Published on November 26, 2008
Slide 1: Filipino Masculinity Camilo A.B. Naraval, MD MSc Health Management and Research Group Objectives : Objectives Describe masculinity issues in the Philippine context; Discuss the implications of masculinity on domestic violence, HIV/AIDS, Family Planning and risky lifestyle; Best practices Patriarchal Ideology : HMRG - Men's Responsibilities in Gender and Development Patriarchal Ideology Men Superior Aggressive Powerful Unemotional Strong Women Inferior Submissive Powerless Emotional Weak Gender Role Stereotypes Social Norms MANIFESTATIONS OF GENDER BIAS Manifestations of gender bias : Manifestations of gender bias Economic marginalization Under- or non-valuation/recognition of women’s work Unequal pay for work of equal value Last to be hired, first to be fired Limited opportunities Women have less access to and control over resources and benefits Subordination Multiple burden Gender stereotyping Violence particularly against women and children Diminished sense of personhood (lowered self esteem, decreased control over one’s body) Description of masculinity : Description of masculinity Description of what it is to be a man is always in opposition to women or traits of women; If Filipino men exhibit behaviors that are considered unmanly, they are exhorted with “Magpakalalake ka” or act like a man; It is fairly commonly followed with a chide – “para kang babae” (you act like a woman) Masculinity traits and characteristics : Masculinity traits and characteristics Badinter (1992) involves 1) Identification; 2) Differentiation Physical: Body Penis as a feature for “boy” that sets them apart from “girls” and what he can do with it (Leonardo de Castro ). This pairing (sexual potency) has become central issue in masculinity (Helen Haste ). Sexual potency : Sexual potency Sexual prowess -- how frequent, how many sexual relations a man has Infidelity also seen as natural expression of one’s masculinity More “macho” (manly) if more girlfriends and flings Sexual performance extent and speed of erection Ejaculation when this is not so, as in impotence, this cause major concern among males Other Physical and affective characteristics : Other Physical and affective characteristics Physical Overall physical appearance Reproductive capability Physical strength Affect Emotionally stable Display of nurturance as less masculine Mental Firm in decisions More analytic Roles and responsibilities: : Roles and responsibilities: Biologically male – not enough Culturally male – compelling need to be accepted Rites of passage of becoming a man: Pagpapatuli (circumcision) Pagbibinyag (first sexual encounter) Panliligaw (courtship) Pag-iinom (drinking) Pagsasarili (establishing independence) Distinctions of being a man : Distinctions of being a man Tunay na lalaki (real men) - maprinsipsyo or principled Ganap na lalaki (actualized men) – those who have started their own families and look after their welfare Ability to fulfill the responsibilities accorded to him by society; Failure to do merits reproach and disdain from peers Men’s voices and experiences: gender roles* : Men’s voices and experiences: gender roles* Strength and power The one in-charge Economic providers Strong and macho “Mas powerful ang lalaki. Kung mo-abot sa Biblical nga estorya, si Eba gikuha lang sa gusok” (The man is more powerful, If we consider the Biblical story, Eve was taken from the ribs of Adam) “No man should cry. Crying is reserved for women. A man should not show weakness.” Filipino Men and Domestic Violence, 2000 when one manifests traits or roles that are not “masculine”…. : when one manifests traits or roles that are not “masculine”…. Bakla Bading Silahis Manifesting “bakla” traits, in general, are “corrected” by the father or brother by way of a reprimand including physical violence One could be a suspect as bakla or gay or AC/DC(bisexual): Being unmarried at marriageable age; Intimate friendship between men or always together (i.e. close friendship); If men do not respond to the advances of women; Implications of filipino masculinity on domestic violence experiences : Implications of filipino masculinity on domestic violence experiences Implications: domestic violence : Implications: domestic violence Role of Men in Domestic Violence: Male as a Dominator. Use of violence is seen to be an instrument to maintain this privilege position in the society/ household (“Pagkalalake: Men in Control?” 1999) Male as a Reactor. Man either denies, minimizes, justifies the violence or blames the victim. Husbands feeling emasculate were literally hitting back In households where women had made the decision to work outside the home, there was greater incidence of domestic violence (Social Science & Medicine Journal) Domestic violence : Domestic violence About 10% of women were victims of physical abuse (national survey in 1993) Urban and rural areas in Davao revealed that the magnitude of physical abuse was 35% (Maruya, 1998) and 16% (Yagong, 2002), respectively . Domestic violence : Domestic violence 1 out of 5 men admit to beating up their wives (1995, McCann Erickson) Ratio rises to 1:3 among the younger generation. In Tibungco, Davao City 22.6% of men confirmed physical violence against their partners (HMRG Participatory Research, 2004) Implications of filipino masculinity onSexually transmitted infections : Implications of filipino masculinity onSexually transmitted infections Some Important Risk factors of women in having sti that has to do with men*… : Some Important Risk factors of women in having sti that has to do with men*… Travel of husband/partner outside area of residence (POR=1.51; p=0.036) Having urethral discharge (POR=10.7; p=0.00) Having other sexual partners (POR=2.28; p=0.004) POR= Prevalence Odds Ratio *“Relationship of Selected Exposure Factors and Having C. trachomatis and/or N. . Gonorrhea among Women with Vaginal Discharge” Naraval, 2002 (Used Logistic Regression Analysis) Sexual Behavior: General Population : 22 In the younger age group (15-24), 34% have had sexual experience already.* 20.3% of men claimed to have more than 1 sexual partners in the past six months** Condom use is generally very low** About 20% of women claimed that their partner has other sexual partners.*** Sexual Behavior: General Population * Jimenez and Lee, 2004 **Screening, HMRG 2008 n=89 *** Naraval et. al., 2002 Estimated Prevalence of Selected STI by Risk Group among Men, Philippines, 1991-2002 : Estimated Prevalence of Selected STI by Risk Group among Men, Philippines, 1991-2002 Slide 24: 24 Prevalence of Selected STIs Among 100 Males with Urethral Discharge, Phases 1 & 2, HMRG, Davao City, Dec 99-Sept 01 (Saniel, Validation Study, UPCM & FHI) 1PCR-Polymerase Chain Reaction; RPR-Rapid Plasma Reagin;TPPA-Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Test. Prevalence of C. trachomatis among Women with STI Symptoms from Various Places (Naraval & Saniel) : Prevalence of C. trachomatis among Women with STI Symptoms from Various Places (Naraval & Saniel) Studies used different diagnostic tests. Implications of filipino masculinity on Family planning : Implications of filipino masculinity on Family planning Family Planning : Family Planning Role of Men: Loci of authority in making decisions as to family size, use of contraceptives etc. 7 million WRA high risk for pregnancy: too young, too old, too many, too soon, too ill 3,614 maternal deaths per year (NDHS, 1998) One in six pregnancies are aborted clandestinely (UPPI, 1996), yearly estimate around 400,000 20% of WRA have unmet family planning Low contraceptive prevalence rate: 49% Filipino women have 1 child more than their desired family (NDHS, 1998) Risky lifestyle : Risky lifestyle Alcoholic drinking Tobacco smoking Other drugs Comparison of Life Expectancy, Male and Female Filipinos, 2005 (2005- Philippines) Emerging issues : Emerging issues The Filipino Male-Domestication : The Filipino Male-Domestication Filipino women literacy rate is high Number of Filipino women now participate in income generation Local work force Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) Increase of Filipino men domestic roles Increasing number of men have expressed dissatisfaction with male stereotypes and are consequently concerned with there eradication Slide 31: School Completion Rate 1999 Source: Department of Education, Culture & Sports (1999) International Migration : International Migration 6-7.5 million Filipinos (Economist 2001) are working abroad Women enter in labor force by number There are about 36 million families affected by the migration Husbands assumes responsibilities in caring the households “house husband” New types of jobs & services of men: commercialization and commodification of men : New types of jobs & services of men: commercialization and commodification of men Male guest relation officers (similar to hostess in a night club) Macho dancers Male beauty and bikini contestants All male performing groups Male pin-ups Underwear fashion models Men as receivers of violence : Men as receivers of violence Young boys and girls with aggressive / violent behavior : Young boys and girls with aggressive / violent behavior Being witness to or victim of abused increased likelihood of violence Personal testimonies of father-participants with problems relating with sons OTHER ISSUES NEW RULES OF ROLES IN RELATIONSHIP SEXUAL HARASSMENT PPROTECTION ORDER RESEARCH ON MASCULINITIES Summary: Evolution of filipino male : Summary: Evolution of filipino male Dominator Reactor Protector Partner Dominator : Dominator Haligi ng tahanan (Pillar of the household) Padre de familia (head of the family) Superior to women Control over others particularly females Demand that their decisions are upheld The use of violence is instrument to maintain this privileged position in society protector : protector Males feel responsible for taking care of women “Men are protectors, women are to be protected” Provider of the household Completeness of being a male by socially significant events like getting married or having a family reactor : reactor Males attribute their actions to other people and situations Little acceptance of responsibility for decisions or actions Women are often blamed to be the cause of such violent acts partner : partner Both men and women are capable of contributing to the success of a given relationship or activity where egalitarian conditions are a premium. Men as partners of women are fairly recent; This maybe due to demands for a more sensitive and nurturing males; Increasing number of men that expressed dissatisfaction with male stereotypes and are concerned with their eradication Slide 41: “ To be affirming and optimistic about men, to believe that men can change, and to support every man’s effort at positive change”. M. Flood Member European Pro-Feminist Men’s Network Slide 42: Men are not a homogenous group, there are men willing to change.” Filipino Men and Domestic Violence Slide 43: MR GAD Men’s Responsibilities in Gender and Development
Filipino Masculinity Camilo A.B. Naraval, MD MSc Health Management and Research Group MEN AS RECEIVERS OF VIOLENCE YOUNG BOYS AND GIRLS WITH AGGRESSIVE ...
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