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Information about film
Education

Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Miranda

Source: authorstream.com

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Financing the Film Industry:  Add Corporate Logo Here To insert your company logo on this slide From the Insert Menu Select “Picture” Locate your logo file Click OK To resize the logo Click anywhere inside the logo. The boxes that appear outside the logo are known as “resize handles.” Use these to resize the object. If you hold down the shift key before using the resize handles, you will maintain the proportions of the object you wish to resize. Financing the Film Industry Karen Niwinski April 5, 2002 Ways and means to finance your film::  Ways and means to finance your film: “Investing in a motion picture is risky business. Unless a film was fortunate enough to garner sufficient advance sales, to cover at least the movie’s production cost, there is no guarantee and little promise that the investors will recoup their investment or earn a small profit.” “Film is probably the worst investment anyone could make. One might as well go to Las Vegas and throw the dice- in fact, those odds are probably better!” Ways and means to finance your film::  Ways and means to finance your film: Investor Financing Partnerships joint venture limited partnership Corporation Industry Financing Studio Development Production Foreign Financing Lender Financing bank financing presales financing Investor Financing Partnership: joint venture:  Investor Financing Partnership: joint venture Any partner may pool their monetary, creative, and business resources all partners, or a combination of partners are considered active every one of partners has agency power- one partner can bind all members in a joint venture- if one partner incurs debts related to the project the partnership is involved with, all partners are liable. Investor Financing Partnerships: joint venture:  Investor Financing Partnerships: joint venture Each partner individually can perform any service necessary to conduct business Each partner is personally liable for the debts and taxes of the partnership; if the partnership assets are insufficient to pay any creditors and/or IRS claims, each partner’s personal assets are subject to attachment. Investor Financing Partnerships: joint venture:  Investor Financing Partnerships: joint venture Unless partners agree to share profits and losses equally, they have to agree on a sharing ratio. Partners cannot compete amongst each other in the business. Investor Financing Partnerships: limited:  Investor Financing Partnerships: limited Limited partnership is composed of a group of limited partners (the investors) and one or more general partners (the producer, or producers). Risk only the capital the invested. Never pay if picture goes over budget Investor Financing Partnerships: limited:  Investor Financing Partnerships: limited invest because of tax benefits interest payments are deductible expenses are passive if capital gain, gains will be taxed as regular income. equivalent to having a share Investor Financing Advantages and disadvantages of partnerships:  Investor Financing Advantages and disadvantages of partnerships Advantages limited partners do not necessarily have to put up funds, but guarantee the bank loan by issuing letters of credit partners are more easily set up than a corporation partnerships can be set up from film to film among reliable partners, all working for the same goal, a venture makes a great production team Disadvantages the general partner (producer) is liable for a film’s over budget and other debts limited partners lose then their limited partnership status if they become actively engaged in the limited partnership’s business In a joint venture, partners are agents for each other and liable for each other’s debts incurred in the management of the business limited partner shares cannot be solicited publicaly Investor Financing Corporation:  Investor Financing Corporation Right to issue stocks corporation v. partnerships ownership in corporation is evidenced by stock certificates, but ownership of stock certificates does not give a stockholder the right to participate in the corporation’s management. Investor Financing Corporation: advantages v. disadvantages:  Investor Financing Corporation: advantages v. disadvantages Advantages corporation rather than directors are responsible for debts corporate shares may be more readily transferable than interest in partnerships if there is a market for them shares can be sold publically. Disadvantages costly to set up have to adhere to stringent rules and regulations (i.e.: stockholder meetings, directors) Industry Financing Studio Development Production:  Industry Financing Studio Development Production Development Deal Memo Step Deal i.e.: Warner Brothers, Disney, Sony, Universal, Paramount, 20th Century Fox Industry Financing Studio Development Production:  Industry Financing Studio Development Production Advantages use studio’s money and studio’s development companies studio’s can provide for bigger pictures because they have a higher production budget. Collaborative process Disadvantages odds are not good Hollywood System theft lose material to studio if project is delayed can be laid off at any time Foreign Financing:  Foreign Financing All countries insist on the following: picture must be a major production U.S producer may bring in an American director and two American stars, all others must be hired within the country all key personnel must be hired within country must have “national content” certain percent of revenues from the film must remain in that country Lender Financing Production Loans:  Lender Financing Production Loans Lender financing is process of obtaining a loan from a lending agency to finance the development, production, and/or distribution of your film. Bank Loans banks can only lend money based on measurable risk, and only credit they can take is collateral or assets being offered to secure the loan resource loan= loan made only if an endorser (producer) is made personally liable for payment in the even the borrower (production company) defaults debt or equity transaction= important to make clear how intended loan is to be characterized. Equity investment- the lender becomes an investor whose investment is at risk. Lender Financing Production Loans:  Lender Financing Production Loans Cost of loan is tied to the prime rate, which is the rate of interest the bank pays to borrow from the Federal Reserve floating number that fluctuates in commercial lending, loans to low-risk firms (major studios) are 1/2% to 1% above the prime rate small production companies pay 3% above the prime rate EX. Say the bank charges 2 percentage points above the prime rate and the prime rate is at 9%. Total the rate is 11%. On a $1 million loan, the bank removes $110,000 (1 million * 0.11) To hedge risk the bank retains another 1-2% incase prime goes up if the bank charges 1% , another $10,000 is added to their retained amount, now down to $880,000. Lender Financing Production Loans:  Lender Financing Production Loans Advantages lender does not share in the net profits lender does not have any creative control option of a non-collateralized loan, which is not supported by collateral and therefore may be suitable for development money or for financing a low budget picture Disadvantages have to be paid back may lose collateral and non-collaterized loans are limited loans have a specific term, where they are repayable on or before a specific date, regardless of whether the film made it Lender Financing presale financing deals:  Lender Financing presale financing deals Presales- funding of a film’s production costs through the granting of a license for the film’s rights by a producer to a distributor in a particular media or territory before the completion of a film. Take forms of: funds guarantees commitments EX: if you have a contract for the presale of your film to a distributor, then you may be able to present the contractual commitments to a bank or lender and walk away with cash Lender Financing presale financing deals:  Lender Financing presale financing deals Revenue cap a certain amount of money in sales, up to which the buyer gets to keep all the money. Buyers try to estimate the highest amount that the movie will make and then try to make that amount the cap after the revenue cap is reached, the seller may start receiving a percent of the revenue or may renegotiate the deal Lender Financing presale financing deals:  Lender Financing presale financing deals Advantages Can provide for a big portion of financing. Less creative intervention. If you aren’t confident in the economic upside potential of your picture, then a presale arrangement is a viable option. Disadvantages. Difficult to collect the money from the lenders. Increase the number of films produced a year, and the demand for and cost of various film elements that are limited in supply. Recap :  Recap Four basic ways to finance a film Investor Financing Partnerships Corporation Industry Financing studio-based Independent Production Company Foreign Financing Lender Financing bank financing presales financing Financing the Film Industry:  Financing the Film Industry THE END

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