Final Ghana presentation sophie

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Published on January 4, 2008

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Slide1:  Sophie Johnson Teshamulwa Okioga Iman Yazdani GH2O Consultants Drinking Water Solutions for the Northern Region of Ghana Final Presentation 27 April 2007 Ghana Background:  Ghana Background www.ashesi.org/GHANA/map.gif Land area of 240,000 km2 Population of 22.5 million Official language is English Tropical climate in the south and semi-arid in the north In the Northern Region, 1 out of 1.8 million people lack access to an improved water supply Pure Home Water (PHW):  Pure Home Water (PHW) Presence of Pure Home Water in Northern Ghana (Mattelet 2006). HEALTH AND WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PURE HOME WATER’S CERAMIC FILTER DISSEMINATION:  HEALTH AND WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF PURE HOME WATER’S CERAMIC FILTER DISSEMINATION By Sophie Johnson Project Goal:  Project Goal Household Surveys:  Household Surveys Water Quality Tests:  Water Quality Tests Epidemiology Results from All Households:  Epidemiology Results from All Households Epidemiology Analysis:  Epidemiology Analysis Water Quality Results:  Water Quality Results Water Quality Results: Filtered vs. Source Water:  Water Quality Results: Filtered vs. Source Water Business Results: Quick Look at the 4P’s:  Business Results: Quick Look at the 4P’s Conclusions:  Conclusions WATER QUALITY AND BUSINESS ASPECTS OF SACHET-VENDED WATER IN TAMALE, GHANA :  WATER QUALITY AND BUSINESS ASPECTS OF SACHET-VENDED WATER IN TAMALE, GHANA By Teshamulwa Okioga Objectives :  Objectives Sachet-Water:  Sachet-Water Photo: Ali Badoudi (2007) Source of Sachet Water:  Source of Sachet Water Packaging of Factory-Produced Sachet Water:  Packaging of Factory-Produced Sachet Water Yarn Filters UV Disinfecting Unit Average production:  Average production Hand-tied Sachet-Water…:  Hand-tied Sachet-Water… Cloth filter used for raw water Knotting the sachets Filling sachets 30 to 200 sachets bagged per day Cost $0.02 per sachet (0.7l) Methodology :  Methodology Turbidity Results:  Turbidity Results 20% of the factory-produced sachet water that was tested and 93% of the hand-tied sachet water had turbidities greater than 5 NTU, the maximum turbidity level set by the 1998 Ghana Standards Board Slide23:  Hand-tied sachet water more problematic in terms of water quality and required more attention to improve through treatment, storage and handling Slide24:  Hand-tied sachet water more problematic in terms of water quality and required more attention to improve through treatment, storage and handling Interviews and Surveys – Customers (30 interviewed) :  Interviews and Surveys – Customers (30 interviewed) For 37%, sachet water formed the sole supply of drinking water, even at home! Price perception: Hand-tied sachet water Comparison of water drank at home vs. away from home Suggested Treatment and Storage:  Suggested Treatment and Storage Suggested Low-cost Packaging Alternatives for Hand-tied Sachet Water:  Suggested Low-cost Packaging Alternatives for Hand-tied Sachet Water Source: Fellows. P (1997) Electric heat sealer for sealing plastic films Conclusions:  Conclusions Recommendations:  Recommendations SOLAR DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA:  SOLAR DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA Iman Yazdani Solar Disinfection:  Solar Disinfection Use of the sun’s energy to kill pathogens Dissolved Oxygen Infrared Ultra-Violet Solar Disinfection: Some Constraints:  Solar Disinfection: Some Constraints Photo by Melinda Foran Figure: Aftim Acra 1984 Solar Disinfection: Method 1:  Solar Disinfection: Method 1 Solar Disinfection: Method 2:  Solar Disinfection: Method 2 Research Objectives:  Research Objectives Research Methodology:  Research Methodology Radiation: Dust Haze:  Radiation: Dust Haze Results: Aerosol Index:  Results: Aerosol Index Results: Radiation Readings:  Results: Radiation Readings Results: Radiation vs. AI Model:  Results: Radiation vs. AI Model Results: Disinfection:  Results: Disinfection Results: Disinfection:  Results: Disinfection Results: Dissolved Oxygen Levels:  Results: Dissolved Oxygen Levels Tests show that shaking does not increase Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels in the containers Enough air above water-air interface in the container that the water is almost saturated, even without shaking Conclusions:  Conclusions Complete disinfection did not take place Loss of UV due to scattering & absorption by dust haze No increase in photo-oxidative disinfection with shaking No increase in DO with shaking Thank You!:  Thank You! Figure: unimaps.com References:  References

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