Published on March 3, 2014
Toups 1 Ashley Toups 2nd hour Final Draft Senior Project Research Paper 16 January Lights, Camera, and Action! Media Productions My senior project is on media productions. Media productions is a way for portraying information through television or movies (Dictionary.com). I chose this topic because I not only love to watch movies but I love making them too. I have been making videos ever since I was a kid. I just love to entertain people and show off my skills in making videos. My dad has a movie making program on the computer which allows you to convert normal and boring footage into cool movies. I feel strongly about the process I have to go through in order to make a good video. My freshman year I made a video for almost every single project given to me. Every time the teachers gave us a project they allowed us to make movies instead of making posters and speeches. I always chose making a movie over making a poster. Sadly, I have not made a movie since my ninth grade year. This senior project will allow me to be able to create one last video for a project before I graduate. The videos were a good bit of work but much more fun than just making a poster. Working on this topic will be a learning stretch for me because I will learn more about the history of media productions, the equipment used, and the different varieties of editing in videos. What I expected to learn from my research was more about the equipment, like the camera and editing software, that goes in to making a video. In my research I did learn more about editing techniques to make a video look more professional and interesting to the viewers. In today’s world of technology it is important to understand the effective way media productions present information or ideas.
Toups 2 Media productions has changed over the years. Another name for a video camera is a camcorder. “A camcorder is actually two separate items of video production equipment – the video camera and the VCR (video cassette recorder)” (Curchy and Kyker 2). The word camcorder is a combination of two words – “camera” and “recorder” (Curchy and Kyker 2). In the early days of media production the videographer, someone who operates a video camera, would carry two pieces of equipment (Curchy and Kyker 2). One piece of equipment was the video camera and the other piece was the VCR and they were connected by a cable (Curchy and Kyker 2). “Early versions of this setup (camera and VCR) weighed 25 pounds or more, and even later versions (around 1992) were still very heavy” (Curchy and Kyker 2). It took a lot of muscle to work a video camera (Curchy and Kyker 2). Now, in today’s world of advanced technologies a video camera can fit in the palm of a hand (Curchy and Kyker 2). “Even though the size of the equipment has changed over the years, the basic functions are still the same” (Curchy and Kyker 2). Editing software has also changed. Special effects give the video some magic and something interesting to the audience that the viewers do not normally see in real everyday life. Ten special effects are greenscreen and bluescreen effects, ghosting, duplicating an actor in the same place, moving objects, forced perspective, in-camera effects, walking backwards and reverse footage, music promo effects: slomo backgrounds, move slowly and play at faster speeds, and lighting effects (Guardian.co.uk). Greenscreens and bluescreens are used to add backgrounds or to transfer a part of a movie shot to another (Guardian.co.uk). Ghosting merges two video clips (Guardian.co.uk). The moving objects effect is usually used in movies with magic (Guardian.co.uk). Forced perspective is an effect usually used to make something look different to the audience than it actually is (Answerjunket.com). Like making someone or something look larger or smaller than that
Toups 3 someone or something actually is, for example (Answerjunket.com). The forced perspective effect is used in the Lord of the Rings movies (Answerjunket.com). Special effects really create movie magic. There is more content than just special effects, of course, that goes in to making a video. There are different types of image content that can be used in a video. As two experts state: Image content may include both visual and semantic content. Visual content can be very general or domain specific. General visual content includes color, texture, shape, spatial relationship, etc. Domain specific visual content is application dependent and may involve domain knowledge. Textual annotation or complex inference procedures based on visual content obtains semantic content. A visual content descriptor can be either global or local. A global descriptor uses the visual features of the whole image, whereas a local descriptor uses the visual features of regions or objects to describe image content (Siu and Zhang n. p.). One also needs to think about the tools for making a video. There are many tools that are useful for making a video. It seems more and more of the equipment and other things to make a video are being more developed as we become more technologically advanced. Equipment usually needed to make a video are as follows: a video camera, digital editing workstation, editing software, portable audio recorder, microphones, muffs and windscreens, boom pole, steadicam, and lighting (Indie-film-making.com). A digital editing workstation can just be a laptop or a computer (Indie-film-making.com). Editing software can help make the video look better and more professional (Indie-film-making.com). There is a
Toups 4 lot of equipment that goes in to making a video and the list just keeps growing. There is also much information that goes in to making a video too. There is some information needed before starting on a video. This information is important in the making and understanding of a video. Making a video takes practice to make it look and sound great (Bourne and Burstein n. p.). “To produce a high-quality video one needs to learn about video compression, the technology that makes it work, and the business that makes it possible” (Bourne and Burstein n. p.). Set up a budget cost before producing the video (Bourne and Burstein n. p.). The better the look, sound, and quality the better the video and the more likely it is to get noticed (Bourne and Burstein n. p.). Learn about the audience - their interests and what attracts their attention (Bourne and Burstein n. p.). The understanding of technology is a big part of how well the video will turn out, and the more you know about your audience then the more your video will be able to capture their attention. Knowing all of this information will go in to helping make the video neat and in order. There is more than just knowing information to keep the video organized. . The production of media is becoming more advanced and complex. The three stages in production are preproduction, production, and postproduction (Musburger 2). In the preproduction stage the director will prepare, organize, and research information for the production (Musburger 2). The preproduction stage also consists of creating a plan, or script (Breslin n. p.). A script is a written version of the production (Breslin n. p.). “A screenplay breaks the story down into scenes and includes location, time of day, dialogue, and action. Later, a shooting script, which breaks the action down into specific shots and camera angles, is created from the original screenplay” (Breslin n. p.). Before writing the script, create a storyboard (Breslin n. p.). “A storyboard is a series of frames, much like a comic strip” (Breslin n. p.). During the production stage the director
Toups 5 must make sure he or she has all of the equipment needed before he or she can begin recording (Musburger 2). In the postproduction stage the director will enter in all the data and footage and edit it by choosing the shots he or she wants and using special effects (Musburger 2). Following these steps will help the video turn out neat, organized, and professional. Now one must choose which kind of video to create. There are many different types of video. There are informational, educational, entertaining, etc. videos. An informational video has facts and sometimes has someone voicing his or her opinion on a certain issue (Miller n. p.). “The key is to provide enough useful information to be of practical value to viewers” (Miller n. p.). In other words the viewers you are trying to attract need to be able to use this information. An educational video usually shows the viewer how to do something useful (Miller n. p.). “Generally, educational films deliver useful information and are based in credible research. Some educational films might be called documentaries, news reports or broadcasts, opinions and debates, edutainment, Public Service Announcements (PSAs), interviews, experiments, training, etc.” (Edtech.guhsd.net.). Educational videos should show a step by step process (Miller n. p.). Each shot should show how to do something in order with a narrator and with text to explain what is being done in each shot (Miller n. p.). Educational videos should have an image of what the finished project should look like (Miller n. p.). Educational videos are very helpful to viewers trying to learn something or for someone trying to teach something. It is good to put some entertainment in the video so it will not get too boring. Everyone loves to be entertained. Entertaining videos usually have some type of humor in them. “Like art, entertainment is often in the eye of the beholder” (Miller n. p.). Entertainment has many subcategories other than humor it could have drama, romance, action, horror, etc.
Toups 6 (Miller n. p.). “The video needs to educate, entertain, or inform - or no one will watch it” (Miller n. p.). Media productions has many advantages. There are many methods to teaching and presenting information. Two methods are videos and posters. A video is “an element of television, as in a program or script, pertaining to the transmission or the reception of the image” (Dictionary.com). A poster is “a placard or bill posted or intended for posting in a public place, as for advertising” (Dictionary.com). “A poster design must have a clear simplicity of motive and a vigorous, sometimes bizarre, conception in design and treatment” (Price 3). Posters can be made by one or more people. Posters are usually very colorful to catch people’s attention. The materials people usually use to make posters are as follows: poster board, paper, construction paper, markers, glue, tape, and sometimes a few other materials. A poster presents information in typed words or pictures. They are usually placed in public places on walls, poles, or even in businesses. Posters not only attract people’s attention with colors and pictures but with some type of message. The poster could display a question, statement, fact, opinion, or a joke about an issue to get an audience to read and think about it. Like posters, videos should have a clear motive. A good video is not usually made by just one person. “Video work is group work, and it relies on the combined efforts of a good team” (Mollison 1). There are many more materials needed to make a video than to make a poster. The usual materials needed to make a video are as follows: a camera, video tape, microphones, lights, a computer, and some type of editing software (Indie-film-making.com). Videos have a variety of different ways to give information. Videos can have text, cartoon or real characters, skits, pictures, and many other things. They are usually shown online, in movie theaters, or on television. A video can show and hold more information than a poster can but a video would take more time to make, cost more, and you would need technology, whereas a poster does not.
Toups 7 Both posters and video have advantages and disadvantages. As one expert states: The disadvantages of video are that they are extremely expensive and time consuming to create and require special audio visual equipment to show to large groups of people. The downfall to posters is that they are not large enough to be seen by groups of people and posters can be chaotic if not properly done or written so classes can read what is on them. The advantages of posters are that they are cost effective. These only require poster board and markers. They are also easy to transport from location to location and easy to interact with. The advantages of video are that they are extremely professional in appearance, easy for people to understand and watch, and more captivating for large groups who have problems paying attention (Ebna.org). There are many benefits to media productions. “In a multimedia production, video can be an important part of your media mix since video can significantly enhance learning. With respect to teaching, video is excellent for demonstrating procedures, changes, or processes, teaching attitudes or values, making abstract concepts concrete, classifying information, and comparing information” (Fenrich 152). Videos also hold an audience’s attention more (Fenrich 152). Using a video is also helpful to “motivate learners, introduce topics or procedures, presenting visuallyrich material that would otherwise be hard to explain, and testing” (Fenrich 152). 2008-09 and 2009-10 Comparison of Media Vision Productions and Caption Videos
Toups 8 The bar graph above shows: Media Vision productions were nearly constant from 340 to 376, respectively for 200809 and 2009-10. However, increased effort and funding were applied to captioning videos in conjunction with the goals of the Accessibility Technology Initiative from 220 to 766, respectively for 2008=09 and 2009-10. This chart shows a comparison of 200809 with 2009-10 media vision productions and captioned videos (Csupomona.edu). Media productions are an effective way to present ideas and information. I will be recording sports, interviews, and other things that have to do with Pineville High School to get footage for my video I am making about the school. I will use the knowledge I have gained from my research to tape and edit my video. My opinion has not changed about media productions since I have begun researching it. I still think making videos is and still will be fun. I do believe it will be a lot more work since I will have more footage than usual and I will have learned about more equipment and editing tools I can use for the video. I think the knowledge I gain from my project hours will differ from the knowledge gained through research because I will learn more about the
Toups 9 camera and editing software by working with them. I learned about the equipment used in making a video from my research. I hope to learn more about editing techniques and the importance and usefulness of media productions from my project hours.
Toups 10 Works Cited Bourne, Jennie, and Dave Burstein. Web Video: Making It Great, Getting It Noticed. Berkeley: Pearson Education, 2010. Print. Breslin, Jan Roberts. Making Media: Foundations of Sound and Image Production. Waltham: FocalPress, 2011. Print. "Digital Video Project Ideas." Edtech.guhsd.net. GUHSD, 2002. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://edtech.guhsd.net/video/ideas.pdf>. "Division of Instructional and Informational Technology." Csupomona.edu. California State Polytechnic U, Pomona, 29 Nov. 2010. Web. 1 Dec. 2011. <http://www.csupomona.edu/~iit/Annual_Report/ar2009.shtml>. Education DNA. "Advantages and Disadvantages of Videos and Posters as Visual Aids." Ebna.org. Education DNA, 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ebna.org/ advantages-and-disadvantages-of-videos-and-posters-as-visual-aids.html>. Evans, Russell. “Special Effects.” Guardian.co.uk. Guardian News and Media Limited, 25 Jan. 2008. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/////makingvideo.workshops2>. Fenrich, Peter. Creating Instructional Multimedia Solutions: Practical Guidelines for the Real World. Santa Rosa: Informing Science, 2005. Print. "How to Make Someone Look Small?" Answerjunket.com. OSQA, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.answerjunket.com/questions/1337/ how-to-make-someone-look-small>. Indie. “How to Make a Video.” Indie-film-making.com. WordPress, 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. <http://www.indie-film-making.com/video-equipment/>.
Toups 11 Kyker, Keith, and Christopher Curchy. Television Production: A Classroom Approach. Westport: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. Print. “Media and Productions.” Dictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2011. <http://dictionary.reference.com/>. Miller, Michael. Using Google AdWords and AdSense. N.p.: Pearson Education, 2010. Print. Miller, Michael. YouTube for Business: Online Video Marketing for Any Business. N.p.: Pearson Education, 2011. N. pag. Print. Molison, Martha. Producing Videos: A Complete Guide. N.p.: Allen and Unwin, 2010. Print. Musburger, Robert B. Single-Camera Video Production. Burlington: Elsevier, 2010. Print. Price, Charles Matlack. Posters: A Critical Study of the Development of Poster Design in Continental Europe, England and America. New York: G. W. Bricka, 1913. Print. Siu, Wan Chi, and Hong Jiang Zhang. Multimedia Information Retrieval and Management: Technological Fundamentals and Applications. Springer: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2003. Print. “Video and Poster.” Dictionary.com. LLC, 2011. Web. 2 Nov. 2011. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/video>.
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