does a solid burn? How to extinguish a Class A fire:  How to extinguish a Class A fire Adding water Class A fires only Use a fire extinguisher Usually Class A, B & C fires Pit a lid on it, Usually oily rags or paper in a waste container Limit material burning Shovel away material Add rock dust to remaining fuel Examples:  Examples Reported fires since 1998 3 fires due to use of stoves near combustible materials Shaft fire set deliberately by outside persons 5 belt fires 1 Coal float dust fire at tail roller resulting in injury to employee Class B Materials are::  Class B Materials are: Liquids Gasoline, Oil, Diesel fuel Greases, Hydraulic fluid Gases; i.e. Acetylene, Propane Natural Gas “B” stands for “boil” Slide23:  Special care when using flammable and combustible liquids The “ flash point” is when at the right temperature, vapors are released that will ignite Flammable Liquids Flash point under 100oF Gasoline(-42oF) Toluene(73oF Benzene(12oF) Cleaning fluids Combustible Liquids Flash point over 100oF & under 164oF Diesel fuel(110oF) Kerosene(102oF) Home heating fuel(120oF) Hydraulic fluids Slide24:  How to extinguish a Class B fire Not recommended Water can cause the fire to spread Remove excess liquid fuel or shut off bottled gas cylinders Put a lid on it No oxygen, no fire Use a BC or ABC fire extinguisher Slide25:  Examples Reported fires since 1998 2 from gasoline engine 1 from hot oil around beltline Class C Materials are::  Class C Materials are: “Energized” Electrical Equipment & Cables Always treat “C” fires as though power is still on! Once the power has been removed, you can probably treat it like a Class A or B fire, but remember that cables & equipment can hold electricity even after the power is off! “C” stands for “current” Slide27:  Not recommended Water can conduct electricity May not work because of the high temperature of the electric arc Shut off the power May still have A or B fire remaining Use a BC or ABC fire extinguisher How to extinguish a Class C fire Examples:  Examples Reported fires since 1998 5 from battery operated equipment Class D materials include:  Class D materials include Combustible Metals Magnesium Titanium Zirconium Sodium Potassium Lithium Calcium Zinc D stands for “ding” Class D materials are usually in alloy type metals:  Class D materials are usually in alloy type metals They are usually started by a Class A-B-C fire, and will burn at extremely high temperatures Not recommended- The O2 and H2 in the water will accelerate the fire Not recommended- Unsure if ABC extinguisher will put out Unsure of dangerous by-product from the reaction of the chemicals Shovel away all materials that can be ignite by the high heat generated Attempt to isolate the fire by covering with sand or rock dust Class K:  Class K This covers the new synthetic oils & greases that are the market & the new ones being developed New synthetic oils & greases for industry Problem… ABC type fire extinguishers may not work on these fires, a special Class K extinguisher may be needed! Inquire about what new products that are available on mine sites that would fall into this new category Fire Extinguighers:  Fire Extinguighers Dry Chemical Ordinary Base “BC” Sodium Bicarbonate Potassium Bicarbonate Potassium Chloride Do not use on “A” fires, will put out only surface area, heated core may re-ignite Multipurpose “ABC” Monoammonium Phosphate Ammonium Phosphate Barium Sulfate When are fire extinguishers to be examined?:  When are fire extinguishers to be examined? Industrial Minerals-Surface Fire extinguishers shall be inspected visually at least once a month to determine that they are fully charged and operable. At least once every twelve months, maintenance checks shall be made of mechanical parts, the amount and condition of extinguishing agent and expellant, and the condition of the hose, nozzle, and vessel to determine that the fire extinguishers will operate effectively. Industrial Minerals-Underground Fire extinguishers shall be inspected visually at least once a month to determine that they are fully charged and operable. At least once every twelve months, maintenance checks shall be made of mechanical parts, the amount and condition of extinguishing agent and expellant, and the condition of the hose, nozzle, and vessel to determine that the fire extinguishers will operate effectively Slide34:  When are fire extinguishers to be examined? Coal-Underground All firefighting equipment shall be maintained in a usable and operative condition. Chemical extinguishers shall be examined every 6 months and the date of the examination shall be written on a permanent tag attached to the extinguisher. Coal-Surface Fire extinguishers shall be examined at least once every 6 months and the date of such examination shall be recorded on a permanent tag attached to the extinguisher. Classification of extinguishers:  Classification of extinguishers Type(s) of fire it can put out How much fire a “lay person” can put out For example, a 5:A will put out five square foot surface area of Class A fire A 20:BC will put out a twenty square foot surface area of Class B or C fire. A properly trained person can extinguish 2 to 3 times the amount listed on the rating. When using a fire extinguisher, remember the the phrase “P.A.S.S.”:  When using a fire extinguisher, remember the the phrase “P.A.S.S.” P. Pull the pin A. Aim low S. Squeeze the trigger/handle S. Sweep side to side It is important that you should attend an actual “hands on” fire extinguisher class to be proficient in their use What should you do once the fire is extinguished?:  What should you do once the fire is extinguished? Check the area closely for any signs of reignition Clean up all unburned and burned materials Report the incident to the proper officials What caused the fire, and determine any safety precautions to prevent future incidents Be careful the fire fighter or persons themselves did not expose themselves to any noxious, toxic or carcinogen products. Slide38:  Some final thoughts Training tips Rule of thumb; we hear-we tend to forget we see- we remember we do- we understand The key is interactive-hands on training on a continual basis If miners are kept in a classroom all day, Remember, the mind can only absorb what the butt can endure Thank you and be careful

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