Published on June 15, 2013
Evaluation of 55 Winegrape Cultivarsfor the San Joaquin ValleyMatthew FidelibusExtension SpecialistDepartment of Viticulture and EnologyUC Davis
Why evaluate new varieties?• <10 wine grape varieties account for 80% ofvarietal wines• The most popular varieties were selected fromregions with climates cooler than the SanJoaquin Valley (SJV), and many struggle toachieve optimal varietal character whengrown there
Challenges of unfamiliarity• May be difficult to develop mass markets forvarietal wines with unrecognizable names• Growers need viticultural information to makeinformed planting decisions• Winemakers need enological and sensory data todetermine how to make and market new wines
Opportunities with new varietiesConsumersInterest & excitement from core consumers; ABC:“Anything but Chardonnay”Growers and wineriesNiche markets for products that are unique, distinctive, orlimited in supplySource of wines with desirable blending characteristics(flavor, color, tannin, acid)
Desired characteristics from newvarieties for warm climate regions• Good yield potential• Adaptable to mechanization• Loose cluster architecture (low rot potential)• High anthocyanin content (reds), and balanced fruitcomposition• Appealing flavor and wine quality attributes
Our Objectives: Evaluate winegrape cultivarsfor characteristics suitable forwine production in the SanJoaquin Valley, a hot climateregion. Deliver information tonurseries, growers andvintners that allow for wellinformed and progressiveplanting decisions.
Vineyard location and design• Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, California.• 1103P rootstock planted in 2008; scions grafted in2009.• 12 to 17 vines of each scion variety in 55 non-replicated plots.• Vines trained to bilateral cordons with 8 to 10 two-bud spurs per meter cordon.• Trellis consisted of steel stakes at each vine, a cordonwire at 48“, and a 10” cross arm with two foliar catchwires, “ above the cordon wire.
Cultural practices• Begin watering after mid-day water potentialdeclined to about -1.3 bars• Thereafter, vines received approximately 60%ETc (monitored by Larry Williams).• No fertilizers have been applied.• Normal & ordinary pesticide applications weremade by research station staff.• Vines were spur pruned in January 2012, andpruning weights collected.
Data collected• Yield, yield components, simple fruitchemistry, & rot incidence were determined atharvest (~22 Brix for whites, ~24 Brix for reds)from 4 vines per plot.• Fruit from 25-30 different varieties wereselected by Constellation for small lot wines.• Pruning weights were collected in January,2012.
Yield and harvest date of reds or whites
Yield and cluster weight
Yield vs number of clusters per vine
Berries per cluster and cluster weightCluster weight (kg)0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8Berriespercluster(no.)0100200300400500red cultivarswhite cultivars
Rot incidence and harvest dateHarvest, Day of Year220 240 260 280 300 320Rotincidence(%affectedclusters)020406080100red cultivarswhite cultivars
Some Promising VarietiesBonarda, Fiano, Pinotage, Petit Manseng,Segalin, SagrantinoNot a complete list—others with good traits too
Poor performersRotters: Albillo Mayor, Albillo Real, Bianchetta Trevigiana,Garnacha Tinta, Juan Garcia, RousanneExcessively late ripening: Forastera, Mourisco daSamente, Ribolla Gialla, Rondinella
Variety andcloneReason for selectionCharbono 4, 5,6, 7Charbono is a synonym for Bonarda, a variety currently in the trial. Fruitfrom the Bonarda vines in the trial has produced excellent wine, but theyields are marginal and it has had excessive rot in one of two years.Thus, we would like to determine if some of these faults could beremedied by selecting different clones.Saint Emilion Saint Emilion is a synonym of Trebbiano Toscano. Trebbiano Toscano inthe trial has proven to be a neutral flavored white wine grape with veryhigh yield potential, but also a high rot potential. We wish to evaluateSaint Emilion to see if its rot potential is lower.Triplett 30-47 ‘30-47’is a cross between Ruby Cabernet and Calzin. This variety wasrecently selected from Triplett’s germplasm by Christensen due to itsproductivity and high quality.Teroldego 3, 4 Teroldego is a black wine grape from northern Italy. It is of interest due toits reputation for producing deeply colored wines, a characteristic thatwould be valuable in the San Joaquin Valley.New varieties added in 2013
Other data and observations:Cluster pictures from everyvariety: http://www.flickr.com/photos/viticulture/Annual reports: http://www.avf.org/National grape registry: http://ngr.ucdavis.edu/Power point presentations: http://www.slideshare.net/viticulture
Acknowledgements• Jim Wolpert & Larry Williams, UC Davis• American Vineyard Foundation• Oren Kaye, Jim Orvis, & DanBosch, Constellation Brands• Stephen Vasquez and Glenn McGourty, UCCE• Deborah Golino, Foundation Plant Services
2013: Category: Cultural Practices - Cultivars: Investigators: Matthew Fidelibus, Ph.D: Evaluation of new Winegrape Varieties for the San Joaquin Valley
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