Published on March 8, 2014
UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA BAHIA INSTITUTO DE LETRAS DEPARTAMENTO DE LETRAS GERMÂNICAS LICENCIATURA EM LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA - INGLÊS INSTRUCTOR: FERNANDA MOTA PEREIRA STUDENT: PEDRO SAMUEL DE MOURA TORRES Final report submitted as a requirement of the subject LETB29 – Estágio Supervisionado II de Língua Inglesa –, under the guidance of Professor Fernanda Mota at Universidade Federal da Bahia. SALVADOR, BAHIA. 2013.2 1
PEDRO SAMUEL DE MOURA TORRES FINAL REPORT Final report submitted as a requirement of the subject LETB29 – Estágio Supervisionado II de Língua Inglesa, under the guidance of Professor Fernanda Mota at Universidade Federal da Bahia. SALVADOR, BAHIA 2013.2 2
INDEX INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................4 LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................................................6 OBSERVATIONS…………………………………………..……………………….......8 UNIT PACKET...…………….........................................................................................16 CONCLUDING THOUGHTS.........................................................................................90 ANNOTATED REFERENCES……………………………...…...………………....….92 APPENDIX .....................................................................................................................95 3
INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this work is to reflect on the theories and practices developed throughout Estágio Supervisionado em Língua Inglesa II, being based also on the background constructed in the course LET B28/29- Estágio Supervisionado em Língua Inglesa I and II, some of the pedagogic theories that were analyzed through our observation and applied in our practice in classes. This final report displays the main movements of the theories I learned and my practices as a trainee teacher in the public school Henriqueta Martins Catharino, all that I learned in practice since I was inexperienced. It also shows some contributions of the researches and readings I did about the methods to apply in class and it reveals all the creativity I had to appeal on my own, which I learned how to develop. After the introduction, this final report also contains five observation sheets in which I reported on the classes I observed at the public school Henriqueta Martins Catharino with the Mentor teacher Zuleide Ribeiro Pereira Batista in the group 2nd A grade that soon I was going to teach all by myself. Even though, in my observations, I just had one day of real lesson, since the others were just exams that I most observed, those observations contributed immensely for me to engage with students and to grasp some notions about the pedagogies and methods I should use with them. I started to pay attention to their needs and began to reflect on them. It also encloses all the lessons plans that I taught during a period of more than just one month which was constituted by only ten days of classes and two days for the final exam. As a result of the strike we had last semester, the trainee period was shortened. It displays all the activities that were applied in class and some homework activities as well as all the classes reports which detail many aspects of my first experience as a teacher, such as the methods and approaches I had in mind as I tried to apply always willing to keep the class more learnercentered with the constructivism, inductive and communicative language teaching educational perspectives. It also presents the Professor feedbacks about my classes as she went there two times to observe my performance as a teacher, analyzing and contributing with her appraisals and recommendations. It reports all the movements of the classes, everything that happened there, 4
the students’ responses to my approaches, the way that classes were conducted, our relationships, our communication, our empathies, the warm-ups, the creativity I had to discover in my pedagogic potentiality, the flexibility I had to develop, the results, students participation, all my efforts to be understood and to get their attention and so on. I may be sincere that at the beginning of the semester I was somehow very anxious if by any chance I would get a difficult class to handle, because of my lack of experience and my intrinsic need of perfection, but in the end, everything just fitted properly for me. And just as the Mentor teacher Leli has told me previously, they were a great class regarding their respect, obedience and solicitude. On the other hand, they were not assiduous at all, which made it really difficult to keep on following the contents; they missed the classes many times in which in most of the cases I had few students in a group that have more than ten students. But even so, the days they were in class, I really enjoyed their accessibility to participate in all the activities I proposed. In the beginning of the classes, I was also in doubt about the contents I should teach, I asked for the Mentor teacher's suggestions and she told me that I could teach anything from that specific unit in the book which was too large for just one month of classes. Thus, I tried to reach a consensus with my classmate Jefferson as we decided to use some main texts and grammar topics from the school book that was borrowed to us trainee teachers. In spite of all difficulties that I had at the beginning, I should say that it was indeed a fruitful experience for me, for I could apply many theories I had learned in Estágio Supervisionado em Língua Inglesa I and II, and therefore, I could understand what it feels like to be a teacher, how the teacher should prepare the lessons, manage things in class, be flexible at all the time, develop activities and exercises that would be suitable and helpful for their occasion and so on. 5
LITERATURE REVIEW A short review of the book "Techniques and principles in language teaching" by Diana Larsen-Freeman (2000), where, according to the author, the actions are the techniques and the thoughts are the principles since she conceives the term "Language teaching method" as a coherent set of links between actions and thoughts in the procedure of teaching a foreign language. Therefore, she tries to bring out thoughts that guide someone's action as a teacher which one may not be conscious about and she also demonstrates how to put those theories into action. According to the author, all the methodological theories she wrote in the book were based on her own experience in teaching the methods/approaches course at the School for International training. In this book, the author describes some of the main methods used in the language pedagogy that contributes enormously to amplify the perspective in teaching a second language, such as: Grammar-translation method, Community language learning, Total physical response, Suggestopedia, The silent way, The natural approach, The direct method and The audio-lingual method. A brief inspection in the book Learner-centered English Language Education by David Nunan reveals some of his useful theories in teaching a second language which are the deductive and inductive approaches. According to the author David Nunan, the deductive approach is more traditional and teacher-centered and it is based on the open explanations displayed by the teacher while the inductive is learner-centered and the teacher’s role is to conduct students to get the idea through inferences. Both the deductive and inductive approaches are unavoidably necessary when it comes to teaching in a public school and for the inductive one is even more revolutionary and indispensable in order to break the traditional approach and allow the classes to be more learner-centered and thus arousing some autonomy in the students' learning process. Just like the learner-centered and constructivism assumptions, the National Curriculum Parameters also conceive education as a means of constructing autonomous people who are able to think, reflect, act and transform their surroundings for better. For the National Curriculum Parameters, education is a tool of social transformation with humanistic 6
conceptions where students should be prepared not just for the academic matters but they should also be taught how to find their places in society. It concerns about creating people aware of their position in the world trying to cover all the human needs. New direct and indirect influential texts and media that served to set up this work will be also included in this final report: "No Books and 150 Students" by Kim Hughes, where the author demonstrates that it is possible to teach efficient classes in a context with few resources. "To teach Standard English or World Englishes? A balanced approach to instruction" by Thomas S. C. Farrell and Sonia Martin, the authors discuss about the differences of the English language around the world trying to break the linguistic and cultural bias, he raise awareness that there is not the ideal English but rather many cultural and linguistic diversity that should be respected as well. The movie Freedom writers by Richard LaGravenese, contributed to show that the craft of teaching goes beyond the curriculum contents where the teacher acted as a transformer of students' perspectives and lives for better. "Learner-centered English Language Education" by David Nunan, which he defends that the function of education is to enable students to learn and it is devoted to the students needs. The book "TESOL" by Kumaravadivelu, which he shows weak points about authenticity, acceptability and adaptability in CLT. "Second Language Teaching & Learning" by David Nunan, which he demonstrates the distinction between an humanistic tradition (behaviorism) and the experiential model (constructivism). "Classroom management" by Marilyn Lewis which she talks about the two motivations in the class: the intrinsic and the extrinsic one. "The ELT Curriculum: A flexible model for a changing world" by Denise Finney, which she approaches the models of curriculum focusing mainly on the constructivism principles, where the classes must be learner-centered for students autonomy and focus on the function of the communication. 7
OBSERVATIONS At the beginning of the semester, the Professor tutor Fernanda Mota proposed us to teach in a public school offering us two choices: Manoel Novaes or Henriqueta Catharino and as my criteria to choose was according to the time that would fit with other disciplines I take at UFBA and according to the small period I stay in Salvador, I ended up taking the school Henriqueta Martins Catharino with the Mentor teacher Zuleide Ribeiro Pereira Batista in the class 2nd A in the morning shift, which, according to the Mentor teacher Leli, was a class not meant to be available for the teaching practice because of the recurrent students' dropouts. The school environment was from a typical public school with lots of frenetic and energetic teenagers making noises, joking around and talking. The classrooms were somehow large, in some classes, students fulfilled all the desks, while in others, there were just a few students distributed randomly. Their behavior was so energetic that frightened the visitors unaccustomed to that context. Even so, they seemed to be respectful to the teachers. The teacher’s attitude seemed to be of a natural authority with a certain distance but in class they seemed to act more accessible to the students’ needs. All though I could observe just a real class in this school, because I arrived in a week of exams and from what I could analyze in this single real class, the teacher seemed to work very traditionally with no space for the revolutionary theories we have learnt at UFBA. Besides that, she worked with no contextualization, no interaction in the target language and no meaningfulness based on the usage of the grammar topic. 8
Universidade Federal da Bahia Instituto de Letras Departamento de Letras Germânicas Rua Barão de Geremoabo, nº147 CEP: 40170-290 Campus Universitário - Ondina, Salvador-Ba Tel.: (071) 3263-6225 /3 263-6206 Fax: (071) 3263-6208 E-mail: email@example.com Observer’s Name: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres School: Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Catharino. Location: Rua Henriqueta Martins Catharino, 158 - Federação, Salvador - BA. Teacher’s Name: Zuleide Ribeiro Pereira Batista Level/ Group: High School 2nd A Date: 24 / 10 / 2013 FIRST CLASS OBSERVATION The Mentor teacher Zuleide, known as Leli was very punctual, she entered the room at exactly 11:00 o'clock. She greeted all the students who were at first about three or five and were all seated separately and far from the center of the room. As she greeted them, I was searching for a suitable place to sit. Then, she asked all the students to come closer to the centre in front of her since they were seated all separately. As she started asking about their weekend, some of the other students begun to enter the room. When most of them had arrived, she introduced me to them by telling them playfully that she was already too old and for that reason she was about to be retiring and therefore I was going to be her substitute, I was going to be their new teacher. All of them looked at me and greeted me; one of the boys sent me a funny kiss that I got a little bit embarrassed, but I took it as if it was a teen's joke. A very talkative and smart girl looked at me and said "Good luck! They say we're the best class they have here!" I can not deny that it has arisen some anxiety in me, for I was not sure if it was an irony or a fact. But anyway, I tried to remain optimistic and deep inside I was 9
eager to know if they enjoy learning English. The Mentor teacher Leli started to write on the board some sentences using the verb tense "Past perfect". And after she finished it, she began to explain how we form it [the subject + verb (to have) in the past "had" + the main verb in the past participle]. She explained to them that in the case of the regular verbs, they just have to put the "ed" at the end while in the case of the irregular verbs as they have already received a chart with all of them and thus the students just need to search for it and check it in their chart. She also explained to them how and when to apply this verb tense by showing them that it is used to express an action that had happened in the past just before another action occurred, so the sentence should have more than just one period. She explained to them the affirmative and the negative form as well, by showing them the right place for the negation "not" and its contraction form "hadn't". Almost in the end of the class, the Mentor teacher Leli made a quick review about the "Tag questions" explaining to them that when the sentence is affirmative, the tag question should be in the negative and vice versa. When the class finished, we talked a little bit about that class which she explained to me that they are not assiduous and that I would face problems such as having just few students or none in occasional days. She told me that they usually do not bring their books and that I should apply some written activities as a way to control their participation. I asked her about the possibility to stimulate them to learn how to speak the language with pair oral activities, she answered me that they were not used to it and that they would probably find that odd. That made me rethink about what we have been learning throughout Estágio's subjects; like after she had described all that reality I thought that it would be a big challenge to apply everything we have been taught. I have been idealizing a way to stimulate them to pronounce the words properly and make sentences in English to use the language with the function of communication, however, I felt somehow challenged with that obstacle the Mentor teacher Leli has subtly warned me. But she told me that I'm free to use the approaches and methods I feel at ease since we are there to experiment. 10
Observer’s Name: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres School: Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Catharino. Location: Rua Henriqueta Martins Catharino, 158 - Federação, Salvador - BA. Teacher’s Name: Zuleide Ribeiro Pereira Batista Level/ Group: High School 2nd A Date: 31 / 10 / 2013 SECOND CLASS OBSERVATION Since I arrived late that day, I did not take much note about it and I could register just that the chemistry exam finished at about 08:50 and almost all the students were still doing it. I could realize that in comparison to mathematics, in other exams, students behaved less anxiously and were more involved in the test; they usually make less noise and they do it properly. The Mentor teacher Leli explained to us that there are differences in students behavior in the days of exam according to the subject. The exam that most make them anxious is usually math and we could realize that indeed they act very differently at each day of test. After the exam finished, we went to the teachers’ room and Mentor teacher Leli started talking to us (me and four more students-teachers from Estágio II) about students’ behavior and how we should approach the methods with them. She told us that we better assess them just with written activities because participation and oral assessment are quite subjective since there is nothing to be proved in it while the written activities is something that is marked and then it can be evidenced. She also told us that we are supposed to make the same final exam with the classmate that took the same grade and hence we should make the plans with contents in line with our classmates '. I asked her some questions about bringing to them tasks that I could stimulate them to create and speak sentences, she answered me that I could try it for I am here for experiment, but in support of what she already know about them with her own experience it would be really difficult, it can succeed or not, but chances are too rare. We started asking her the best methodologies we can use and she explained to us that we had better teach them 11
in a more superficial and traditional way, not going too deep for they will find it odd or boring, so we better show things superficially and practically. She told us also that whenever we are going to teach them a grammar topic, we should at first explain the structure in Portuguese in order to make them visualize the syntax and grammar aspects that they do not know even in Portuguese. For example: as I asked her how I could teach them the "Relative pronouns", she told me that I should show them what is a "Relative pronouns" using first the Portuguese language in order to clarify their mind how "Relative pronouns" plays in the language, that they are necessary to reunite two pieces of information that talk about the same subject and so on; she also told me that we had better teach some of the easiest "Relative pronouns", not all of them such as "whose" for instance, and if by the way I show them the relative pronoun "whose" I should work on it on the very surface. Observer’s Name: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres School: Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Catharino. Location: Rua Henriqueta Martins Catharino, 158 - Federação, Salvador - BA. Teacher’s Name: Zuleide Ribeiro Pereira Batista Level/ Group: High School 2nd A Date: 01 / 11 / 2013 THIRD CLASS OBSERVATION For the mathematics' exam with the teacher Emanuel students from the 2nd A and B were joined in the same room at 08:04 AM. The exams started at 08:07 AM; with an anxious and uneasy atmosphere students were very agitated and they started joking around saying they needed desperately to cheat on the test for they did not remember anything they had studied. Most of them did not show any empathy with the test as if they ignored the content presented in the exam. 12
Some students discussed with each other uninterested and indifferent as if they were not prepared for the exam and they did not care about it. Most of them seemed lost and totally unprepared. The first student to hand in the test in blank left the room at 08:15 AM; it started as domino effect and soon another student also gave it up at 08:17 AM. The third student left soon at 08:19 AM. The class became silent a little when suddenly a student looked at me and asked me which subject I would teach, I answered him that I would teach English and then he made fun saying that unfortunately I would not be able to help him in that hard situation and then a girl said jokingly that for me to have achieved the English I must had passed through Math as well and that probably I could help them. Some students looked at a girl who appeared to be really involved with the exam and started to ask for her help aloud. Another student handed the exam in blank at 08:26 and just after one more student found courage to give it up as well leaving the room together. Other students just left one minute after. Two more students left the room together at 08:28 and other two more at 08:29 and then eight more students started leaving and handing the exam. With about six students still trying to answer the exam, I saw a girl counting on her fingers and trying to look at her classmate’s exam, this same girl gave it up and left the room at about 8:30, subsequently another student gave it up too. All at once, two girls who had already handed the exam came back to the class and started asking their teacher to give their exam back so that they could answer something they had remembered, but the teacher did not allow it. Another student handed the exam at 08:33 and another at 08:34. The next-to-last student handed the exam at 8:37 and finally the last one handed it at 08:38. 13
Observer’s Name: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres School: Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Catharino. Location: Rua Henriqueta Martins Catharino, 158 - Federação, Salvador - BA. Teacher’s Name: Zuleide Ribeiro Pereira Batista Level/ Group: High School 2nd A Date: 07 / 11 / 2013 FOURTH CLASS OBSERVATION We entered the class at about 08:20 AM, six students sat in their places and the teacher started explaining all the process to answer the Portuguese, composition and mathematics exams. It took approximately fifteen minutes for the students to ask questions and discuss with the teacher about how to answer properly in the chart of the exam. Thus, they started to answer the exam at around 08:30 AM when the class became totally silent. At 08:45 AM the principal came in the class and paused their exam to clarify any doubt they might have about the process to answer the exam. All of a sudden, the teacher started complaining with a student because he was talking to one of his classmate as if he was doing that in order to show off because there was somebody else in the class. A student still with doubts called up the teacher in order to help him understand the answering process better. Another pupil started to talk to his classmate and the teacher started to complain asking him to get back in his place. The first student finished his exam at about 09:25 AM and he already wanted to leave the room, but the teacher told him that they were allowed to leave only in the right time, so he kept waiting there for a while. Two students finished the exam together and left the room but one of them has not done the composition. A girl handed the exam without having done the composition and the teacher tried to motivate her to do it but she merely left the room. Two more students left the room at 9:40 AM. The one before the last student handed the exam and the teacher checked if her answers were ok and the last one handed the exam at 9:50 AM when the teacher noticed the student had not written her name properly in capital letters. 14
Observer’s Name: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres School: Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Catharino. Location: Rua Henriqueta Martins Catharino, 158 - Federação, Salvador - BA. Teacher’s Name: Zuleide Ribeiro Pereira Batista Level/ Group: High School 2nd A Date: 08 / 11 / 2013 FIFTH CLASS OBSERVATION The AVALI exam of the 1st and 2nd grade of humanities and natural sciences began at 08:30 where there were only five students. The teacher joked with a student by telling him that she knew who his girlfriend was and that if she knew about his behavior, she probably would beat him. A student asked questions about the exam, the teacher explained and then the class became silent for a big while; students seemed to be really concentrated in that. In the middle of the exam, by having an opportunity, I asked a student if they enjoy learning English and I found out a student who liked it and could communicate somehow in English with me. But the problem that appeared in my mind was that I should work with a method that would engage everyone not just this singular one. He told me he got in touch with the language by playing games, he also answered me "in English" that he liked to play soccer. He also told me that he would probably study Letras when he finishes the High School. That was a good but inappropriate opportunity to interact with them for they were answering their exam, but I could be in advance a little bit aware of some of their likings. 15
UNIT PACKET In almost all my lesson plans, I struggled to prepare more learner-centered classes making great effort to employ the inductive approach rather than the deductive. Proceeding according to many of the theories we learned throughout the course, I was really determined to follow them for I thought it was the great opportunity to apply everything we saw theoretically. For that reason, I did not lose the time, I idealized all the excellence that was passed to us, and with a daring courage, I risked everything to test if it could indeed work in a context that was not propitious and favorable at all to all that pedagogic language teaching theories, such as in Brazilian Public School. I may say that almost everything that I planned had its way to be accomplished without mentioning the fortuitous circumstances that used to assault me daily, such as: students who missed the classes frequently, students who never studied at home and never did their homework activities, students who missed the classes and arrived the next day without seeing the previous content and then I had to review over and over again. Because of all those obstacles, I developed a useful sense of flexibility that challenged me every day and that helped me to widen teaching perspective, and in spite of all that, I could apply many of the theories whenever I had the chance to be with them in real classes. Thus I would say that in most of my classes, the basic structure of the plan that I planned I could apply, yet, I had to make a few changes. With respect to fitting all the class stages with the timing, in the first classes I had some problems, but in the third week onwards, I learned how to manage that as I started to perform all the stages I planned in due time. As most of the classes were planned to be learner-centered where I made enormous effort to work with the inductive approach as I was always aware to elicit and enable students to infer the meaning by themselves. But of course, unavoidably in some circumstances, I had to mix with the deductive approach for it would be impossible to give a lesson without some direct explanations, where the teacher explains directly rather than eliciting students to infer by themselves. 16
The classes were varied in the sense that I focused on many aspects of teaching, given that I had the brief chance to work with reading texts, with grammar content, with listening and speaking skills and hence I tried to work with as many methods and approaches as possible. The methods I most used in class focused on Communicative Language Learning, constructivism and inductive teaching; for the grammar content and for all the other skills and aspects of the language worked in class, I could mingle The Communicative Language Learning with the constructivism, in view of the fact that I focused on the communication function acting more like a counselor and facilitator rather than an authoritarian leader, I also applied The Natural approach whereby I tried to provide some inputs when I uttered and wrote sentences inviting them to participate in the class dynamic. I mixed features of The Grammar translation method with The Direct method for I used the target language as much as possible working with vocabulary and grammar and also with The Audio-lingual method since I focused on the pronunciation as well. 17
Universidade Federal da Bahia Instituto de Letras Departamento de Letras Germânicas Rua Barão de Geremoabo, nº147 CEP: 40170-290 Campus Universitário - Ondina, Salvador-Ba Tel.: (071) 3263-6225 /3 263-6206 Fax: (071) 3263-6208 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Martins Catharino Student teacher: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres Mentor teacher: Zuleide Ribeiro University Tutor: Fernanda Mota Group: 2nd A grade – High School Students – FIRST LESSON PLAN November 14th, 2013 Timing: 50 minutes Main Goal: By the end of the class, students will be able to make questions to use when they meet a new person, they will learn how to use some useful questions to interact with the teacher in class, to reflect upon learning a foreign language and to know how they will be assessed during the period of training. Skills: Speaking and reading Topic: Getting to know people and useful classroom language Prior knowledge: students have learned how to make simple questions. Materials: Slips of paper with a list of questions with examples of answers and white board. 18
STAGE TEACHER’S PROCEDURES OBJECTIVES 1 Activate their schemata by using Teacher introduces himself by Presentation and TIMING questions that we make when we saying his name, age, likes and warm up meet a new person. dislikes and asks students to do Getting to know students names the and peculiarities. same. And then, in Portuguese, the teacher asks Stimulate students’ skill to talk, what are some questions that we to read and to work in pairs usually make when we meet a asking and answering questions. new person trying to contextualize it by giving real 30 examples. The teacher hands out to students a paper with as many questions and answers as possible in English and writes on the board when necessary and for exercise he asks students to work in pairs using the given questions with their personal answers and then the teacher asks them to peculiarities say five about their they classmate. Students will learn useful and Teacher 2 Learning/reviewi ng helpful sentences to use in the class. tells students basic questions to take their should use these doubts in the class process, such sentences just in useful English as: How do you say.... in throughout the classes and starts English? What does it mean? writing some of them on the How do you spell.....? Could you board by inducing them to repeat it please? (Could you say remember how to construct such that again?) Teacher, can you sentences and to infer their explain that again? And teacher presents meaning basic translation. avoiding direct 10 instructions such as: Open your 19
book, close your book, turn to page number.., for homework, work in pairs etc. 3 Students will reflect on the Teacher starts asking them why Reflections on importance and the utility of learning English is so important the importance of learning learning a new language. English by raising in order to establish a dialog of the many about the value of acquiring a awareness 5 beneficial aspects that a foreign new language by showing them language can provide. some of its good advantages. 4 Explain about the assessment Teacher explains how students Explanation and the importance of assiduity, will be evaluated throughout the about the commitment, assessment participation. process. punctuality and class and talks importance about of the assiduity, commitment, reinforces the need to bring the book, tells they will be evaluated everyday when 5 they bring their homework done, asks them to read the text and for homework they should mark words they already know in a given text. Activity used to conduct the class based on the communicative language teaching. Questions we usually make when we meet someone. - What is your name? My name is .................... - Do you have a nickname? Afirmativa:Yes, I do. My nickname is.......... Negativa: No, I don't. - How old are you? I'm .......years old. 20
- What do you do (for a living)? I'm a student, I'm a doctor etc. - What is your favorite color / song / food / book / movie? - My favorite color is blue. - My favorite song is forever young. - My favorite food is salad, rice, beans, pasta, meat, fried eggs, steak / beef, chicken, ham=presunto, pork ribs=costela de porco, fish, salmon, sausage=linguiça. - My favorite book is "The little prince" - My favorite movie is "Romeo and Juliet" - What kind of movies do you like? I like comedy movies (Shrek) / romantic (Titanic) / action (Fast and furious) thriller (Dracula) / horror (Frankenstein) / adventure / crime etc. - What do you study (college) / What grade are you in (high school)? I study Letras (college) / I'm in the first / sophomore year of high school. - Where do you live? I live in Salvador........... - What is your address? My address is........ - What is your phone number? My phone number is ............... - Do you speak Portuguese? Afirmativa: Yes, I do. Negativa: No, I don't. or Just a little. - Are you single or married? I'm single / I'm married. - Have you ever been to Italy? Afirmativa: Yes, I have. Negativa: No, I have not. - Where were you born? I was born in Salvador. - Do you have brothers and sisters? Yes, I do. I have two brothers and one sister. No, I don't. I'm an only child. - Do you have a boyfriend / girlfriend? Yes, I do. No, I don't. - Do you like sports? Yes, I do. No, I don't. - What do you like to do (in your free time)? / What are your hobbies? I like (to dance) / I like (dancing) I like (to cook) / I like (cooking) I like (to swim) / I like (swimming) I like (to study) / I like (studying) I like (to collect comic books=Gibis) / I like collecting comic books) I like (to play soccer / cards=baralho / dominoes/ video games / volleyball) / I like (playing soccer / video games etc.) I like (to eat a lot) / I like (eating a lot) 21
I like (to go to the beach) / I like (going to the beach) I like (to sing) / I like (singing) I like (to watch TV) / I like (watching TV) I like (to go to the movies/theater) / I like (going to the movies/theater) I like (to paint) / I like (painting) I like (to read books) / I like (reading books) I like (to play the piano) / I like (playing the piano) I like (to go out with friends) (hang out with friends) / I like (going out with friends) (hanging out with friends) I like (to take a walk) / I like taking a walk) I like (to take a shower) / I like (taking a shower) I like (to surf) / I like (surfing) I like (to go shopping) / I like (going shopping) I like (to ski) / I like (skiing) I like (to flirt) / I like (flirting) I like (to kiss) / I like (kissing) I like (to ride a bicycle / bike / a horse) / I like (riding a bicycle etc.) I like (to make friends) / I like (making friend) I like (to talk on the phone) / I like talking on the phone) Now work in pairs using as many as possible those questions above and take notes of five questions your classmate answers to you and then you should tell his/her answers to the teacher when asked. FIRST CLASS REPORT November 14th, 2013 I entered the class at exactly 11:00 o'clock and there was just a student, very attentive and solicitous, she volunteered herself right away to help me, she went to the school office in order to bring me the attendance book. Then she got back and gave me the attendance book which I was not used to, and so she started telling me how her teacher used to handle it, which was to put a capitalized "I" for the present students and a dot for the absent ones. As there were so many drop-out students in the class I was not able to recognize them in the attendance book, but she kept helping me with each one of them and I was marking as she explained to 22
me. I started the class by introducing myself to her in Portuguese explaining my teaching practice period with them and then I asked how she was that day and her name in English, she had difficulties in understanding those basic questions which I had to write on the board not just the questions but also I had to draw pictures of happy, more or less and sad face, I also used hand signals, I tried many possibilities to finally make her understand me without translation. Wishing to apply the Communicative Language Teaching approach, I was trying to activate her schemata with any possibility for her to release any linguistic potential, when at sudden my Professor entered the room, I got somehow anxious and as a result, I made some slips as the Professor corrected me but I tried to calm down and go with the flows. Some other students entered the class and aspiring to apply some of the theories I have learned such as social interactionism and constructivism, I started to ask them how they were that day and their names; these two students did not have problems in understanding me as they answered me properly. As the class seemed to be more stable, willing to apply the constructivist underpinnings, I started to give a real and contextual situation about meeting new people and then I asked them what are some questions that we usually make when we meet someone. They started giving me some of the basic questions and answers that we were already practicing and I added some others by writing on the board avoiding any direct translation. I handed out the List of questions and answers about “Getting to know people" and started working with them experimenting to use the deductive method as I was struggling to make them understand me with no translation. I may say that almost all my attempts to make them deduce was successful, except for asking their “nicknames” which was one that I had not properly reflected before on how to make it more significant since I had two names and I use both Pedro and Samuel, I introduced myself by giving my first name and then I gave my real nickname which is the shortening of the second one Samuel "Muel"; unfortunately I had forgotten that fundamental detail. There were so many other questions that I had properly reflected before on how to make them more meaningful and understandable but I did not have time to show all of them and as a result of my lack of experience, regrettably I ended up by using one that I forgot to reflect the meaningful aspect of it. However, my Professor solved the problem by giving the example of her own nickname which was quite viable for them to grasp the meaning. I asked them to use the sentences they have learned in pairs as they just asked the two basic questions, 23
their names and ages, but at least they could practice it somehow. I noticed the boys were more efficient at understanding and pronouncing properly than the girl, but at least she was a struggling and a concentrating student. The time just passed by as I realized I would not have time to apply everything that I had planned, my skill of flexibility started demanding new answers from me. Thus, I had to skip from the first stage of the plan to the last one which I had to quickly sum up in order to fit it in time. I realized I did not have time for two more stages and even the first one which I presented was very reduced. In class I quickly had to change not just the stages' order but also I had to renounce two of them for that day, I have also changed the homework by asking them to bring five questions with their personal answers at meeting someone and not asking them to read a text and mark vocabulary as it was planned, and finally, we finished the class precisely at 11:50 AM. However, it is best to finish the class with remaining contents to apply than to finish the class before the time. Even though there were many difficulties, my first class was good considering my inexperience in teaching; I could manage well the class and tried hard to motivate students. Universidade Federal da Bahia Instituto de Letras Departamento de Letras Germânicas Estágio Supervisionado II de Língua Inglesa Profa. Dra. Fernanda Mota Feedback Sheet Date: November 11th, 2013 Observer: Fernanda Mota Student Teacher: Pedro Samuel de MouraTorres Grade level: 2nd year of high school Subject: English Classroom structure: small group (2 students) The topics observed will be ranked according to the levels below: Highest 1 Topics Satisfactory 0.7 0.8 H S 0.4 L Lowest 0 Comment 24
Punctuality Use of the target language 1 1 Seating arrangement 1 Command of subject matter Appropriate lesson plan and effective organization of learning situations to meet learners’ needs and the objectives of the class. 1 0.7 Re-cap on work from previous class, appropriateness of activities (warmer, main part of the lesson and wrap-up procedures) and resources. Strategies to encourage student participation in class 0.8 Effective use of class time 0.8 Appropriate response to questions and comments 0.8 Classroom management 0.8 0.9 You were very punctual. You tried to teach the class 100% in English, but since it was very challenging for students to understand your instructions, you switched to Portuguese, but spoke English as often as possible. Since there were only two students in the classroom, there was no need for a different seating arrangement. You seemed to be very confident about the contents. Although it was very fruitful to teach the class in the target language, students did not easily understand what you said at the beginning of the class. In your lesson plan, you should have anticipated this difficulty and should have had a backup plan in case there was only one student in class. The procedures were OK, except that you should have encouraged students to take and keep notes of what they were studying. You are very good at rapport and, because of that, students were very comfortable to participate. You proposed meaningful activities for speaking practice and helped them kindly. You almost finished the class earlier than you were meant to, but you managed to fill up time with an activity for consolidation. Your responses to questions sometimes were very straightforward, what does not always provide students with opportunities to activate their previous knowledge. Try to teach on a more constructivist basis, that is: instead of answering questions straightforwardly, ask them back and elicit possible answers. You managed constraints well and did your best to keep students motivated. You made smooth transitions among the activities and your strategies to explain the topics were clear. I think you should only try to apply principles of learner-centeredness more often. Grade Your grade is 8.8. Strengths of the Class Areas for Development Maximized use of the target language; Rapport; Motivation. 1 - Outstanding x 2 – Very Good Backup plans for this group since it is a very small one and there may be very few students in the classroom sometimes; Use of more constructivist rather than instructivist strategies; Development of strategies to enhance learners’ organizational skills. 3 - Satisfactory 4 - Inadequate Feedback Sheet 25
Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Martins Catharino Student teacher: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres Mentor teacher: Zuleide Ribeiro University Tutor: Fernanda Mota Group: 2nd A grade – High School Students – SECOND LESSON PLAN November 21st, 2013 Timing: 50 minutes Main Goal: By the end of the class, students will be able to know how to use some useful questions to interact with the teacher in class, to reflect upon learning a foreign language and to have notions of reading skills and pronunciation of a text. Skills: Speaking and reading Topic: Reflections on learning a second language, useful classroom language and reading skills and pronunciation. Prior knowledge: Students have learned how to ask basic questions when they meet someone. Materials: White board and book. STAGE TEACHER’S PROCEDURES OBJECTIVES TIMING Remind students of what The teacher starts greeting the 1 they learned in the previous students and asks their names, Warm-up class and tell again the ages and their favorite color. students who missed the last Students answer and hand in their 5 class how they will be activity. evaluated and ask the students to hand in their homework. 26
Students will reflect on the Teacher starts asking them why 2 importance and the utility of learning English is so important in Reflections on the learning English by raising order to establish a dialog about importance of awareness learning a new beneficial aspects that a language by showing them some language. foreign of the many the value of acquiring a new language 10 can of its good advantages. provide. Students will learn useful Teacher tells students they should 3 and basic questions to take use these useful sentences just in Learning/reviewing their doubts in the English throughout the classes helpful sentences to classroom, such as: How do and starts writing some of them use in the class. you say.... in English? What on the board by inducing them to does it mean? How do you remember how to construct such spell.....? Could you repeat sentences it please? (Could you say meaning and to infer avoiding 15 their direct that again?) Teacher, can translation. you explain that again? And teacher presents basic instructions such as: Open your book to page number..., close your book, turn to page number.., for homework, work in pairs etc. Students will learn some Teacher asks them to open the 4 Practicing reading skills and pronunciation. basic skills to read a text book and asks them to pay close and practice pronunciation. the attention to the heading of the text and then the teacher asks them to Students will be able to say what they think it should be apply the learned questions talking about, what kind of to ask for help and use vocabulary they expect to find on language to talk about the it, they are advised to look at the text. translated vocabulary below, pay 20 27
Students practice pronunciation. their attention to the cognates words and identify words they already know. After they give their impressions about the text, students are asked to read the text one at a time (chain reading). Teacher helps students regarding pronunciation as needed. And for homework the teacher asks them to make a list of the unknown words they find with the translation in Portuguese and answer the following questions in the book. SECOND CLASS REPORT November 21st, 2013 I entered the class at exactly 11:00 AM and there were eight students already seated. I greeted all of them and asked the names and ages of the new students, most of them answered correctly and some I had to help to understand the question and how to answer. I called the roll, they handed in their homework and then I started to reflect on the importance of learning English by writing on the whiteboard “Why is so important to learn English?” and “What are the benefits of learning English?”. I made little effort to make them infer the question meanings with no translation by asking them to associate the cognate word "important" and "benefits" with the Portuguese ones and to remember the words they already knew like "why", "what", "are", "to learn and learning" and "English". They were very 28
successful as they grasped the idea very fast. When they understood the question, I elicited for their answers as they replied in Portuguese some very practical responses like "it is important to learn English to get a job and to travel abroad." Most of them were very participative except for two more isolated girls to whom I asked to get closer to the front. I felt the class was flowing so nicely as I started to reflect and elicit students possible answers and in order to apply the constructivist principles I gave a real and personal example of a professional need of English when I told them about my sister who is a librarian and as she could not speak English she did not receive a better position and as a result she did not earn more money from her boss. I tried to use some words in English in my Portuguese discourse, such as "her boss" with the corresponding translation "seu chefe". They were all very attentive as they seemed to be interested, pleased and appreciating my reflections making efforts to participate as well. I classified English benefits as cognitive, professional, academic and personal; I tried to elicit them to understand that the cognitive benefits were the ones that were related to their minds as I told them that learning a second language improves our memory for always being exposed to new vocabularies, that it improves our reasoning skills since in order to think we need to organize the ideas logically using words and that it enriches our imagination for being in touch with new literatures. As some did not know the word "academic" I elicited them to understand that it is related to their field of study by telling the benefits it can bring when they do researches on the internet where English is the hegemonic language, not just on the internet as well in the general culture, literature, science etc. I planned "The reflections on learning English" for just ten minutes, but as they were very eager to participate, this stage took almost the whole class as I noticed I had two more stages to perform and the time was almost ending. So I said that reflections were enough for it took too much time and I noticed I had raised sufficient awareness and then I started to introduce useful language sentences by telling them that it is our deal that they should make an effort to use these sentence just in English and if they ask me in Portuguese I would not answer them. I started to write on the board making efforts to elicit students to understand with inferences; fortunately they could understand me but even though they asked me to write the translation for them not to forget it since they were writing down. The remaining time just 29
allowed me to show four sentences which I said next class we should continue it. There was no time for the last stage which again I had to change plans and for homework I asked them to read the text about sanitation and make a list of the words they already know. The class management was really productive where I gave room for students to participate and interact in a class dialog raising awareness about the mentioned topic. So, in this special class students appeared more intrinsically motivated. What I would have changed in this class would be the organization of the timing in order to fit everything that should be performed as it was planned, but because of my lack of experience, I had the problem with following the steps in time. Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Martins Catharino Student teacher: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres Mentor teacher: Zuleide Ribeiro University Tutor: Fernanda Mota Group: 2nd A grade – High School Students – THIRD LESSON PLAN November 22nd, 2013 Timing: 50 minutes Main Goal: By the end of the class, students will be able to know how to use some useful questions to interact with the teacher in class and to have notions of reading skills and pronunciation. Skills: Speaking and reading Topic: Useful classroom language and reading skills and pronunciation. Prior knowledge: Students have reflected on the benefits in learning English and have learned a few of the helpful sentences to use in class. Materials: White board and book. 30
STAGE TEACHER’S PROCEDURES OBJECTIVES TIMING Remind students of what they The teacher starts greeting the 1 learned in the previous class and students and asks what are some of Warm-up tell again some of the students the benefits of learning English and 5 who missed the last class how hand in their activity. they will be evaluated and ask the students to hand in their homework. Continue the last class: showing Teacher says: "Do you remember 2 them more of the helpful our deal?" You should continue Learning/revie classroom language. Students will learning more of these useful wing helpful learn more useful and basic sentences in English to keep using sentences to questions to take their doubts in throughout the classes and starts use in the the classroom, such as: Could you writing some of them on the board class. repeat it please? (Could you say by inducing them to infer their 15 that again?) Teacher, can you meaning avoiding direct translation. explain that again? etc. And teacher presents basic instructions such as: Open your book to page number..., close your book, turn to page number.., for homework, work in pairs etc. Students will learn some basic Teacher asks them to open the book 3 Practicing skills to read a text and practice and asks them to pay close attention the pronunciation. to the heading of the text and then reading skills Students will be able to apply the the teacher asks them to say what and learned questions to ask for help they think it should be talking 25 pronunciation. and use language to talk about the about, what kind of vocabulary they text. Students pronunciation. expect to find on it, they are practice their advised to look at the translated vocabulary below, pay attention to the cognates words and identify 31
words they already know. After they give their impressions about the text, students are asked to read the text one at a time (chain reading). Teacher helps students regarding pronunciation as needed. 4 To verify if they have learned and The teacher asks what are some of Wrap-up generate reflections about the the reading strategies they have content taught. 5 2,5 learned. To keep assessing them so that For homework the teacher asks them Homework they could keep track of the to make a list of the unknown words contents. 2,5 they find with the translation in Portuguese and answer the following questions in the book. THIRD CLASS REPORT November 22nd, 2013 I entered the class at exactly 11:00 AM and there was no student, there were just two begs. I seated in order to wait for them to arrive but it took more than fifteen minutes when I finally decided to look for them. As I heard lots of noises in the gymnasium for sports I deduced that they could be there playing soccer and then I went after them. I got to the gymnasium door and looked inside there to see if there was someone from my class when I saw a student which I waved calling him. He came to me and then I asked him "where are the students? Nobody is in class, what happened?", he said most of them has not come that day and then I called him to go to the classroom. He went to get his stuffs inside the gymnasium and then followed me to the classroom. 32
When I arrived, there was a student and then another third student got in. They seemed to be really agitated almost asking me to go home as I realized the time was already 11:28 AM. Thus, there was no time for warm up as I started to continue with the remaining useful sentences, then I began to show the basic instructions and commands making them infer avoiding any translation. It was successful, except for the girl who was acting as if she did not understand while the boy who is very good at English could understand everything and communicate as well, but with some limitations that I helped him to solve. I tried to help the girl as she started to get the meaning but she was so willing to go home that she told me: "Please teacher, I just need a certain quantity to pass the year, what are the subjects that will be on the exam?" I replied her that everything we have been working will be graded. A new student entered in the classroom, sat down, then got his beg and left as I told him that every day they are being assessed, he answered he needed to leave by reason of force majeure as we started to laugh a little. Everything went normally and I finished with the basic instructions as I realized that I had just ten minutes which they were already asking me to go home. Again I had to have flexibility to keep things going right. I asked them to open their book to page number 116 which I wrote the number on the board. I just had time to elicit them about some basic strategies when we read a text, like getting the main idea about the text by analyzing the title which I made them infer the meaning of "water and sanitation for all" and I also told them to search for the cognate words which are the ones that are very similar to the Portuguese words. I asked them to look at the glossary to find the meaning of the most challenging words and some of them showed to be familiar with some of these strategies, and for homework, I asked them to read it again and make a list of the unknown words. Many things in class are so unpredictable that we have to be a fast thinker to make things fit in time and to fit with the irregularities that may come. As this class was so hasty and quick and students were so tired and eager to go home, I did not apply all that I had in mind, so, I felt like running against the wind, things were not contributing that day. Nevertheless, I counted on the resources I had and on my motivation to teach what the opportunity allowed me to. In spite of applying great methods and having had engaged students in the class somehow, for the little time we had to talk about reading skills, in my idealistic perspective, things could have been better if the external occasions had conspired in my favor that day. 33
Colégio Estadual Henriqueta Martins Catharino Student teacher: Pedro Samuel de Moura Torres Mentor teacher: Zuleide Ribeiro University Tutor: Fernanda Mota Group: 2nd A grade – High School Students – FOURTH LESSON PLAN November 28th, 2013 Timing: 50 minutes Main Goal: By the end of the class, students will have notions of reading skills and pronunciation and some awareness about ecology. Skills: Speaking and reading Topic: Reading skills to understand a text, awareness about ecology and pronunciation. Prior knowledge: Students have learned useful classroom language to be applied. Materials: White board, Computer, video and book. STAGE OBJECTIVES Remind 1 Warm-up some students of the TEACHER’S PROCEDURES TIMING about The teacher starts greeting the students helpful and reminds what was our deal last sentences they had learned class (to make an effort to use 5 and that they should apply questions in English) and hands their in class. activity. Students will learn some Teacher asks pre-reading questions like 2 Practicing reading skills and pronunciation. basic skills to read a text what is basic sanitation, what is and practice pronunciation. the biodiversity, what is pollution and after that he starts showing a 05:49 video 40 Students will be able to about sanitation to elicit environmental apply the learned consciousness and then asks them to 34
questions to ask for help open the book and to pay close and use language to talk attention to the heading of the text and about the text. Students practice then the teacher asks them to say what their they think it should be talking about, pronunciation. what kind of vocabulary they expect to find on it, they are advised to look at the translated vocabulary below, pay attention to the cognate words and identify words they already know. After that, they give their impressions about the text, teacher starts reading the first paragraph and afterwards students are asked to read all together and so on. Teacher helps students regarding pronunciation when needed. 3 Wrap-up Generate reflections on the The teacher asks some questions about reading strategies. the texts and what are some of the 2,5 reading strategies they have learned. 4 Assess students on a daily For homework the teacher asks them to Homework basis so that they could make a list of the new words they just review, fix and absorb learned what they saw in the class. with the translation 2,5 in Portuguese and answer the following questions in the book. 35
FOURTH CLASS REPORT November 28th, 2013 Because of the rainy weather, there was a terrible traffic jam and thus, I arrived five minutes later. There was just a student, he told me the others had gone because they had not seen me there at 11:00 AM. He was the only one who could wait for me and I found him in front of the gate thinking I would not teach because there was only him. But I called him, "come on, of course!" and I explained him, it was because of the traffic. We followed the room and I entered the class very anxious for being five minutes late, but it was not my fault, for I had left home two hours before presaging that since it was a rainy day I should leave earlier than usual, but unfortunately, I could not predict the traffic would be so slow. I started the class reminding him of some sentences they have learned last class and I told him that day he should make a great effort to apply them, but he acted as if he did not remember those sentences and I had to remember it all again writing on the board. He understood it all very fast and I asked for his homework, he answered begging me pardon asking me, teacher, how do you say "me desculpa! in English?" as I wrote and helped him to pronounce it, then he answered, "teacher I'm sorry!, Eu não fiz o homework". After that, I moved to the next stage which was the pre-reading activities and then I started writing questions on the board eliciting him to understand their meaning, he was very good at understanding my illustrations for I started using reading strategies like asking him to search for the helpful cognate words. When I asked "what is basic sanitation", he hesitated to understand the word "sanitation" as I encouraged him to try it by asking if it reminds something in Portuguese, he answered: "É sanitário, teacher?" then I said: "É algo bem relativo a isso." I started to work in his cognitive process until he finally said it was "saneamento básico". I helped him to pronounce it and then I wrote the other question, "what is biodiversity?" he right away answered it and then I asked him what he understood about it, as he hesitated, I helped him by asking, "do you know what diversity means?" then he said: "sim, é diversidade." e "do you know what the prefix "bio" means"? 36
He said no and I explained to him that it refers to life, then I tried to make him infer what it meant, but in spite of all my elucidating efforts, he had troubles to conclude the idea as I had to explain everything telling it was the great diversity and amount of life that exists in nature. I helped him with the pronunciation of biodiversity (baiodaivêrsiti) which was quite challenging since it changes a lot from the spelling. I continued to ask him other sentences in English following the same elucidating strategies and raising a little awareness of ecology, finally I played a video in Portuguese that showed a lot about bad sanitation conditions and we started watching it. The video was just about images and reading, there was no interlocutor and at every key word that appeared in the video, I stopped it and asked him "how do you say that in English"; most of them he did not know as I had to write them on the board and help him with the pronunciation. Since the video was by itself a raising awareness and reflective instigator, it contributed immensely to immerse him in the theme. But I was not just worried about the thematic reflections as I took it to expose the target language. As the video finished, we made some pro-reflections on the video and then I asked him to open the page number 116 in English writing on the board. He had not brought the book and, since that day I had two books, I lent one to him. I asked him about the title, "Water and sanitation for all" I induced him to understand it successfully, then I asked "what do you think it talks about?" He immediately answered it talked about "saneamento básico", ecology and people's health problems. Then I showed
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