Finding a Common Language: Bringing Complex and Disparate Vocabularies Together

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Information about Finding a Common Language: Bringing Complex and Disparate Vocabularies...
Technology

Published on September 30, 2008

Author: danielabarbosa

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This case study addresses the challenges ProQuest faced in managing multilingual controlled vocabularies using multiple Word documents and authority files maintained in an Oracle database. Speakers describe how implementing a thesaurus management tool helped ProQuest simplify and standardize its business semantic management to create a common language and connect disparate information assets as well as handling large and varied vocabularies and authority files, linking new and existing editorial systems and enabling hierarchical views, and automating thesaurus management tasks.

Paula R. McCoy Manager, Taxonomy Development ProQuest [email_address] Finding a Common Language: Bringing Complex and Disparate Vocabularies Together

Part of Cambridge Information Group & CSA Headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan Editorial offices in Louisville, Kentucky

Part of Cambridge Information Group & CSA

Headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Editorial offices in Louisville, Kentucky

Access to over 125 billion digital pages of content from magazine, trade, & scholarly publications, current & historical newspapers, original materials such as annual reports & civil war pamphlets, and daily wire feeds Subscription-based ProQuest® online information service available in academic and public libraries

Louisville editors abstract & index 4,000+ periodicals & newspapers ProQuest Controlled Vocabulary used to index subjects; Authority Files used to index company, geographic, personal, product names CV applied to non-periodical & third-party content via mapping, to allow cross-searching of multiple DBs with one vocabulary

Louisville editors abstract & index 4,000+

periodicals & newspapers

ProQuest Controlled Vocabulary used to index

subjects; Authority Files used to index

company, geographic, personal, product names

CV applied to non-periodical & third-party

content via mapping, to allow cross-searching

of multiple DBs with one vocabulary

Description of ProQuest Controlled Vocabulary & Authority Files Taxonomy Management -- Overview Life Before Synaptica Thesaurus Management System Purchase Implementing Synaptica Life With Synaptica Topics of Discussion Q&A

Description of ProQuest Controlled

Vocabulary & Authority Files

Taxonomy Management -- Overview

Life Before Synaptica

Thesaurus Management System Purchase

Implementing Synaptica

Life With Synaptica

Q&A

ProQuest Controlled Vocabulary PQ CV Created in 1970s for ABI/INFORM business database Based on Library of Congress Subject Headings Natural language, hierarchical vocabulary complying with ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.19 (Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies)

Created in 1970s for ABI/INFORM business database

Based on Library of Congress Subject Headings

Natural language, hierarchical vocabulary complying

with ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.19 (Guidelines for

the Construction, Format, and Management of

Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies)

ProQuest Controlled Vocabulary Thesaurus subjects: Business, economics & trade – 4300 terms Science, math & technology – 1600 terms Medicine – 1150 terms Humanities – 960 terms Government & policy – 850 terms Education – 400 terms Merged with general reference vocabulary in 1980s Major development effort in past 4 years to boost science, education & medical terms PQ CV

Thesaurus subjects:

Merged with general reference vocabulary in 1980s

Major development effort in past 4 years to boost

science, education & medical terms

ProQuest CV: Statistics Preferred terms: 11,046 Non-preferred terms: 5631 Scope Notes: 3194 (29%) Cross-references (Broader, Narrower, Related terms): 67,700 Terms added in 2007: 77 Terms added in 2008: 58+ PQ CV

Preferred terms: 11,046

Non-preferred terms: 5631

Scope Notes: 3194 (29%)

Cross-references (Broader,

Narrower, Related terms): 67,700

Terms added in 2007: 77

Terms added in 2008: 58+

Authority Files: Statistics Corporate/Organization Names: 438,098 Names added in 2008: 5489 Personal Names: 416,239 Names added in 2008: 1526 Geographic (Location) Names: 34,331 Names added in 2008: 144 Product Names: 38,210 Names added in 2008: 54 PQ CV

Corporate/Organization Names: 438,098

Names added in 2008: 5489

Personal Names: 416,239

Names added in 2008: 1526

Geographic (Location) Names: 34,331

Names added in 2008: 144

Product Names: 38,210

Names added in 2008: 54

The Taxonomy Manager’s Job Add subject terms as dictated by new concepts & new content to index Maintain hierarchies & Scope Notes Load updated Thesaurus to ProQuest interface Manage authority files to maintain standards & control file size Taxonomy Management

Add subject terms as dictated by new

concepts & new content to index

Maintain hierarchies & Scope Notes

Load updated Thesaurus to ProQuest interface

Manage authority files to maintain standards

& control file size

The Taxonomy Manager’s Job Taxonomy Management To ensure that indexers and searchers alike have access to a complete and accurate Thesaurus that they can use to maximize the discoverability of documents in ProQuest OBJECTIVE :

Thesaurus on ProQuest® Taxonomy Management

Sample Subject Term Taxonomy Management Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease SN: Any lung disease, such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema, causing obstruction of bronchial airflow    UF  COPD    BT  Disease    BT  Respiratory diseases    NT  Asthma    NT  Bronchitis    NT  Emphysema    RT  Airway management    RT  Lungs Preferred, or main term Scope note defining term and how it is used Non-preferred term: points to term used to index Terms broader in nature to main term: COPD is a disease, and specifically, a respiratory disease Terms narrower in nature to main term: these are chronic lung diseases Terms related to main term that might be used to narrow the search

Before Synaptica Managing terms meant: Multiple files  Duplicate entries  Errors = less than ideal thesaurus management

MS Word Document Before Synaptica Academic degrees SN: A title conferred on students upon graduating from a program of study at a college or university UF: Associates degree Bachelors degree Doctoral degree Masters degree BT: Academic achievement RT: Colleges & universities Graduate studies Graduation requirements Higher education MBA programs & graduates   Academic failure SN: The failure of a student to meet academic standards, including failure to be promoted or to graduate UF: Student failure RT: Academic achievement Academic grading Academic probation Academic underachievement At risk students Grade repetition Graduation requirements School dropouts Social promotion Academic freedom SN: Educators’ freedom to teach and research what they choose BT: Education RT: Colleges & universities Curricula Research Teachers Teaching Academic grading UF: Grading of students BT: Academic achievement RT: Academic failure Academic probation Achievement tests Cheating Education portfolios Educational evaluation Tests Version 2004 ProQuest Controlled Vocabulary of Subject Terms Page 3 Academic guidance counseling UF: Guidance counseling Student counseling BT: Counseling Education RT: Career preparation Counselor client relationships Counselor education School counseling   Academic libraries UF: College libraries School libraries BT: Libraries RT: Librarians Library resources   Academic marketing SN: Efforts of educational institutions to attract students and funding BT: Marketing NT: Student recruitment RT: Admissions policies College admissions College choice Colleges & universities Enrollment management Enrollments Academic probation RT: Academic failure Academic grading Academic underachievement Academic standards SN: Standards for performance in defined academic areas set at the local, state, or federal levels BT: Standards RT: Academic achievement Academic achievement gaps Academic underachievement Achievement tests Core curriculum Education policy Educational evaluation No Child Left Behind Act 2001-US Quality of education School effectiveness Standardized tests Academic underachievement SN: Student performance that is below standards or below potential RT: Academic achievement Academic achievement gaps Academic failure Academic standards At risk students Grade repetition Social promotion   Academy awards UF: Oscars (Motion picture awards) BT: Awards & honors Motion picture industry RT: Actors   Acadian culture UF: Cajuns BT: Minority & ethnic groups Accelerated cost recovery system CC: 4210 UF: ACRS BT: Cost recovery Depreciation Depreciation methods NT: Modified accelerated cost recovery system RT: Capital cost recovery allowances Declining balance method Depreciable assets Tax basis   Accelerated death benefits CC: 4220 CC: 8210 UF: Living benefits Viatical settlement BT: Death benefits RT: Estate planning Hardship distributions Insurance policies Life insurance Riders Terminal illnesses Accelerated depreciation methods USE: Depreciation methods Key: SN=Scope note CC=Classification code UF=Use for BT=Broader term NT=Narrower term RT=Related term

Vocabulary Documents in Word ProQuest controlled vocabulary French-language controlled vocabulary German-language controlled vocabulary Spanish-language controlled vocabulary Combined PQ-CBCA controlled vocabulary Ethnic database vocabulary, English Ethnic database vocabulary, Spanish Before Synaptica

ProQuest controlled vocabulary

French-language controlled vocabulary

German-language controlled vocabulary

Spanish-language controlled vocabulary

Combined PQ-CBCA controlled vocabulary

Ethnic database vocabulary, English

Ethnic database vocabulary, Spanish

Oracle Database Forms Before Synaptica

Authority Files in Oracle Class codes (related to subjects) CORP names (391,665+ terms) GEOG names (32,000+ terms) PERS names (350,000+ terms) PROD names (38,000+ terms) NAIC codes (related to companies) Before Synaptica

Class codes (related to subjects)

CORP names (391,665+ terms)

GEOG names (32,000+ terms)

PERS names (350,000+ terms)

PROD names (38,000+ terms)

NAIC codes (related to companies)

Foreign-Language Vocabularies French German Spanish Before Synaptica

Adding New Terms 1. Enter full term hierarchy into new Word doc 2. Copy term into main Word-based vocabulary & enter reciprocal relationships 3. Enter term & relationships into Oracle 4. Review next-day report on Oracle activity 5. Send new term doc to editors via e-mail 6. Print new vocabulary (at least every two years) Before Synaptica

Thesaurus Management Systems TMS Purchase

Buying Criteria TMS Purchase Up to 40 admin & 100 read-only users in multiple locations Ability to load vocabs from multiple Word docs & Oracle authority files Support for foreign language vocabularies Ability to add new vocabularies Vendor onsite installation & training Software upgrades & tech support Buying Criteria

Up to 40 admin & 100 read-only users in multiple

locations

Ability to load vocabs from multiple Word docs &

Oracle authority files

Support for foreign language vocabularies

Ability to add new vocabularies

Vendor onsite installation & training

Software upgrades & tech support

1. Ability to interact in real time with editorial system 2. Ability to accommodate authority files of 400,000+ names TMS Purchase Buying Criteria

Implementing Synaptica Contract signed and work begun in August 2004 PQ sent to Synaptica all the Word & Oracle files for analysis Implementing Synaptica Decision points: how to load & structure data; how to handle “suspect” or erroneous relationships

Contract signed and work begun in August 2004

PQ sent to Synaptica all the Word & Oracle files for

analysis

Decision points: how to load & structure data;

how to handle “suspect” or erroneous

relationships

Synaptica Data Analysis Term Uniqueness Use Violations Self-Referencing Relationships One Relationship per Term Pair Relationship Unique Circular References Relationship Reciprocates Relationship Validation Tests: Exception Reports delivered to PQ; Errors fixed before production Implementing Synaptica

Term Uniqueness

Use Violations

Self-Referencing Relationships

One Relationship per Term Pair

Relationship Unique

Circular References

Relationship Reciprocates

Use Validation Error Marine resources Implementing Synaptica Underwater resources UF: Marine resources BT: Natural resources RT: Marine conservation Marine ecology Marine pollution Marine pollution BT: Pollution Water pollution RT: Marine conservation Marine ecology Ocean dumping Marine resources Marine ecology SN: The ecology of the seas and oceans UF: Benthic ecology BT: Ecology RT: Marine conservation Marine pollution Marine resources Oceans Marine resources USE: Underwater resources

Terms with no language equivalent (LEQ), e.g., no translation In all 3 languages, multiple English terms with the same translation, e.g.: Foreign-Language Errors Implementing Synaptica English term Purchasing Shopping Buyers Purchasing agents French term Achats Achats Acheteurs Acheteurs French term-revised Shopping Agents d'achat

Terms with no language equivalent (LEQ), e.g., no translation

In all 3 languages, multiple English terms with the same

translation, e.g.:

Solution: Issue: Different editorial systems = 2x data entry: once for Synaptica, once for Oracle Final Challenge Implementing Synaptica Overnight synchronization process to copy Synaptica work into Oracle every night Synch process discontinued April 2008

Putting Synaptica Into Production Deal with people resistant to change Train users — provide documentation & hands-on demonstrative training Encourage written feedback on system functionality Send feedback to Synaptica – many of our suggestions implemented in later versions Nov 2004 Implementing Synaptica

Deal with people resistant to change

Train users — provide documentation & hands-on

demonstrative training

Encourage written feedback on system functionality

Send feedback to Synaptica – many of our suggestions

implemented in later versions

Life With Synaptica Word – Old, Bad  Synaptica – New, Good  Life With Synaptica

2. Export report of new terms into Word 1. Enter term and relationships into Synaptica “ Item Details” window 3. Send Word document to editors Life With Synaptica Adding Terms Today: 3 Easy Steps

Synaptica version 6.0 released in early 2006 Life With Synaptica Synaptica Updates Synaptica version 7.0 is being implemented now: Enhanced user interface Semantic Web standardization (RDF, OWL, SKOS) and Web Services integration Expanded Reporting functionality Enhanced adding and editing of term relationships including “rapid-fire” simple drag-and-drop editing Improved global term editing Online help and user guides

Synaptica version 6.0 released in early 2006

Synaptica version 7.0 is being implemented now:

Enhanced user interface

Semantic Web standardization (RDF, OWL, SKOS) and

Web Services integration

Expanded Reporting functionality

Enhanced adding and editing of term relationships

including “rapid-fire” simple drag-and-drop editing

Improved global term editing

Online help and user guides

Benefits of Synaptica Life With Synaptica Greater awareness of thesaurus standards and terminology, e.g.: “preferred” and “non-preferred” instead of Use and Used For Long-needed updating and improvement in term hierarchies; ability to provide thesaurus statistics Increase in Company name NPTs — from 1935 to 8952 today Immediate responsiveness to indexer needs — real-time term additions, esp. NPTs and SNs Easier loading of updated Thesaurus on PQ interface

Greater awareness of thesaurus standards and

terminology, e.g.: “preferred” and “non-preferred”

instead of Use and Used For

Long-needed updating and improvement in term

hierarchies; ability to provide thesaurus statistics

Increase in Company name NPTs — from 1935 to

8952 today

Immediate responsiveness to indexer needs —

real-time term additions, esp. NPTs and SNs

Easier loading of updated Thesaurus on PQ interface

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