Published on March 16, 2016
1. Finnish banking crisis of 1990s By, Harish Ladhani P15033 Gaurav Lamba P15034 Aniket Lokhande P15035 Mangesh Lolge P15036
2. Agenda of the Presentation • Background of Crisis • The Crisis • Consequences • Recovery • Current Status/Learning
3. Banking 49% Public 5% Foreign Sector 9% Public Sector 10% Other Financial Institutions 10% Insurance Sector 17% Composition of Liabilities of Public Background Of The Crisis Financial Market Deregulation Statistics Finland: Financial Market Statistics 1992:24.
4. Background Of The Crisis Financial Market Deregulation • Until the 1980s the Finnish banking sector heavily regulated – low risks, no credit losses • Deregulation began in early 1980s & follows the policy of fixed exchange rates • After deregulation, a flow of foreign credit increased rapidly domestic liquidity 1986-89
5. Background Of The Crisis Financial Market Deregulation
6. • Exports were supported by improved terms-of-trade and by rapid European growth 1986-1989 • Credit expansion fuelled domestic investment and consumption • The policy of fixed exchange rates helped to maintain investor confidence and created an illusion of low exchange rate risk in foreign currency borrowing Background Of The Crisis (continued)
7. The Result • Strong growth led quickly to overheating and indebtedness • Rapid growth of output, consumption and investment • Consumer price and asset price inflation
8. Private sector debt was doubled within 4 years Debt Problem
9. Negative Shocks • Slowdown of international economy due to Oil Crisis • The collapse of Soviet Union and Finnish-Soviet trade in 1990-91: a negative export shock of 10 percent • Decreasing terms of trade (due to declining export prices and rising oil price)led to declining competitiveness and profitability
10. Investors Response • Investors and forex markets started to lose confidence in the stability of exchange rate • As a result, waves of speculative attacks against the fixed exchange rate -> pressure on currency reserves
11. Policy Responds • Kept Exchange Rate fixed • A deflationary adjustment was chosen – depress demand and cut wages (=internal devaluation) • Defend the exchange rate with high interest rates – on average 13 percent in 1989-1992 • Results -- Investment(-50%), Private Consumption (-10%), Stock Market(-70%), Domestic Demand(-20%), GDP(-13%)
12. • Fiscal policy was tightened in 1992-95 • Public demand (and employment) was reduced by 10 percent in 1992-93 • Social benefits were frozen or reduced • Taxes were raised • Resulted into deeping of Crisis Initial Response
13. GDP of Finland decreased during 1990-1993
14. • Main reasons to the crisis were high interest rates caused by international factors and domestic monetary policy, and over indebtedness of Finnish corporate sector • The macroeconomic consequences of falling asset prices were not understood properly by the policy makers: wealth effect and credit losses came as surprises • Government’s attempts to balance its budget by higher taxes and expenditure cuts backfired by further reducing private demand and employment The Real Reason
15. The Recovery • The Finnish markka was allowed to float. • It first depreciated by 40 percent, but started to appreciate later • Restructuring and downsizing the banking industry • Government’s equity loans to all banks to recapitalize them • Domestic interest rates were decreased rapidly from 15 to 5 percent • Lower interest rates enabled lower savings and asset price reflation after 1994
16. The Recovery Bank support in Finland
17. Effective Exchange Rates Increased during 1990-1993 The Recovery
18. Crisis in a nutshell
Background. Until the 1980s, the Finnish financial market was tightly regulated: the Bank of Finland controlled interest rates, foreign exchange rates, and ...
↑ 1.0 1.1 Peter Nyberg and Vesa Vihriälä. "The Finnish Banking Crisis and Its Handling" (pdf), Bank of Finland Discussion Papers, Financial Markets ...
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