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Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009

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Information about Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of...

Published on January 15, 2009

Author: stuartinfiji

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Fiji Shark Conservation and Awareness Project - International Year of the Shark 2009
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Fiji Shark Awareness and Conservation Program

Sharks Marine Carnivores: Predators, Filter Feeders and Scavengers Cartilaginous Skeleton Body compressed laterally 5-7 lateral Gills

Marine

Carnivores: Predators, Filter Feeders and Scavengers

Cartilaginous Skeleton

Body compressed laterally

5-7 lateral Gills

Taxonomy Vertebrates Chondrichthyes Sharks among many: - Carcharhiniformes (Ground Sharks) - Orectolobiformes (Carpet Sharks) - Lamniformes (Mackerel Sharks) Approx. 400 Species Records

Vertebrates

Chondrichthyes

Sharks

among many:

- Carcharhiniformes (Ground Sharks)

- Orectolobiformes (Carpet Sharks)

- Lamniformes (Mackerel Sharks)

Approx. 400 Species

Records

Morphology

Physiology Senses - Smell - Vision - Electroreception - Lateral Line Osmoregulation - Freshwater Tolerance Buoyancy Body Temperature

Senses

- Smell

- Vision

- Electroreception

- Lateral Line

Osmoregulation

- Freshwater Tolerance

Buoyancy

Body Temperature

Reproduction Internal Fertilization Birth - Ovipary - Vivipary Aplacental Viviparity (Ovoviviparity) Placental Viviparity Vulnerabilities - Late Maturity - Small Litter Size

Internal Fertilization

Birth

- Ovipary

- Vivipary

Aplacental Viviparity (Ovoviviparity)

Placental Viviparity

Vulnerabilities

- Late Maturity

- Small Litter Size

Sharks most likely seen by Divers in Fiji Bull Shark Blacktip Reef Shark Grey Reef Shark Hammerhead Sharks Leopard Shark Silvertip Shark Sicklefin Lemon Shark Tawny Nurse Shark Tiger Shark Whale Shark Whitetip Reef Shark

Bull Shark

Blacktip Reef Shark

Grey Reef Shark

Hammerhead Sharks

Leopard Shark

Silvertip Shark

Sicklefin Lemon Shark

Tawny Nurse Shark

Tiger Shark

Whale Shark

Whitetip Reef Shark

Huge, Ridges, white Spots, homocercal caudal Fin Whale shark (Rhincodon typus)

Huge, Ridges, white Spots, homocercal caudal Fin

Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) Stripes, caudal Keel, pupil “inverted teardrop”

Stripes, caudal Keel, pupil “inverted teardrop”

Bull Shark (Carcharhinus leucas) Wide-shouldered, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin, small Eyes

Wide-shouldered, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin, small Eyes

Sicklefin Lemon Shark ( Negaprion acutidens ) Falcate dorsal fins of similar size, swims with open mouth displaying teeth

Falcate dorsal fins of similar size, swims with open mouth displaying teeth

Silvertip Shark (Carharhinus albimarginatus) All fins rimmed in bright white

All fins rimmed in bright white

Tawny Nurse Shark (Nebrius ferrugineus) Equal size of dorsal fins, small lower Lobe of caudal Fin, Barbels

Equal size of dorsal fins, small lower Lobe of caudal Fin, Barbels

Zebra Shark ( Stegostoma fasciatum ) Ridges, black Spots, no lower lobe of caudal fin

Ridges, black Spots, no lower lobe of caudal fin

Blacktip Reef Shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) 1 st dorsal Fin with black tip and white band underneath

1 st dorsal Fin with black tip and white band underneath

Whitetip Reef Shark (Triaenodon obesus) White Tips to dorsal and caudal Fins

White Tips to dorsal and caudal Fins

Hammerhead Sharks Nine Species, among which - Scalloped H. ( Sphyrna lewini ) . edge of Hammer wavy . Often in Schools - Great H. ( Sphyrna mokarran ) . Edge of Hammer straight . Huge, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin

Nine Species, among which

- Scalloped H. ( Sphyrna lewini )

. edge of Hammer wavy

. Often in Schools

- Great H. ( Sphyrna mokarran )

. Edge of Hammer straight

. Huge, falcate 1 st dorsal Fin

Grey Reef Shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) Trailing Edge of caudal Fin black

Trailing Edge of caudal Fin black

Ecology Many Ecological Niches The Role of predatory Sharks - Essential Thread in Web of their Habitat - Often, Apex Predators - Maintain Health & Structure of Marine Ecosystems, by: - weeding out the Sick and the Weak - controlling the Population Size of their Prey The Value of Sharks

Many Ecological Niches

The Role of predatory Sharks

- Essential Thread in Web of their Habitat

- Often, Apex Predators

- Maintain Health & Structure of Marine Ecosystems, by:

- weeding out the Sick and the Weak

- controlling the Population Size of their Prey

The Value of Sharks

Sharks in Peril IUCN: 79 Species critically imperiled: 80%-99% of oceanic Stocks have been wiped out Main Threats - Habitat Destruction - Overfishing . 80-100 Million Sharks are killed each Year . Shark Fin Soup - Bycatch Devastating Techniques - Longlines - Driftnets - Shark Net and Drumlines - Finning

IUCN: 79 Species critically imperiled: 80%-99% of oceanic Stocks have been wiped out

Main Threats

- Habitat Destruction

- Overfishing

. 80-100 Million Sharks are killed each Year

. Shark Fin Soup

- Bycatch

Devastating Techniques

- Longlines

- Driftnets

- Shark Net and Drumlines

- Finning

What can be done? Abrogating/Replacing Shark Fin Soup Conducting Shark Awareness Courses Obtaining Protection for threatened species Solving the problem of the Drumlines and Shark Nets Total Allowable Catch (TAC) – no more BC Promote Marine Protected Areas Practice Tag and Release

Abrogating/Replacing Shark Fin Soup

Conducting Shark Awareness Courses

Obtaining Protection for threatened species

Solving the problem of the Drumlines and Shark Nets

Total Allowable Catch (TAC) – no more BC

Promote Marine Protected Areas

Practice Tag and Release

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