Fire fighter Strength4.ppt

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Published on November 26, 2008

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The Relationship & Importance of Strength to Fire Fighting : The Relationship & Importance of Strength to Fire Fighting Improved Work Performance and Injury Prevention Capt. Matic, CSCS • Lt. Lassa, BIT • FF Berry (Ret.), NSCA-CPT Index : Index The Relationship of Strength to Fire Fighting Performance What is Strength Training? Smart Strength Training Strength Training is Safe & Effective The Importance of Strength to Injury Prevention 1 – The Relationship of Strength to Fire Fighting Performance : 1 – The Relationship of Strength to Fire Fighting Performance “Strength is fundamental to all human activity.” Strength & Performance…We’ve got a job to do! : Strength & Performance…We’ve got a job to do! Milwaukee-Physical Ability Test Nationally known Combat Test® BIT Roof Ladder Evolution “Elite Firefighter” Differences Milwaukee-Physical Ability TestFive Sequentially Performed Tasks : Milwaukee-Physical Ability TestFive Sequentially Performed Tasks MPAT Duration — 2:37.82 Size contributes 14.4% Strength contributes 45.9%* Fitness contributes 39.7%* *Statistically significant at the .05 level (p<.05). The Combat Test® Five Sequentially Performed Tasks : CT Duration — 4:18.23 Size contributes 28.6% Strength contributes 40.8%* Fitness contributes 30.6%* *Statistically significant at the .05 level (p<.05). The Combat Test® Five Sequentially Performed Tasks Roof Ladder Performance B.I.T. Training Evolution : Roof Ladder Performance B.I.T. Training Evolution RL Duration — :54.75 Size contributes 5.9% Strength contributes 70.2%* Fitness contributes 23.9%* *Statistically significant at the .05 level (p<.05). “Elite Firefighter”DifferencesTop Rated Recruits vs. Average Recruits : “Elite Firefighter”DifferencesTop Rated Recruits vs. Average Recruits Size contributes 26.6%* Strength contributes 57.4%* Fitness contributes 16.0% “Elite Firefighters” compared to “Average Recruits” were: 56.9s faster (27.8%) on the Combat Test® 12.7s faster (25.7%) on the Roof Ladder Evolution *Statistically significant at the .05 level (p<.05). “Strength training can help offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. …improving the strength and fitness levels of your firefighter population can provide many benefits in terms of injury reduction and improved work performance.”Gene Carmean, M.A., Project Director, Med-Tox Occupational Health Services. : “Strength training can help offset the loss in muscle mass and strength typically associated with normal aging. …improving the strength and fitness levels of your firefighter population can provide many benefits in terms of injury reduction and improved work performance.”Gene Carmean, M.A., Project Director, Med-Tox Occupational Health Services. 2 – What is Strength Training? : 2 – What is Strength Training? “Strength is the ability to overcome or counteract external resistance by muscular effort.” The Science and Practice of Strength Training – Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky What is Strength Training?…What it is and what it is not. : What is Strength Training?…What it is and what it is not. Strength Training Body Building Body Shaping Powerlifting Weightlifting Biggest Bench Strength Training is... : Strength Training is... A scientific method for developing and increasing muscular strength and it’s related abilities. Goals: improve physical performance prevent injuries Strength Training is not... Body Building : Strength Training is not... Body Building A competitive sport or a recreational pursuit. Goals: muscular size muscular symmetry Strength Training is not... Body Shaping : Strength Training is not... Body Shaping A recreational activity. Goals: stay in shape toned muscles to look good Strength Training is not... Powerlifting : Strength Training is not... Powerlifting A competitive sport consisting of the Squat, Bench Press and Deadlift. Goals: highest total in one’s age and weight class personal bests Strength Training is not… Weightlifting : Strength Training is not… Weightlifting An olympic sport consisting of the Snatch and the Clean-and-Jerk. Goals: highest total in one’s weight class gold medal Strength Training is not… The Biggest Bench : Strength Training is not… The Biggest Bench A recreational pursuit to see who can bench the most. Goals: to bench press more than your buddies bragging rights 3 – Smart Strength Training : 3 – Smart Strength Training “Train smart – have a purpose... ...and have a plan.” Smart Strength Training...Total Body Balanced Strength : Smart Strength Training...Total Body Balanced Strength Administrative Concerns Program Design Considerations Physical Performance & Injury Prevention Model Strength Training Benefits Administrative Concerns : Administrative Concerns Availability of certified or trained personnel Daily supervision EMS plan Weight room rules Condition of the facility Sufficient equipment Equipment maintenance Equipment replacement Program Design Considerations : Program Design Considerations Number of individuals & available time Available equipment Strength testing Choice & order of exercise Number of reps & sets Training load Rest periods Variation Motivation Physical Performance & Injury Prevention Model : Primary Exercises 1. Leg Press or Parallel Squat 2. Bench Press or Incline Bench 3. Lat Pulldown or Low Pull 4. Shoulder Press or Upright Row Secondary Exercises 5. Leg Curl & Leg Extension 6. Biceps Curl & Triceps Extension 7. Low Back Extension & Abs Crunch 8. Grip/Forearm & Calves Physical Performance & Injury Prevention Model 1 5 3 4 2 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 Strength Training Benefits : Strength Training Benefits Increases & maintains: strength & power endurance & stamina lean body mass Reduces: number of injuries severity of injuries rehabilitation time Develops: mental focus & toughness “…appropriately designed strength & conditioning programs results in adaptations of many different biological systems including increased performance of physical tasks and injury reduction. …adaptations may include increased feeling of wellbeing, increased work ethic and determination and the potential development of team/group cohesion.William P. Ebben, MS, MSSW, CSCS*D, Head Strength and Conditioning Coach, Clinical Professor in Exercise Science, Marquette University : “…appropriately designed strength & conditioning programs results in adaptations of many different biological systems including increased performance of physical tasks and injury reduction. …adaptations may include increased feeling of wellbeing, increased work ethic and determination and the potential development of team/group cohesion.William P. Ebben, MS, MSSW, CSCS*D, Head Strength and Conditioning Coach, Clinical Professor in Exercise Science, Marquette University 4 – Strength Training is Safe & Effective : 4 – Strength Training is Safe & Effective “Inactivity is a risk factor.” Safe & Effective Training...Focus + Effort = Results : Safe & Effective Training...Focus + Effort = Results Safety of Strength Training - Survey Safety of Strength Training - BIT Firefighter Recruit Results and Residual Effects Analysis Firefighter Cadets Training Results Safety of Strength TrainingGeneral Survey Findings : Safety of Strength TrainingGeneral Survey Findings Hamil, B.P., "Relative Safety of Weight Training". the injury rates were 0.0035 per 100 hours of participation compared to 0.03 for basketball (8.6 times higher) and 0.10 for football (28.6 times higher) Zemper, E.D., "Four-Year Study of Weightroom Injuries in a National Sample of College Football". the injury rates were 0.13 injuries per 1,000 athletic-exposures or one injury every 7,692 workouts Safety of Strength TrainingMilwaukee Firefighter Recruits : Safety of Strength TrainingMilwaukee Firefighter Recruits A total of 12 recruit classes (1992-2000) were strength trained on the Firefighter Super-Circuit. 413 firefighter recruits 30 minutes twice a week for fourteen weeks Approximately 10,696 workouts. only two lost time injuries one lost time injury for every 5,348 workouts injury rate of 0.21 per 1,000 workouts Strength Training ResultsFirefighter Recruit Residual Effects Analysis : Strength Training ResultsFirefighter Recruit Residual Effects Analysis 170 Firefighter Recruits. Increases in strength during recruit training and residual effects one year later. p–Lat Pulldown +16.8%* — After 1 yr. +10.0%* 220 to 257 to 242 l–Bench Press +15.1%* — After 1 yr. +10.2%* 206 to 237 to 227 *Statistically significant at the .05 level (p<.05). Strength Training Results Milwaukee Firefighter Cadets 10/4/00 to 4/9/01 : Strength Training Results Milwaukee Firefighter Cadets 10/4/00 to 4/9/01 12 Cadets / 20 Weeks u–Parallel Squat: 229 to 324 +95 lbs. (42.0%) p–Lat Pulldown: 217 to 259 +42 lbs. (19.0%) l–Bench Press: 181 to 222 +41 lbs. (22.0%) n–Incline Bench: 146 to 190 +44 lbs. (30.0%) *4-Lift Total: 773 to 995 +222 lbs. (29.0%) *Statistically significant at the .05 level (p<.05). “I believe that a solid strength and conditioning program is a vital and integral part of my development and success as a fire cadet as I prepare for recruit training. I have definitely noticed that the hard work I have put forth in the weight room has carried over to the various fire evolutions we are exposed to. I am now able to chop, put up an extension ladder, throw up a roof ladder, layout hose, or drag a dummy with ease. Without a doubt in my mind, strength training is one of many key components that come together and allow an individual to go above and beyond their potential, and become the best that they can be.” – Fire Cadet/Recruit Joe Hegeman, Jr. : “I believe that a solid strength and conditioning program is a vital and integral part of my development and success as a fire cadet as I prepare for recruit training. I have definitely noticed that the hard work I have put forth in the weight room has carried over to the various fire evolutions we are exposed to. I am now able to chop, put up an extension ladder, throw up a roof ladder, layout hose, or drag a dummy with ease. Without a doubt in my mind, strength training is one of many key components that come together and allow an individual to go above and beyond their potential, and become the best that they can be.” – Fire Cadet/Recruit Joe Hegeman, Jr. 5 – The Importance of Strength to Injury Prevention : 5 – The Importance of Strength to Injury Prevention “Only the strong survive.” Strength & Injury Prevention…It’s a dangerous job! : Strength & Injury Prevention…It’s a dangerous job! Line-of-Duty Injury Survey Line-of-Duty Injury Retirement Survey General Research Study Summary Specific Research Study Summary Economic Benefits Firefighter Line-of-Duty Injuries IAFF 1998 Death & Injury Survey : Firefighter Line-of-Duty Injuries IAFF 1998 Death & Injury Survey The incidence of injury is over 4.5 times that of private industry. 32.4% or one in three suffered an injury. 49.5% of the injuries were strains and sprains 64.0% occurred at the scene of an emergency incident only 5.4% occurred during physical fitness exercises Line-of-Duty Injury Retirements IAFF 1998 Death & Injury Survey : 15.7% of firefighters or one out of every six were forced into early retirement by an injury. 54.5% were back injuries 18.9% were leg, hip or abdomen injuries 12.5% were arm, shoulder or chest injuries 14.1 were miscellaneous injuries Line-of-Duty Injury Retirements IAFF 1998 Death & Injury Survey General Research SummaryThe Prevention of Sports Injuries in High School Athletes Through Strength Training, W.F. Hejni, M.D., et al. : General Research SummaryThe Prevention of Sports Injuries in High School Athletes Through Strength Training, W.F. Hejni, M.D., et al. Investigated the injury rates and time lost to injury in male and female high school athletes. 72.4% were injured in the non-strength training group only 26.2% were injured in the strength trained group 4.82 days were lost to injuries in the non-strength group only 2.02 days were lost to injuries in the strength group A double benefit of lower injury rates and reduced rehabilitation time for strength trained athletes was shown. Specific Research SummaryStrength and Fitness and Subsequent Back Injuries in Firefighters, L.D. Cady, M.D., et al. : Specific Research SummaryStrength and Fitness and Subsequent Back Injuries in Firefighters, L.D. Cady, M.D., et al. Investigated the levels of strength & fitness in 1,652 firefighters and the subsequent occurrence of back injuries. Found a graded and significant protective effect for higher levels of strength and fitness. 0.8% were injured in the highest group 3.2% were injured in the middle group 7.1% were injured in the lowest group The frequency of injuries was ten times higher for the lowest group than for the highest group. The Economic Benefits Reduction in Injuries : The Economic Benefits Reduction in Injuries Results of a longitudinal study of the Los Angeles Fire Department suggested that over 3 years an employee fitness program saved 3,725 injury days at a estimated value of about $483,000. (Barnard & Anthony, 1980) Note: LAFD’s fitness program started in 1972. By 1978 the IOD/Calls ratio was reduced by 34.6%. “Weight training… is critical in the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries and will enhance performance. …many companies that have employed a well-organized strength & conditioning program have had fewer injuries per year and medical costs have decreased substantially.”Russell D. DeLap, CSCS, Assistant Professor Health & Human Performance Department and Director of Athletic Training at Concordia University. President of the Wisconsin Strength & Conditioning Association. : “Weight training… is critical in the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries and will enhance performance. …many companies that have employed a well-organized strength & conditioning program have had fewer injuries per year and medical costs have decreased substantially.”Russell D. DeLap, CSCS, Assistant Professor Health & Human Performance Department and Director of Athletic Training at Concordia University. President of the Wisconsin Strength & Conditioning Association. – Summary : – Summary Strength makes a major contribution to fire fighting tasks. Everything else being equal, the stronger firefighter will perform faster and more effectively. Strength is the ability to overcome or counteract external resistance by muscular effort. Strength training is the scientific method used to develop that ability. Smart strength training necessitates that administrative and program design fundamentals have been addressed. Smart strength training adheres to the “Physical Performance and Injury Prevention Model”. – Summary : – Summary General and specific research shows that strength training is a safe activity with very low injury rates. Strength abilities will improve significantly for those engaged in a well conceived and executed program. The acute physical demands of fire fighting are clearly reflected in the nationwide injury statistics. Research and the experts agree that strength training can prevent and reduce the severity of injuries thereby creating a significant economic benefit to any department. “In an analysis of injuries among firefighters, we determined that firefighters with the lowest levels of strength had the highest incidence of on-the-job injuries because of the severe stress they place on their muscle and joints.” Source: The Firefighter's Survival Manual: A Guide to Physical Fitness - P.O. Davis, Ph.D., A.V. Curtis, Ph.D. : “In an analysis of injuries among firefighters, we determined that firefighters with the lowest levels of strength had the highest incidence of on-the-job injuries because of the severe stress they place on their muscle and joints.” Source: The Firefighter's Survival Manual: A Guide to Physical Fitness - P.O. Davis, Ph.D., A.V. Curtis, Ph.D. The race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong......but they are your best bet! : The race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong......but they are your best bet!

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