Fichner Rathus CH12

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Information about Fichner Rathus CH12
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Published on February 12, 2008

Author: Sigfrid

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 12:  Chapter 12 The Art of the Ancients The Art of the Ancients:  The Art of the Ancients Stone Age people were the first to forge links between religion and life, life and art, and art and religion. Prehistoric Art:  Prehistoric Art Works of art from the Stone Age include cave paintings, reliefs, and sculpture of stone, ivory, and bone. The subjects consist mainly of animals, although some highly abstracted human figures have been found. Prehistoric Art:  Prehistoric Art Upper Paleolithic Art The great cave paintings of the Stone Age were discovered by accident in northern Spain and southwestern France. Prehistoric Art:  Prehistoric Art Upper Paleolithic Art The prehistoric artist also attempted to “capture” fertility by creating small sculptures called Venuses. Prehistoric Art:  Prehistoric Art Mesolithic Art Mesolithic artists concentrated on the human figure, which was abstracted. Subjects ranged from warriors to ceremonial dancers. Prehistoric Art:  Prehistoric Art Neolithic Art During this time, huge architectural monuments were erected. The most famous is Stonehenge. Art of the Ancient Near East:  Art of the Ancient Near East The Mesopotamian civilizations were distinguished by a written language, advanced social organization, and developments in the areas of government, science, and art. Art of the Ancient Near East:  Art of the Ancient Near East Sumer One of the most impressive testimonies to the Sumerian’s religion–oriented society is the ziggurat. Art of the Ancient Near East:  Art of the Ancient Near East Akkad Akkadian art commemorates rulers and warriors instead of offering homage to the gods. Art of the Ancient Near East:  Art of the Ancient Near East Babylonia Under Hammurabi, the Babylonian Empire rose to power and dominated Mesopotamia. Hammurabi’s major contribution to civilization was the codification of Mesopotamian laws. Art of the Ancient Near East:  Art of the Ancient Near East Assyria The Assyrians fought with their neighbors, earning a deserved reputation as a fierce, blood-thirsty people. The most common art form in Assyria was carved stone relief depicting scenes of war and hunting. Art of the Ancient Near East:  Art of the Ancient Near East Persia The art of Persia consists of sprawling palaces of grand dimensions and sculpture that is almost totally abstract in its simplicity of design. Favorite subjects included animal forms translated into decorative column capitals or elegant vessels of precious metals. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art Three unique aspects of Egyptian art and life: Their link to religion. Their link to death. Their ongoing use of strict conventionalism in the arts that affords a sense of permanence. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art Old Kingdom Egyptian religion was bound closely to the afterlife. Happiness in the afterlife was believed to be ensured through the continuation of certain aspects of earthly life. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art Old Kingdom Therefore, tombs were decorated with everyday objects and scenes depicting common earthly activities. Sculptures of the deceased were placed in the tombs, along with likenesses of the people who surrounded them in life. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art Old Kingdom Sculpture In Egyptian art, the head, pelvis, and legs are presented in profile. The upper torso and eye are shown in a frontal view. The figures tend to be flat, with no sense of three dimensionality. The figures are placed in space with no use of perspective. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art Old Kingdom Architecture Constructed as tombs, the Great Pyramids at Giza provided a resting place for the pharaoh, underscored his status as a deity, and lived after him as a monument to his accomplishments. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art Middle Kingdom This period is marked by experimentation in extremely sensitive portrait sculptures and freely drawn fresco paintings. Architecture of the period is distinguished by rock-cut tombs, which may have been built in an attempt to prevent robberies. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art New Kingdom During this period, a new architectural form—the mortuary temple—was created. Mortuary temples did not house the mummified remains of the pharaohs. Instead, they served as their place for worship during life, and as a place at which they could be worshiped after death. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art The Amarna Revolution: The Reign of Akhenaton and Nefertiti Art during the reign of Akhenaton changed dramatically. The wedge-shaped stylizations that stood as a rigid canon for the representations of the human body were replaced by curving lines and full-bodied forms. Egyptian Art:  Egyptian Art The Amarna Revolution: The Reign of Akhenaton and Nefertiti One of the most beautiful and famous works of art from this period is the bust of Akhenaton’s wife, Queen Nefertiti. Aegean Art :  Aegean Art  The Cyclades The art that survives has been culled mostly from tombs, and includes pottery and small marble figurines. Aegean Art :  Aegean Art  Crete The Minoans constructed lavish palaces for their kings and the royal entourage. Aegean Art :  Aegean Art  Mycenae The Mycenaean people were versatile potters and architects. Aegean Art :  Aegean Art  Mycenae Architecture Mycenaean citadels were ornamented with frescoes and sculpture. Aegean Art :  Aegean Art  Mycenae Gold Work The Mycenaeans apparently had an insatiable desire to have gold and to work with it. Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions Why do you think the Stone Age people made art? What questions would you like to ask the artist of the Lascaux cave paintings? What is the role of art in the Egyptians’ preparation for the afterlife? Cite specific examples. What does the enormity of the Great Pyramids at Giza tell us about the abilities of the Egyptians? When you consider that they have stood for more than 4,000 years, what do you find most impressive about the structures, about their architects, and about their construction crews? Related Websites:  Related Websites The Cave of Lascaux http://www.culture.fr/culture/arcnat/lascaux/en/ Ziggurat http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/ziggurats/home_set.html The Orion Mystery http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/ritson/quest/orion/orion.htm Stonehenge http://www.stonehenge.org.uk/ Mummification http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/mummies/home.html

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