Finance - Bottazzi Lecture 5a

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Information about Finance - Bottazzi Lecture 5a
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Published on May 11, 2008

Author: untellectualism

Source: authorstream.com

Government policy towards innovation/R&D : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Government policy towards innovation/R&D Outline : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Outline Government R&D policy Technological Performance Innovation and Finance Why do governments have innovation policies? : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Why do governments have innovation policies? Difficult to evaluate and fund some types of research in the private sector obtaining external finance means revealing idea benefit diffuse - cannot identify recipients easily, so difficult to collect payment (environment; defense) externalities are large, players are small (agriculture) investors cannot evaluate projects very well due to extreme uncertainty To provide standards, which are public goods Why do governments have innovation policies? : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Why do governments have innovation policies? To encourage strategic industries important for national security “ripe” for technical advance closely linked to other industries technical advance facilitates progress in other industries To provide education and human capital imperfect capital markets imply that private sector will not supply enough finance for higher education Summary: social return to R&D > private return to R&D Determining the optimal subsidy : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Return or cost of R&D Level of R&D spending Optimal subsidy Determining the optimal subsidy Optimal competitive level of R Optimal social level of R Why the gap between private and social return? : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Why the gap between private and social return? Knowledge spillovers knowledge created by one agent can be used by another without compensation, or with investment less than the cost of the knowledge creation Market (pecuniary) spillovers Some of the benefits of the knowledge creation (new products/processes) flow to purchasers via the operation of market forces, reducing the price Network spillovers Value of a new technology strongly dependent on development of related technologies (the hardware/software case) What’s wrong with this simple graph? : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION What’s wrong with this simple graph? Magnitude of the spillover gap varies by country by industry by technology type Project ordering varies depending on whether you use social or private returns to order Spillover gap varies by country : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Spillover gap varies by country small open economies like those in Scandinavia, Netherlands, etc. Most R&D benefits there may spill to other countries vs. large semi-open economies like the U.S. less leakage Spillover gap varies by industry : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Spillover gap varies by industry Consumer electronics or autoparts/metal parts or airframes High appropriability, possibly fewer spillovers vs. pharmaceuticals for life-threatening diseases, environmental and pollution control conventional as well as R&D externalities vs. telecommunications/ electronics/ semiconductors/IT appropriability may be low and there are many small firms Project ordering can differ : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Project ordering can differ according to whether you use social or private returns to rank projects Cures for developing country diseases vs developed country diseases. Targeted government policy that favors one industry or technology over another changes ordering => More than one policy is useful, depending on the goal Standard policy instruments for market failure - summary : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Standard policy instruments for market failure - summary Internalize the externality R&D joint ventures between firms in the same industry Create a property right in the innovation (the patent system) Subsidize or tax the activity widely used policies Regulation? - not likely or usua Quotas - mandating R&D performance 1. Internalizing the externality : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION 1. Internalizing the externality Exempt R&D joint ventures from antitrust regulation sometimes with federal support, e.g., Sematech Create a property right in the output of the innovativeactivity (e.g., patent, trademark, copyright, etc.) Allows firms exclusive use of the innovation (monopoly) May allow trading of ideas, promoting spillovers, facilitating cumulative and complex innovation Both solutions have costs Deadweight loss (creation of monopoly power) Projects chosen by industry (omits some with high social and low private returns) 2. Subsidize or tax the activity : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION 2. Subsidize or tax the activity Direct government subsidy - where gap is large and beneficiaries uncertain and diffuse science/basic research higher education defense/space/health Tax policy - where gap is smaller; industrial R&D R&D is expensed R&D tax credit (federal and state) Returns to foreign R&D repatriated at low tax rates The tradeoff between direct and indirect financing: Who chooses projects better? Who performs projects better? Politics and capture? Slide 14: 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Science and Engineering Graduates per 1000 of population aged 20-29 in 1999 : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Science and Engineering Graduates per 1000 of population aged 20-29 in 1999 Source: EU Innovation Scoreboard 2001 % Changes in Numbers taking First Degree Courses in UK 1994/5 to 1999/2000 : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Changes in Numbers taking First Degree Courses in UK 1994/5 to 1999/2000 Source: Roberts Review Science and Linkages in Selected Countries : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Science and Linkages in Selected Countries Measured by the average number of scientific papers cited in US patents depending on applicants’ nationality Source: NISTEP (2000) based on data from CHI Research Inc. Quoted in Benchmarking Industry-Science Relationship OECD 2002 Public R&D Expenditures(GOVERD & HERD) (% GDP) : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Source. EU Innovation Scoreboard 2002 Public R&D Expenditures(GOVERD & HERD) (% GDP) Business Expenditure on R&D as % of GDP : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Source. EU Innovation Scoreboard 2002 Business Expenditure on R&D as % of GDP EPO High-Tech Patent Applications(per million population) : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Source. EU Innovation Scoreboard 2002 EPO High-Tech Patent Applications(per million population) USPTO High-Tech Patent Applications(per million population) : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Source. EU Innovation Scoreboard 2002 USPTO High-Tech Patent Applications(per million population) High-Tech Venture Capital Investment(% GDP) : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Source. EU Innovation Scoreboard 2002 High-Tech Venture Capital Investment(% GDP) Slide 23: 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Stock Markets Falls 2001 -2002 Slide 24: 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION The incidence of innovation Slide 25: 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION The incidence of innovation Slide 26: 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION The incidence of innovation Slide 27: 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Finance for SMEs Slide 28: 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Finance for SMEs Finance for Innovative SMEs : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Finance for Innovative SMEs Innovators are more likely to be seeking external finance and to seek larger amounts Innovators have a higher failure rate, but over three-quarters receive the whole of what they sought Over the past decade SMEs have reduced their reliance on bank borrowing and have a more diverse financial structure Innovators rely less on bank financing, but the proportions of their support coming from venture capitalists and from existing shareholders is the same as those for non-innovators Barriers to Innovation : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Barriers to Innovation When firms are asked which factors inhibit their innovation they score risk and cost most highly This has not changed in recent years, but the levels of these barriers have declined. This suggests that the moderation of innovation activity may be due to lower incentives to innovate The only factor showing a higher importance as a barrier to innovation in recent years is the imposition of legislation, regulations etc Barriers to Innovation : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Barriers to Innovation Growth Constraints : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Growth Constraints Over the past decade there has been a substantial reduction in the proportion of SMEs selecting finance as a significant growth constraint Increased competition and, in recent years, market growth have risen in their importance as growth inhibitors Larger businesses are starting to recognise how important are skill constraints on growth, particularly management skills Innovators score market growth and competition and skills as their growth constraints Factors Limiting Ability to Grow% of firms regarding these factor as crucial 1991, 1997 and 2002 Surveys : 8204 ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FINANCE AND INNOVATION Factors Limiting Ability to Grow% of firms regarding these factor as crucial 1991, 1997 and 2002 Surveys

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